The KATIPUNAN (usually abbreviated to KKK) was a Philippine
revolutionary society founded by anti-Spanish Filipinos in
1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from
revolution . Based on recently found contemporary documents, the
society has been organized as early as January 1892 but may have not
became active until July 7 of the same year on the night when Filipino
José Rizal was to be banished to
Dapitan earlier in the day.
Founded by Filipino patriots
Andrés Bonifacio ,
Teodoro Plata ,
Ladislao Diwa and others, initially, the
Katipunan was a secret
organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of
The Tagalog word "katipunan", literally meaning 'association', comes
from the root word "tipon," a Tagalog word meaning "gather"." Its
official revolutionary name was KATAASTAASAN, KAGALANGGALANGANG
KATIPUNAN NG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN (lit. Supreme and Most Honorable
Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish : Suprema y Venerable
Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo). The
Katipunan is also known by
its acronym, KKK.
Being a secret organization , its members were subjected to the
utmost secrecy and were expected to abide by the rules established by
the society. Aspiring applicants were given standard initiation rites
in order to become members of the society. At first, membership in the
Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos; later, women were accepted
into the society. The
Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan
(Liberty) which issued its first and last printing in March 1896.
Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and
Filipino literature was expanded by some of its prominent members.
In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted
Rizal for his
full-fledged support for the
Katipunan in exchange for a promise to
Rizal from his detention. In May 1896, a delegation was sent to
Emperor Meiji of
Japan in order to solicit funds and military arms.
The Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities
after a member named Teodoro Patiño revealed the Katipunan's illegal
activities to his sister, and finally to the mother portress of
Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities
learned of the existence of the secret society, on December 26, 1896,
Bonifacio and his men tore up their cédulas during the Cry of
Balintawak that started the Philippine
* 1 Etymology
* 2 Formation
* 2.1 History
* 2.2 Founding of the
* 3 Organization
* 3.1 Administration
* 3.2 History of administration
* 3.3 Members
* 3.4 Triangle system and grades
* 3.4.1 Membership
* 3.4.2 Admission of women to the society
* 3.4.3 Notable Katipuneros
* 4 Literature of the society
* 4.1 Written works
* 4.2 Kalayaan
Kartilya ng Katipunan
* 4.4 Language and alphabet
* 5 Preparation for the revolution
* 5.1 Attempt to seek Rizal\'s support
* 5.2 Attempt to solicit Japan\'s aid
* 6 Discovery
* 7.1 The
Battle of Kakarong de Sili
* 7.2 Kakarong
* 8 Spanish response
* 9 Schism and transfer of authority
* 10 The First Philippine
* 11 Foreign members of the
Katipunan and the Philippine
* 12 Dissolution
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 14.1 Notes and citations
* 14.2 Published works
* 15 External links
The name "Katipunan" comes from the full Tagalog name for the
society: "Kataastaasan Kagalang-galang
Katipunan nang mga Anak nang
Bayan" (lit. Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children of
the Nation ).
A late 19th century photograph of leaders of the Propaganda
José Rizal ,
Marcelo H. del Pilar and
Mariano Ponce . Photo
was taken in
Spain in 1890. Further information: La Liga Filipina
Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively,
successor organizations of
La Liga Filipina , founded by José Rizal
(Who himself was inspired by the martyrdom of his predecessors, the
nationalist Priests: Gomez , Burgos and Zamora ). This organization
was part of the late 19th century
Propaganda Movement in the
Andrés Bonifacio ,
Ladislao Diwa ,
Teodoro Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by
the nationalistic ideals of the
Propaganda Movement in Spain.
Marcelo H. del Pilar , another leader of the
Propaganda Movement in
Spain, also influenced the formation of the Katipunan. Modern-day
historians believe that he had a direct hand in its organization
because of his role in the
Propaganda Movement and his eminent
position in Philippine Masonry ; most of the Katipunan's founders were
freemasons . The
Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied
from masonic rites. It also had a hierarchy of rank that was similar
to that of freemasonry . Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retana
and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the
Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, and the
Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of
Rizal. Del Pilar and
Rizal had the same end, even if each took a
different road to it."
FOUNDING OF THE KATIPUNAN
Seal of the Katipunan. The initials are read as "Kataastaasang
Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan."
Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros), who were also
members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that
there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group
insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the
other espoused armed revolution.
On the night of July 7, 1892, when
José Rizal was banished and
Andrés Bonifacio , a member of the La
Liga Filipina , founded the
Katipunan in a house in San Nicolas,
Manila . Bonifacio did establish the
Katipunan when it was becoming
apparent to anti-Spanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga
Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities. He was assisted
by his two friends,
Teodoro Plata (brother-in-law) and
Ladislao Diwa ,
Valentín Díaz and
Deodato Arellano . The
Katipunan was founded
along Azcarraga St. (now
Recto Avenue ) near Elcano St. in San
Manila . Despite their reservations about the peaceable
Rizal espoused, they named
Rizal honorary president
without his knowledge. The Katipunan, established as a secret
brotherhood organization, went under the name Kataas-taasang,
Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan (Supreme and
Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation).
Katipunan had four aims, namely:
* to develop a strong alliance with each and every Katipunero
* to unite Filipinos into one solid nation;
* to win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or
* to establish a republic after independence.
The rise of the
Katipunan signaled the end of the crusade to secure
Spain by means of a peaceful campaign. The Propaganda
Movement led by
Rizal , del Pilar , Jaena and others had failed its
mission; hence, Bonifacio started the militant movement for
Katipunan was governed by the Supreme Council (Tagalog:
Kataastaasang Sanggunian). The first Supreme Council of the Katipunan
was formed around August 1892, a month after the founding of the
society. The Supreme Council was headed by an elected president
(Pangulo), followed by the secretary/secretaries (Kalihim); the
treasurer (Tagaingat-yaman) and the fiscal (Tagausig). The Supreme
Council also had its councilors (Kasanguni); the number varied through
presidencies. To distinguish from presidents of lower sanggunian or
councils (below) the president of the Supreme Council was called the
Supreme President (Tagalog: Kataastaasang Pangulo; Spanish: Presidente
1892 – February 1893
February 1893 – January 1895
January 1895 – 1896
1892 – August 1893
1892 – February 1893
February 1893 – 1895
Secretary (of State after 1895)
1892 – February 1893
Jose Turiano Santiago
February 1893 – December 1895
December 1895 – 1896
Secretary of War
Secretary of Justice
Secretary of Interior
Aguedo del Rosario
Secretary of Finance
1892 – February 1893
February 1893 – December 1895
At the outbreak of the 1896 revolution , the Council was further
reorganized into a 'cabinet' which the
Katipunan regarded as a genuine
revolutionary government , de facto and de jure .
In each province where there were
Katipunan members, a provincial
council called Sangguniang Bayan was established and in each town was
an organized popular council called Sangguniang Balangay. Each Bayan
Balangay had its own set of elected officials: Pangulo
(president); Kalihim (secretary); Tagausig (fiscal); Tagaingat-yaman
(treasurer); Pangalawang Pangulo (vice president); Pangalawang Kalihim
(vice secretary); mga kasanguni (councilors); Mabalasig (terrible
brother); Taliba (guard); Maniningil (collector/auditor); Tagapamahala
ng Basahan ng Bayan(custodian of the People's Library); Tagapangasiwa
(administrator); Manunulat (clerk); Tagatulong sa Pagsulat (assistant
clerk); Tagalaan (warden); and Tagalibot (patroller). Each Balangay
were given a chance to expand their own spheres of influence, through
triangle system in order to elevate their status to Sangguniang Bayan.
Balangay that did not gain Sanggunian Bayan status were
dissolved and annexed by greater provincial or popular councils.
The towns/cities which supported the
Katipunan cause were given
symbolic names, such as Magdiwang (To celebrate) for
Magdalo (To come) for Kawit ; Magwagi (To win) for
Naic ; Magtagumpay
(To succeed) for Maragondon ; Walangtinag (Never-diminished) for
Indang and Haligue (Wall) for
Imus –all are in the province of
Within the society functioned a secret chamber, called Camara Reina,
which was presided over by Bonifacio, Jacinto, and
Pío Valenzuela .
This mysterious chamber passed judgment upon those who had betrayed
their oath and those accused of certain offenses penalized by
Katipunan laws. Every katipunero stood in fearful awe of this chamber.
According to José P. Santos , throughout the existence of the secret
chamber, about five katipuneros were convicted and sentenced to die by
it. The death sentence was handed down in the figure of a cup with a
serpent coiled around it.
HISTORY OF ADMINISTRATION
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message )
PART OF A SERIES ON THE
HISTORY OF THE PHILIPPINES
Prehistory (pre-900) PALEOLITHIC AGE
* Awidon Mesa Formation
* Callao Limestone Formation
* Callao and Tabon peoples
* Arrival of the Negritos
* Austronesian expansion
Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens
Lal-lo and Gattaran Shell Middens
* Jade culture
* Sa Huyun Culture
* Society of the Igorot
* Ancient barangays
* grave goods
* Prehistoric gems
* Sa Huyun-Kalanay Complex
Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery
Archaic epoch (900–1521) LEGENDARY
* Ten Bornean Datus
Kingdom of Tondo
Kingdom of Namayan
Rajahnate of Butuan
Kedatuan of Madja-as
Rajahnate of Cebu
* Samtoy chieftaincy
* Chiefdom of Taytay
* Kedatuan of
Kingdom of Maynila
Kingdom of Maynila (Vassal of the Brunei Sultanate)
Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Maguindanao
* Lanao confederacy
Laguna Copperplate Inscription
Laguna Copperplate Inscription - c.900 AD.
Butuan Ivory Seal
Butuan Ivory Seal
* Limestone tombs
* Batanes citadels
* Golden Tara
* Gold Kinnara
* Ticao Stone Inscriptions
Butuan Silver Paleograph
* Majapahit conflict - 1365
* Brunei War 1500
Colonial period (1521– 1946) SPANISH ERA
Battle of Mactan
* Spanish capture of
* Captaincy General
Spanish East Indies
* Revolts and uprisings
* Chinese invasion
* Sulu Sea pirates
* Dutch invasions
Brunei Civil War
Brunei Civil War
* Bohol secession
* British Invasion
Florante at Laura
* Noli me tangere
La Liga Filipina
* American capture of
* Declaration of Independence
AMERICAN COLONIAL PERIOD
Bayan Ko "
* Japanese occupation
* Destruction of
Post-colonial period (1946 –1986)
* Treaty of
North Borneo dispute
* Marcos dictatorship
Spratly islands dispute
Vietnamese boat people
Vietnamese boat people
Contemporary history (1986–present)
* People Power
* 1986–90 coup attempts
* Pinatubo eruption
1997 Asian financial crisis
1997 Asian financial crisis
* Second EDSA
War on Terror
* South China Sea disputes
Philippine Drug War
* Ancient religions
* List of Queen consorts
* Military History
* Science and technology
In 1892, after the
Katipunan was founded, the members of the Supreme
Council consisted of Arellano as president, Bonifacio as comptroller,
Diwa as fiscal, Plata as secretary and Díaz as treasurer.
In 1893, the Supreme Council comprised Ramón Basa as president,
Bonifacio as fiscal,
José Turiano Santiago as secretary, Vicente
Molina as treasurer and Restituto Javier , Briccio Pantas , Teodoro
Gonzales . Gonzales, Plata, and Diwa were councilors. It was during
Basa's term that the society organized a women's auxiliary section.
Two of its initial members were
Gregoria de Jesús , whom Bonifacio
had just married, and
Marina Dizon , daughter of José Dizon. It was
also in 1893 when Basa and Diwa organized the provincial council of
Cavite, which would later be the most successful council of the
The Filipino scholar Maximo Kalaw reports that Basa yielded the
presidency to Bonifacio in 1894 because of a dispute over the
usefulness of the initiation rites and Bonifacio's handling of the
society's buts. Basa contested Bonifacio's practice of lending their
funds to needy members, complete with promissory notes. Moreover,
Basa refused to induct his son into the organization.
It was also in 1894 when
Emilio Jacinto , a nephew of Dizon who was
studying law at the
University of Santo Tomas , joined the Katipunan.
He intellectualized the society's aims and formulated the principles
of the society as embodied in its primer, called Kartilla. It was
written in Tagalog and all recruits were required to commit it to
heart before they were initiated. Jacinto would later be called the
Brains of the Katipunan.
At the same time, Jacinto also edited Kalayaan (Freedom), the
society's official organ, but only one edition of the paper was
issued; a second was prepared but never printed due to the discovery
of the society. Kalayaan was published through the printing press of
the Spanish newspaper Diario de Manila. This printing press and its
workers would later play an important role in the outbreak of the
José Turiano Santiago , a close personal friend of
Bonifacio, was expelled because a coded message of the
into the hands of a Spanish priest teaching at the University of Santo
Tomas . Since the priest was a friend of Santiago's sister, he and his
half-brother Restituto Javier were suspected of betrayal, but the two
would remain loyal to the
Katipunan and Santiago would even join the
Philippine revolutionary forces in the
Philippine–American War .
Jacinto replaced Santiago as secretary. A
In early 1895, Bonifacio called a meeting of the society and deposed
Basa in an election that installed Bonifacio as president, Jacinto as
Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío Valenzuela
and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario and Doreteo
Trinidad as councilors.
On December 31, 1895, another election named Bonifacio as president,
Jacinto as Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío
Valenzuela and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario
and Doreteo Trinidad as councilors.
The members of the Supreme Council in 1895 were Bonifacio as
president, Valenzuela as fiscal and physician, Jacinto as secretary,
and Molina as treasurer. Enrico Pacheco, Pantaleon Torres, Balbino
Florentino, Francisco Carreón and Hermenegildo Reyes were named
Eight months later, in August 1896, the fifth and last supreme
council was elected to renamed offices. Bonifacio was named Supremo,
Jacinto Secretary of State, Plata Secretary of War, Bricco Pantas
Secretary of Justice, Aguedo del Rosario Secretary of Interior and
Enrice Pacheco Secretary of Finance.
A late 19th century photograph of armed Filipino
revolutionaries, known as the Katipuneros.
Over the next four years, the
Katipunan founders would recruit new
members. By the time the society was uncovered, the American writer
James Le Roy estimated the strength of the
Katipunan at 100,000 to
400,000 members. Historian
Teodoro Agoncillo estimated that the
membership had increased to around 30,000 by 1896. The Ilocano writer
Isabelo de los Reyes estimated membership at 15,000 to 50,000.
Aside from Manila, the
Katipunan also had sizeable chapters in
Batangas , Laguna ,
Nueva Ecija . There were also smaller chapters in
Ilocos Sur , Ilocos
Pangasinan and the Bicol region. The
Katipunan founders spent
their free time recruiting members. For example, Diwa, who was a clerk
at a judicial court, was assigned to the office of a justice of the
peace in Pampanga. He initiated members in that province as well as
Bulacan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Most of the Katipuneros were
plebeian although several wealthy patriots joined the society and
submitted themselves to the leadership of Bonifacio.
Katipunero (plural, mga Katipunero) is the demonym of a male member
of the Katipunan. Katipunera (plural, mga Katipunera) refers to female
TRIANGLE SYSTEM AND GRADES
Two infographs depicting the ranks within the Katipunan
and the Triangle system of recruitment.
It was the original plan of Bonifacio to increase the membership of
Katipunan by means of sistemang patatsulok or triangle system. He
formed his first triangle with his two comrades,
Teodoro Plata and
Ladislao Diwa . Each of them re-instituted
Katipunan thoughts into
another two new converts. The founder of the triangle knew the other
two members, but the latter did not know each other. On December 1892
the system was abolished after proving it to be clumsy and
complicated. A new system of initiation, modelled after the Masonic
rites was then adopted.
When the Katipuneros had expanded to more than a hundred members,
Bonifacio divided the members into three grades: the Katipon
(literally: Associate) which is the lowest rank, the Kawal (soldier),
and the Bayani (Hero or Patriot). In the meeting of the society,
Katipon wore a black hood with a triangle of white ribbon having the
letters "Z. Ll. B.", corresponding to the roman "A. N. B.", meaning
Anak ng̃ Bayan (Son of the People, see below ). Kawal wore a green
hood with a triangle having white lines and the letters "Z. LL. B." at
the three angles of the triangle, and also wore a green ribbon with a
medal with the letter (ka) in
Baybayin script above a depiction of a
crossed sword and flag. The password was Gom-Bur-Za , taken from the
names of the three martyrs
Mariano Gomez ,
Jose Burgos and Jacinto
Zamora . Bayani (Hero) wore a red mask and a sash with green borders,
symbolizing courage and hope. The front of the mask had white borders
that formed a triangle with three Ks arranged as if occupying the
angles of a triangle within a triangle, and with the letters "Z. Ll.
B." below. Another password was
Rizal . Countersigns enabled members
to recognize one another on the street. A member meeting another
member placed the palm of his right hand on his breast and, as he
passed the other member, he closed the hands to bring the right index
finger and thumb together.
* Katipon. First degree members. Other symbols: Black hood,
revolver and/or bolo.
* Kawal. Second degree members. Other symbols: green
ribboned-medallion with Malayan K inscription.
* Bayani. Third degree members. Other symbols: Red hood and
sash, with green borders.
Katipon could graduate to Kawal class by bringing several new members
into the society. A Kawal could become a Bayani upon being elected an
officer of the society.
Any person who wished to join the
Katipunan was subjected to certain
initiation rites, resembling those of Masonic rites , to test his
courage, patriotism, and loyalty. New recruits underwent the
initiation rite three at a time so that no member knew more than two
other members of the society. The neophyte was first blindfolded and
then led into a dimly lighted room with black curtains where his
folded cloth was removed from his eyes. An admonition, in Tagalog, was
posted at the entrance to the room:
Kung may lakás at tapang, ìkaw'y makatutuloy!
(If you have strength and valor, you can proceed!) ”
Kung ang pag-uusisa ang nagdalá sa iyó dito'y umurong ka.
If what has brought you here is only curiosity–go away! ”
Kung di ka marunong pumigil ng̃ iyong masasamang hilig, umurong ka;
kailan man ang pintuan ng̃
May-kapangyarihan at Kagalanggalang
Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃
Baya'y hindi bubuksan nang dahil sa iyó.
If you cannot control your vices, retire. Never shall the doors
of the Supreme and Venerable Society of the Sons of the People be
opened to you. ”
Inside the candle-lit room, they would be brought to a table adorned
with a skull and a bolo. There, they would condemn the abuses of the
Spanish government and vow to fight colonial oppression:
1. ¿Anó ang kalagayan nitóng Katagalugan nang unang panahun? (In
what condition did the Spaniards find the Tagalog land when they
came?) (Expected answer) "When the Spaniards came to the Philippine
shores on March 16, 1521, the Filipinos were already in a civilized
state. They had freedom of government; they had artillery; they had
silk dresses; they had carried on commerce with Asia; they had their
own religion and their own alphabet. In short, they had liberty and
2. ¿Anó ang kalagayan sa ngayón? (In what condition do they find
themselves now?) (Expected answer) "The friars have not really
civilized the Filipinos, since enlightenment was contrary to their
interests. The Filipinos (called Tagalogs by the Katipunan) were
merely superficially taught formulas of
Catechism for which they paid
numerous costly fiestas for the benefit of the friars."
3. ¿Anó ang magiging kalagayan sa darating na panahun? (What hopes
do they have for the future?) (Expected answer) "With faith, valor,
and perseverance, these evils will be remedied."
During Bonifacio's time, all of the
Filipino people are referred
collectively by the
Katipunan as Tagalogs, while
The next step in the initiation ceremony was the lecture given by the
master of ceremonies, called Mabalasig/Mabalasik (terrible brother),
who informed the neophyte to withdraw if he lacked courage since he
would be out of place in the patriotic society. If the neophyte
persisted, he was presented to the assembly of the brethren, who
subjected him to various ordeals such as blindfolding him and making
him shoot a supposedly a revolver at a person, or forcing him to jump
over a supposedly hot flame. After the ordeals came to final
rite–the pacto de sangre or blood compact –in which the neophyte
signed the oath with blood taken from his arm. He was then accepted as
a full-pledged member, with a symbolic name by which he was known
Katipunan circles. Bonifacio's symbolic name was Maypagasa;
Jacinto was Pingkian and
Artemio Ricarte was Vibora.
Admission Of Women To The Society
Participant at the Philippine
Flag of the
Katipunan , 1892
Various revolts and uprisings
Magdalo (Kawit )
Gargano (Bakood )
General Trias )
Pangwagi (Tanza )
Katuwa-tuwa (Ternate )
Magtagumpay (Maragondon )
Naghapay (Bailen )
La Liga Filipina
Noli Me Tángere
Gregoria de Jesús
Pio del Pilar
Gregorio del Pilar
Katipunan was purely a patriotic society for men. Owing to
the growing suspicion of the women regarding nocturnal absences of
their husbands, the reduction of their monthly earnings and "long
hours of work", Bonifacio had to bring them into the realms of the
KKK. A section for women was established in the society: to become
admitted, one must be a wife, a daughter, or a sister of a male
katipunero. It was estimated that from 20 to 50 women had become
members of the society.
The first woman to become member of the
Katipunan was Gregoria de
Jesús , wife of Bonifacio. She was called the Lakambini ng Katipunan
(Princess of the Katipunan). Initially, there were 29 women were
admitted to the Katipunan: Gregoria de Jesús, Maria Dizon , president
of the women's section; Josefa and Trinidad
Rizal , sisters of Dr.
José Rizal ; Angelica Lopez and
Delfina Herbosa Natividad , close
relatives of Dr. Rizal; Carmén de Rodriguez; Marina Hizon ; Benita
Rodriguez; Semiona de Rémigio; Gregoria Montoya;
Agueda Kahabagan ,
Teresa Magbanua ,
Trinidad Tecson , rendered as "Mother of
Biak-na-Bato "; Nazaria Lagos; Patronica Gamboa;
Marcela Agoncillo ;
Melchora Aquino , the "Grand Old Woman of Balintawak"; Marta Saldaña
and Macaria Pañgilinan.
The women rendered valuable services to the Katipunan. They guarded
the secret papers and documents of the society. Whenever the Katipunan
held sessions in a certain house, they usually made merry, singing and
dancing with some of the men in the living room so that the civil
guard were led that there was nothing but a harmless social party
Though women are considered to be members of the Katipunan,
information regarding the women's section were scarce and sometimes
Teodoro Agoncillo , for example, disregarded Marina
Dizon and concluded that Josefa
Rizal was the only president of the
Gregorio Zaide , on the other hand, mentioned Dizon's
presidency in his 1939 publication History of the
changed his mind when he adopted Dr.
Pío Valenzuela 's notion that
women-members did not elect officers, hence there is no room for
This section NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please
help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources .
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2017) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message )
Andres Bonifacio (1863–1897) – Supremo, the founder and the
third leader of the Katipunan.
Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964) – First and only president of the
Republic , Katipunan's successor. He was also a war
general and a leader of the Magdalo faction that led to a lot of
notable victories for
Katipunan against Spain. During his presidency,
he ordered the execution of Andrés and
Procopio Bonifacio in 1897
after the trial.
Emilio Jacinto (1875–1899) – called as the Brains of the
Katipunan. He wrote several papers during the
Revolution like the
Gregoria de Jesús (1875–1943) – called as the Lakambini ng
Katipunan (Muse of the Katipunan) and nicknamed Aling Oryang, she was
the wife of Bonifacio before marrying Julio Nakpil after the former's
death. She was also regarded as one of the first women members of the
Gregorio del Pilar (1875–1899) – entered the
when he joined the First Philippine
Republic 's army against the
Americans. He died during the
Battle of Tirad Pass .
Pio del Pilar (1860–1931) – the leader of the Matagumpay
chapter one of the closest officers of
Andrés Bonifacio as the Newly
Revolutionary government was established he was one of the officers
who advised Aguinaldo to change the commutation (banishment) to
execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio.
Licerio Gerónimo (1855–1924) – Aguinaldo's war general during
Philippine–American War .
Vicente Lukbán (1860–1916) – Americans regarded him to be the
mastermind of the bloody
Balangiga massacre in 1901 during
Philippine–American War .
Miguel Malvar y Carpio (1865–1911) – commander of the
Katipunan and became a general of the First Philippine Republic.
* Enrique Pacheco – Alias Resurreccion Macabuhay. Secretary of
Finance, and head of the Macabuhay Council.
Macario Sakay - head of
Katipunan in Trozo, Manila. Future founder
of Republika ng Katagalugan that would oppose American occupation in
* Antonio Soliman
Rizal – The older brother of national hero
José Rizal ,
he was also a personal friend of Padre
José Burgos in his youth. He
Katipunan years before Jose's return from Dapitan.
Manuel Tinio (1877–1924) – youngest general of the Katipunan
and the First Philippine
Republic , he later became the governor of
Nueva Ecija from 1907–1909.
* Jacinto Tolentino
* Solomon Doma
Julian Felipe (1832–1835) – composer of Lupang Hinirang,
teacher and member of La Liga Filipina, he later served as legal
advisor to the Katipunan. His tenacious ability in argumentative
reasoning earned him the nickname "demente viejo" among the colonial
Principalía. In spite of being devout Catholic, Carpio, like other
Filipino revolutionaries, was a member of the
Freemasons before the
formation of the Katipunan. In Manila, Julian ran a private law school
which many of his personal socio-political ideals succeeded to his
students. Notable Katipuneros under his tutelage was
Miguel Malvar .
Melchora Aquino (1812–1919) – also known as Tandang Sora (Old
Sora) and nicknamed as the Grand Woman of the revolution as well as
Mother of Balintawak , she has been notable for her heroic
contribution to wounded and ailing Katipuneros during revolution.
LITERATURE OF THE SOCIETY
The triumvirate of
Katipunan (from left to right):
Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Valenzuela.
Wikisource has original text related to this article: PAHIMAKAS
During Katipunan's existence, literature flourished through prominent
writers of the Katipunan:
Andrés Bonifacio ,
Emilio Jacinto and Dr.
Pío Valenzuela . Each of the three's works were stirring literature
of patriotism and are aimed to spread the revolutionary thoughts and
ideals of the society.
* BONIFACIO WORKS. Probably one of the best works done inside the
Katipunan was written by
Andrés Bonifacio , the Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang
Lupa (Love of Fatherland), a poem of sincere patriotic sentiment.
Pag-ibig was published in the Kalayaan only issue of January 1896
under his nom-de-plume Agapito Bagumbayan. According to Manuel Artigas
y Cuerva, the name Agapito Bagumbayan was a corruption of combination
agap-ito, bagum-bayan, which, if translated from Tagalog to English
word by word, means "the new nation is here, and ready. There is no
known original source of Pag-ibig, especially that there is no
surviving Kalayaan issue. The two available texts accessible reprinted
through books is the one published by Jose P. Santos in 1935. The
other one, with familiar discrepancies to Santos' print, was archived
in military annals of
After Rizal's execution at Bagumbayan on December 30, 1896,
Bonifacio wrote the first Tagalog translation of the former's Mi
último adiós (Final Farewell), in which he gave the name Pahimakas
(Farewell). He also wrote the prose Katungkulang Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll.
B. (Duties of the Sons of the People), that was never published
because he believed that Jacinto's Kartilya was superior than his.
Bonifacio also wrote Ang Dapat Mabatid ng Mga Tagalog (What the
Tagalogs Should Know), which is a politic-historical essay.
* JACINTO WORKS.
Emilio Jacinto is considered the Brains of the
Katipunan, later the Revolution. His poetical masterpiece, written in
Laguna on October 8, 1897, was A la Patría (To My Fatherland), with
an inspiring melody paralleled from Rizal's
Mi último adiós He
also wrote a touching ode entitled A mí Madre (To My Mother). His
masterpiece in prose, the Kartilla (Kartilya, Primer) became the Bible
of the Katipunan. (see below ) His other prose writing was Liwanag at
Dilim (Light and Darkness), a series of articles on human rights ,
liberty, equality, labor, government, and love of country. His
nom-de-plume was Dimas-Ilaw.
* VALENZUELA WORKS. Dr.
Pío Valenzuela was a medical doctor by
profession. In 1896, during the first publication of Kalayaan,
Valenzuela assisted Bonifacio and Jacinto in editing the newspaper. He
also wrote Catuiran? (Is it Fair?), which described the cruelties of
the Spanish priest and civil guards of San Francisco del Monte (now in
Quezon City ) on a helpless village lieutenant. He also collaborated
with Bonifacio in writing the article Sa Mga Kababayan (To my
Countrymen), an essay addresses to the motherland. His nom-de-plume
During the infamous
Cry of Balintawak
Cry of Balintawak , Valenzuela had the position
as physician-general of the Katipunan.
Facsimile of the first page of Kalayaan. Imprenta Press
(1860) V John Sherwin (Casa Real Shrine-Museum,
Malolos City )
printing machine used by the First Philippine
Republic (now the Case
Real Shrine), where the newspapers La Independencia, El Heraldo de la
Revolucion, Kalayaan, and Kaibingan ng Bayan were printed. During the
Japanese occupation, the "
Bulacan Military Area", under Capt. Alejo
Santos , used this machine, against the Japanese. "Ang Kalayaan"
redirects here. For other uses, see
Kalayaan (other) .
Kalayaan (Liberty/Freedom) was the official organ and newspaper of
the Katipunan. It was first published March 1896 (even though its
masthead was dated January 1896.) The first Kalayaan issue has never
In 1895, the
Katipunan bought an old hand-press with the money
generously donated by two Visayan co-patriots Francisco del Castillo
and Candido Iban–who returned to the country after working as shell
and pearl divers in Australia and had some money from a lottery win.
They bought the press and a small quantity of types from Antonio
Salazar's "Bazar del Cisne" on Calle Carriedo, and Del Castillo
transported it to the house of
Andrés Bonifacio in Santa Cruz, Manila
. On January 1, 1896, Valenzuela accepted the position as the
Katipunan "fiscal" in exchange of Bonifacio's consent to send the
printing press on his house in Calle de Lavezares, San Nicolas, Manila
, "so that he could assist and edit a monthly publication which would
be the Katipunan's main organ". Bonifacio agreed, and on mid-January,
the press was delivered in San Nicolas.
The name Kalayaan was suggested by Dr.
Pío Valenzuela , which was
agreed both by Bonifacio and
Emilio Jacinto . Even though Valenzuela
was chosen to become the editor of the organ, they all decided to use
the name of
Marcelo H. del Pilar as its editor. To fool the Spanish
authorities, the Kalayaan was also decided to carry a false masthead
stating that it was being printed in Yokohama,
That very same month, January 1896, the publication of Kalayaan was
started. Valenzuela expected it to finish at the end of the month, so
they dated it as January. The existence of the press was kept in
utmost secrecy. Under the supervision of Valenzuela, two printers,
Faustino Duque , a student from
Colegio de San Juan de Letran , and
Ulpiano Fernández , a part-time printer at El Comercio, printed the
revolutionary literature of the society and Kalayaan.
When Valenzuela was appointed the physician-general of the Katipunan,
he passed on his editorial duties to
Emilio Jacinto . Jacinto took the
job, editing articles after his pre-law classes in University of Santo
Tomas . Since the press was in the old orthography and not in the new
Germanized " alphabet, as called by the Spaniards, there are no
Tagalog letters such as "k", "w", "h" and "y". To solve this problem,
Jacinto obliged his mother, Josefa Dizon, to buy types that resembles
such letters. The types used in printing were purchased from
Isabelo de los Reyes , but many were taken surreptitiously
from the press of the Diario de
Manila by Filipino employees who were
also members of the Katipunan.
According to Valenzuela, the printing process was so laborious that
setting just eight pages of typesets required two months to complete.
For weeks, Jacinto, Duque and Fernández (and sometimes Valenzuela)
took turns in preparing the pages of the Kalayaan, which was
approximately nine by twelve inches in size. In March 1896, the first
copies were issued (dated January 1896), and about 2,000 prints were
circulated in secret, according to Valenzuela. According to Epifanio
de los Santos , only 1,000 copies were printed: 700 was distributed by
Bonifacio, 300 by Aguinaldo, and some 100 by Valenzuela himself.
The first issue contained a supposed editorial done by del Pilar,
which, in fact, was done by Jacinto himself. It also included
Bonifacio's Pag-ibig sa Tinubuang Lupa, Valenzuela's Catuiran? and
several works that exposed Spanish abuses and promoted patriotism.
Copies spread to nearby
Manila provinces, including Cavite, Morong
Rizal ), Kalookan , and
Malabon . Surprised by this initial
success, Jacinto decided to print a second issue that would contain
nothing but his works.
In August 1896, the second issue was prepared. It was during this
time that Spanish authorities began to grow wary of anti-government
activities and, suspecting the existence of a subversive periodical in
circulation (see below ), raided the place where Kalayaan was being
printed, at No. 6 Clavel Street, San Nicolas, Manila. Fortunately,
the printers, Duque and Fernández, were warned in time, had destroyed
the incriminating molds, and escaped. Therefore, Spanish authorities
never found any evidence of the Kalayaan.
KARTILYA NG KATIPUNAN
Kartilya ng Katipunan
The teachings of the
Katipunan were embodied in a document entitled
Kartilya ng Katipunan, a pamphlet printed in
Tagalog language .
Copies of which were distributed among the members of the society.
Kartilya was written by
Emilio Jacinto , and later revised by Emilio
Aguinaldo. The revised version consists of thirteen teachings (though
some sources, such as the one provided by Philippine Centennial
Commission , list only twelve ). The term kartilya was derived from
Spanish cartilla, which was a primer for grade school students before
going to school at that time.
LANGUAGE AND ALPHABET
According to Filipino writer and historian Hermenegildo Flores , the
official language of the
Katipunan is Tagalog , and uses an alphabet
nearly similar to
Spanish alphabet but has different meaning and the
way it was read was changed. Diacritics were added, to emphasize the
existence of ng and mga on Tagalog orthography. The following is an
excerpt from Flores' Kartilyang Makabayan: Mga Tanong at Sagot Ukol
Andrés Bonifacio at sa KKK (English: Nationalist Primer:
Questions and Answers about
Andrés Bonifacio and KKK, Manila, 1922):
30. ANONG WIKA ANG GINAGAMIT NG̃ MG̃á KASAPI SA KATIPUNAN? Ang
tagalog; n͠guni't ang kahulugan ng̃ ilang titik ng̃ abakadang
kastilà ay iniba sa kanilang pagsulat ng̃ mg̃á kasulatan at gayon
din sa paglagdá ng̃ kanilang mg̃á sagisag. Ang titik na "a" ay
ginawang "Z", ang "c" at "q" ay ginawang "K", ang "i" ay "N", ang "l"
at "ll" ay "J" ang "m" ay "V", ang "n" ay "LL", ang "o" ay "C" at ang
"u" ay "X". Ang f, j, v, x at z ng̃ abakadang kastilà ay itinakwil
pagka't hindi kailan͠gan. Sa maliwanag na ulat ay ganitó ang
Abakadá (alfabeto) ng̃ "Katipunan" kung itutulad sa abakada ng̃
* Rough translation:
30. WHAT IS THE LANGUAGE USED BY THE MEMBERS OF THE KATIPUNAN?
Tagalog ; however, the meanings of some letters from the Spanish
alphabet have been changed. The letter "a" becomes "Z", "c" and "q"
become "K", the letter "i" is "N", the letters "l" and "ll" are "J"
letter "m" is "V", letter "n" is "LL", letter "o" is "C" and letter
"u" is "X". The letters f, j, v, x and z are not needed, and unused.
Presented below is the
Katipunan alphabet, when compared to the
Abakada ng̃ kastilà (Spanish alphabet)
Abakada ng̃ "Katipunan" ("Katipunan" alphabet)
PREPARATION FOR THE REVOLUTION
ATTEMPT TO SEEK RIZAL\'S SUPPORT
Flags of the
Katipunan (Casa Real Shrine)
The night when Governor-General
Eulogio Despujol y Dusay exiled Dr.
José Rizal to
Katipunan was founded.
In a secret meeting of the
Katipunan at a little creek called
Bitukang Manok near
Pasig on May 4, 1896, Bonifacio and his councilors
decided to consult
Rizal regarding a decision to revolt. :26–27
Bonifacio delegated Dr.
Pío Valenzuela as the Katipunan's emissary to
Dapitan . :28 This was done in order to inform
Rizal of Katipunan's
plan to launch a revolution and, if possible, a war against Spain. By
the end of May 1896, Dr. Valenzuela had visited and interviewed Rizal
at Dapitan. :29 As cover, Dr. Valenzuela was accompanied by a blind
man named Raymundo Mata, since at the time
Rizal was known to have
specialized in ophthalmology . :28–29
Valenzuela arrived in
Dapitan on June 21, where
Rizal welcomed him.
After supper, Valenzuela told him the real reason why he went to
Dapitan and the necessity of securing Rizal's support. According to
Rizal only answered, "Huwag, huwag! Iya'y makasasama sa
bayang Pilipino!" (No, no! That will harm the Filipino nation!)
Rizal objected to Bonifacio's audacious project to plunge the country
into a bloody revolution. He believed it was premature for two
* the people are not ready for a massive revolution; and
* arms and funds must first be collected before raising the cry of
Because of this notion, Valenzuela made another proposal to Rizal: to
Rizal disapproved of this plan, because he had given his
word of honor to the Spanish authorities, and he did not want to break
Rizal advised Valenzuela to persuade wealthy Filipinos,
so that they can solicit funds, where he recommended an elite army
Antonio Luna to be Katipunan's war general, should a
revolution break out. According to Valenzuela's statement to the
Spanish authorities, they almost quarreled over the matter and
Valenzuela left the following day instead of staying for a month as
When Valenzuela returned to
Manila and informed the
Katipunan of his
failure to secure Rizal's sanction, Bonifacio, furious, warned
Valenzuela not to tell anyone of Rizal's refusal to support the
impending uprising. However, Valenzuela had already spread the word,
so that much fund proposals to the society were canceled. Despite
Rizal's rejection, the
Katipunan was already trying to address its
arms supply problem and had taken steps to smuggle in weapons from
At his trial ,
Rizal denied that he knew Valenzuela, saying only that
he met him first at
Dapitan and that he considered him a good friend
because of what Valenzuela showed to him and his appreciation of
medical tools Valenzuela gave to him. He also said that this was the
last time they met.
ATTEMPT TO SOLICIT JAPAN\'S AID
Despite Rizal's rejection of an armed revolution, Bonifacio continued
to plan for an armed conflict with Spain. The
Katipunan cast its eyes
on Japan, which loomed then as the probable champion of Asian
liberties against Western oppression at the time. In May 1896, after
Valenzuela's visit to Rizal, a delegation of
Katipunan members, headed
by Jacinto and Bonifacio, conferred with a visiting Japanese naval
officer and captain of a Japanese ship, named Kongo, and the Japanese
consul at a Japanese bazaar in Manila. The interpreter, a friend of
Valenzuela, was José Moritaro Tagawa who was married to a Filipino
woman of Bocaue,
After the usual exchange of courtesies, Jacinto submitted the
Katipunan memorial for the Emperor of
Japan in which the Filipinos
prayed for Japanese aid in their projected revolution, "so that the
light of liberty that illuminates
Japan may also shed its rays over
It was with good reason that the
Katipunan solicited Japan's aid and
Japan had been friendly to the Filipinos since the Spanish
colonial era. Many Filipinos who had fled from Spanish persecution had
been welcomed there and given full protection of Japanese laws.
Bonifacio tried to purchase arms and ammunition from Japan, but failed
due to lack of funds and the uncovering of the Katipunan, Jose Dizon
was part of the committee that the
Katipunan formed to secure arms
Japan with the connivance of the Japanese ship captain. Three
months later, however, the
Katipunan was uncovered and Dizon was among
the hundreds who were arrested for rebellion.
Katipunan was busy preparing for the revolution, various
denunciations regarding its existence reached the Spanish authorities.
On July 5, 1896, Manuél Sityar, a Spanish lieutenant of the guardia
civíl stationed at
Pasig , reported to Governor-General Ramón Blanco
y Erenas the mysterious activities of certain Filipinos who had been
gathering arms and recruiting men for some unknown purposes. On
August 13, 1896, Fr. Agustín Fernández, an
Augustinian curate of San
Pedro, Makati , wrote to Don Manuél Luengo, Civil Governor of Manila,
denouncing anti-Spanish meetings in his parish.
Katipunan was finally discovered by the Spanish authorities six
days after Fernández's letter to Luengo. On early August 1896, two
Katipuneros, namely Teodoro Patiño and Apolonio de la Cruz, who were
working for the Diario de
Manila printing press (leading newspaper
during those times) had undergone misunderstanding regarding wages.
Press foreman de la Cruz and typesetter Patiño fought over salary
increase of two pesos, and de la Cruz tried to blame Patiño for the
loss of the printing supplies that were used for the Kalayaan. As an
action against de la Cruz, Patiño revealed the secrets of the society
to his sister, Honoria Patiño, an inmate nun at the Mandaluyong
Orphanage. That afternoon, on August 19, 1896, Honoria grew shocked
and very upset to the revelation. The mother portress of the
Orphanage, Sor Teresa de Jesus saw Honoria crying so she approached
her. Honoria told everything she heard from her brother. At around
6:15 pm that day, Sor Teresa called Teodoro Patiño and advised him to
tell everything he knew about the
Katipunan through confession to
Father Mariano Gíl.
Controlled by his fear of Hell, Teodoro went to Father Mariano Gíl,
Augustinian parish curate of the Tondo convent. Though he is willed
to tell anything about the Katipunan, Teodoro confessed to Father Gíl
that a lithographic stone was hidden in the press-room of Diario de
Manila, which was used by the society for printing receipts. He also
said that aside from the stone, there were also documents of
membership (that uses member's blood for signing) hidden, together
with a picture of Dr.
José Rizal and several daggers that was made
for the katipunero-employees of the newspaper.
Alarmed by the stunning truth of existence of a secret society,
Father Gíl, accompanied by local Spanish authorities, searched the
printing office of Diario de
Manila and found the incriminating
evidence. They also found Apolonio de la Cruz in possession of a
dagger used in
Katipunan initiation rites and some list of new
accepted members. After the arrest, Father Gíl rushed to
Governor-General Blanco to denounce the revolutionary plot of the
Katipunan. The Spanish unleashed a crackdown and arrested dozens of
people, where many innocent citizens were forced to go to Fort
Patiño's alleged betrayal has become the standard version of how the
revolution broke out in 1896. In the 1920s, however, the Philippine
National Library commissioned a group of former Katipuneros to confirm
the truth of the story.
José Turiano Santiago , Bonifacio's close
friend who was expelled in 1895, denied the story. He claimed that
Bonifacio himself ordered Patiño to divulge the society's existence
to hasten the
Philippine revolution and preempt any objection from
Teodoro Agoncillo gives a differing version of events,
writing that Patiño revealed the secrets of the society to his
sister, Honoria, following on a misunderstanding with Apolonio de la
Cruz, another society member who worked with him in the Spanish-owned
Manila periodical. Honoria, an orphanage inmate, was upset
at the news and informed Sor Teresa, the orphanage madre portera, who
suggested that Patiño tell all to Father Mariano Gil. On August 19,
Patiño told Father Mariano what he knew of the secret society. Father
Mariano and the owner of the Diario de
Manila searched the printing
shop, discovering the lithographic stone used to print pring Katipunan
receipts. After this discovery the locker of Policarpio Turla, whose
signature appeared on the receipts, was forced open and found to
contain a dagger, the rules of the society, and other pertinent
documents. These were turned over to the police, leading to the arrest
and conviction on charges of illegal association and treason of some
500 prominent men.
In another version, the existence of the
Katipunan eventually became
known to the authorities through Teodoro Patiño, who revealed it to
the Spaniard La Font, general manager of the printing shop Diario de
Manila . :29–31 Patiño was engaged in a bitter dispute over pay
with a co-worker, Katipunero Apolonio de la Cruz, and exposed the
Katipunan in revenge. :30–31 La Font led a Spanish police lieutenant
to the shop and the desk of Apolonio, where they "found Katipunan
paraphernalia such as a rubber stamp, a little book, ledgers,
membership oaths signed in blood, and a membership roster of the
Maghiganti chapter of the Katipunan." :31
Main article: Philippine
Katipunan leaders learned of the arrests, Bonifacio called
an assembly of all provincial councils to decide the start of the
armed uprising. The meeting was held at the house of Apolonio Samson
at a place called Kangkong in Balintawak. About 1,000 Katipuneros
attended the meeting but they were not able to settle the issue.
They met again at another place in Balintawak the following day.
Historians are still debating whether this event took place at the
Melchora Aquino or at the house of her son Juan Ramos. The
meeting took place either on August 23 or August 24. :35 It was at
this second meeting where the Katipuneros in attendance decided to
start the armed uprising and they tore their cedulas (residence
certificates and identity papers) as a sign of their commitment to the
revolution. The Katipuneros also agreed to attack
Manila on August 29.
But Spanish civil guards discovered the meeting and the first battle
occurred with the
Battle of Pasong Tamo . While the Katipunan
initially had the upper hand, the Spanish civil guards turned the
fight around. Bonifacio and his men retreated toward
Balara (now in
Quezon City ). They then proceeded to San Mateo (in the
province now called
Rizal ) and took the town. The Spanish, however,
regained it three days later. After regrouping, the Katipuneros
decided not to attack
Manila directly but agreed to take the Spanish
powder magazine and garrison at San Juan . Typical Katipunero
On August 30, the
Katipunan attacked the 100 Spanish soldiers
defending the powder magazine in the
Battle of San Juan del Monte or
Battle of Pinaglabanan . About 153 Katipuneros were killed in the
battle, but the
Katipunan had to withdraw upon the arrival of Spanish
reinforcements. More than 200 were taken prisoner. At about the same
time, Katipuneros in other suburban
Manila areas, like
Caloocan , San
Pedro de Tunasan (now
Makati City ), Pateros and
Taguig , rose up in
arms. In the afternoon of the same day, the Spanish Gov. Gen. Camilo
de Polavieja declared martial law in
Manila and the provinces of
Cavite , Laguna ,
Tarlac and Nueva
Ecija . The Philippine
Revolution had begun.
In Bulacan, the
Bulacan Revolutionary Movement were attacked by the
strongest artillery forces ever converged in the capital town of
Bulacan. This subsequently led to the Battle of San Rafael, where Gen.
Anacleto Enriquez and his men were surrounded and attacked in the
Church of San Rafael.
THE BATTLE OF KAKARONG DE SILI
Battle of Kakarong de Sili Inang Filipina Shrine
Panorama of the Park and the Shrine Facade
Pandi, Bulucan played a vital and historical role in the fight for
Philippine independence, Pandi is historically known for the Real de
Kakarong de Sili Shrine – Inang Filipina Shrine, the site where the
bloodiest revolution in
Bulacan took place, where more than 3,000
Katipunero revolutionaries died. Likewise, it is on this site where
Republic of Real de Kakarong de Sili' of 1896, one of the first
Philippine revolutionary republics was established. It was in Kakarong
de Sili, which about 6,000 Katipuneros from various towns of Bulacan
headed by BRIGADAIRE GENERAL EUSEBIO ROQUE, better known as "Maestrong
Sebio or Dimabungo" —List of Filipino Generals in the Philippine
Revolution of 1896 and the
Philippine–American War of 1899 that the
Republic was organized shortly after the Cry of Pugad Lawin
referred to as 'The Cry of Balintawak'—
Andrés Bonifacio a Filipino
nationalist and revolutionalist who led in 'The Cry of Balintawak'.
History and researchers, as well as records of the National
Historical Commission , tells that the 'Kakarong Republic' was the
first and truly organized revolutionary government established in the
country to overthrow the Spaniards antedating event the famous Malolos
Republic and the Biak-na-Bato
Republic . In recognition thereof, these
three "Republics" established in
Bulacan have been incorporated in the
seal of the province of Bulacan.
According to available records including the biography of General
Gregorio del Pilar entitled Life and Death of a Boy General written by
Teodoro Kalaw , former director of the National Library of the
Philippines , a fort was constructed at 'Kakarong de Sili' that was
like a miniature city. It had streets, an independent police force, a
musical band, a factory of falconets, bolos and repair shops for
rifles and cartridges. The 'Kakarong Republic' had a complete set of
officials with Canuto Villanueva as Supreme Chief and 'Maestrong
Sebio'—Eusebio Roque as Brigadaire General of the Army. The fort was
attacked and totally destroyed on January 1, 1897 by a large Spanish
force headed by the Commandant Olaguer-Feliu . Gen. Gregorio del
Pilar was only a lieutenant at that time and 'The Battle of Kakarong
de Sili' was his first "baptism of fire." This was where he was first
wounded and escaped to nearby barangay 'Manatal.'
The Kakarong Lodge No. 168 of the 'Legionarios del Trabajo' in memory
of the 1,200 Katipuneros who perished in the battle erected a monument
of the Inang Filipina Shrine – (Mother
Philippines Shrine) in 1924
in the barrio of Kakarong of Pandi, Bulacan. The actual site of the
'Battle of Kakarong de Sili' is now a part of the barangay of 'Real de
Kakarong'. No less than one of the greatest generals in the
Philippines' history, General
Emilio Aguinaldo who became first
Philippine president visited this sacred ground in the late fifties.
Even before the discovery of the Katipunan,
Rizal applied for a
position as doctor in the
Spanish army in
Cuba in a bid to persuade
the Spanish authorities of his loyalty to Spain. His application was
accepted and he arrived in
Manila to board a ship for
Spain in August
1896, shortly before the secret society was exposed. But while Rizal
was en route to Spain, the
Katipunan was unmasked and a telegram
overtook the steamer at
Port Said , recalling him to the Philippines
to face charges that he was the mastermind of the uprising. He was
later executed by musketry on December 30, 1896 at the field of
Bagumbayan (now known as
Rizal was being tried by a military court for treason, the
prisoners taken in the Battle of Pinaglabanan—Sancho Valenzuela,
Ramón Peralta, Modesto Sarmiento, and Eugenio Silvestre—were
executed on September 6, 1896 at Bagumbayan.
Six days later, they also executed the Thirteen Martyrs of
Fort San Felipe Fort in Cavite.
The Spanish colonial authorities also pressed the prosecution of
those who were arrested after the raid on the Diario de Manila
printing press, where they found evidence incriminating not only
common folk but also wealthy Filipino society leaders.
The Bicol Martyrs were executed by firing squad on January 4, 1897 at
Bagumbayan. They were Manuel Abella, Domingo Abella, priests Inocencio
Herrera, Gabriel Prieto and Severino Díaz, Camio Jacob, Tomas Prieto,
Florencio Lerma, Macario Valentin, Cornelio Mercado and Mariano
They arrested and seized the properties of prominent businessmen
Francisco Roxas , Telesforo Chuidian and Jacinto Limjap . While there
may be circumstantial evidence pointing to Chuidian and Limjap as
financiers of the revolution, the record showed no evidence against
Roxas except that he was involved in funding the Propaganda Movement.
Mariano Ponce , another leader of the Propaganda Movement, said
the arrest of Roxas was a "fatal mistake". Nonetheless, Roxas was
found guilty of treason and shot on January 11, 1897 at Bagumbayan.
Roxas was executed with Numeriano Adriano, José Dizon, Domingo
Franco, Moises Salvador, Luis Enciso Villareal, Braulio Rivera,
Antonio Salazar, Ramon P. Padilla, Faustino Villaruel and Faustino
Mañalac. Also executed with the group were Lt. Benedicto Nijaga and
Corporal Geronimo Cristobal, both of the Spanish army.
On February 6, 1897, Apolonio de la Cruz, Roman Basa, Teodoro Plata,
Vicente Molina, Hermenegildo de los Reyes, Joes Trinidad, Pedro
Nicodemus, Feliciano del Rosario, Gervasio Samson and Doroteo
Domínguez were also executed at Bagumbayan.
But the executions, especially Rizal's, only added fuel to the
rebellion, with the Katipuneros shouting battle cries: Mabuhay ang
Katagalugan! (Long Live Katagalugan!--Katagalugan being the Katipunan
term for the Philippines) and Mabuhay si Dr. José Rizal! (Long Live
Dr. José Rizal!). To the Katipuneros,
José Rizal is the Honorary
President of the Katipunan.
SCHISM AND TRANSFER OF AUTHORITY
In the course of the revolution against Spain, a split developed
between the Magdiwang faction (led by Gen.
Mariano Álvarez ) and the
Magdalo faction (led by Gen.
Baldomero Aguinaldo , cousin of General
Emilio Aguinaldo ), both situated in
At a convention in Tejeros, Cavite, the revolutionaries assembled to
form a revolutionary government. There, Bonifacio lost his bid for the
presidency of the revolutionary government to Emilio Aguinaldo, who
was in Pasong Santol, fighting the Spanish forces and instead was
elected Secretary of the Interior. When members of the Magdalo faction
tried to discredit him as uneducated and unfit for the position,
Bonifacio declared the results of the convention as null and void,
speaking as the Supremo of the Katipunan. Despite this, Aguinaldo took
his oath of office as president the next day in Santa Cruz de Malabon
(present-day Tanza) in Cavite, as did the rest of the officers, except
Andrés Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were later
arrested due to alleged incidents in
Indang and, upon the orders of
the Council of War and approved by Gen. Aguinaldo, they were both
executed on May 10, 1897, at Mount Buntis in Maragondon, Cavite. He
and his brother were buried in an unmarked grave.
THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
The crowning achievement of the
Katipunan was the establishment of
the first Philippine Republic. The Philippine Republic, more commonly
known as the First Philippine
Republic or the
Republic was a
short-lived nascent revolutionary government in the
Philippines . It
was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos
Constitution on January 23, 1899 in
Bulacan , and endured
until the capture of
Emilio Aguinaldo by the
American forces on March
23, 1901 in Palanan , Isabela , which effectively dissolved the First
FOREIGN MEMBERS OF THE KATIPUNAN AND THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY
Attracted by the universal appeal of the Katipunan\'s Kartilya ,
there were several members who were not native Filipinos at all yet
Katipunan and/or, later, the Philippine Revolutionary Army
(PRA) in the spirit of national liberation. Among the foreign-born
Katipuneros were: General
Juan Cailles , an Indian (From India) and
French mestizo, General Jose Ignacio Paua who was a full-blooded
Chinese and the famous African-American, PRA Captain
David Fagen who
defected from the Americans to join the Filipinos due to his disgust
of racism and imperialism.
Following the victory of the
United States against the First
Republic in the
Philippine–American War , the Americans
exterminated any remaining vestige of the Katipunan.
* Battle of
Battle of Binakayan-Dalahican
Battle of Zapote Bridge (1897)
Battle of Perez Dasmariñas
Philippine Declaration of Independence
* First Philippine
Philippine Revolutionary Army
NOTES AND CITATIONS
* ^ A B Cruz 1922 II.
"Kailan at saan itinayo ang 'Samahang Kataas-taasang,
Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan?'" (English:
"When and where was the Supreme and Most Honorable Society of the Sons
of the Nation established?") See also the Transcriber's note in the
frontmatter of the source cited. Typographical oddities regarding the
placement of the tilde ("~") character in the cited source have been
regularized here. * ^ A B "‘Kalayaan’, Newspaper of the
Katipunan". Tempo. February 5, 2015. Archived from the original on
* ^ A B Ongsotto; et al. Philippine History Module-based Learning
I\' 2002 Ed. Rex Bookstore, Inc. p. 133. ISBN 978-971-23-3449-8 .
* ^ A B Woods 2006 , p. 43
* ^ May be rated to modern Tagalog orthography as kulitkulitan,
Kain na kain lang mga Anak ng Bayan.
* ^ The organization has no affiliation with the White supremacy
group known as the
Ku Klux Klan
Ku Klux Klan whose name is also associated with the
* ^ Keat Gin Ooi (2004). Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia,
from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. p. 718. ISBN
* ^ St. Clair 1902 , pp. 37–39
* ^ "The Founding of the Katipunan".
* ^ Diwa Encarnacion, Emmanuel; Villegas, Ramon (1996). "Andres
Bonifacio and the 1896 Revolution". Sulyap Kultura. National
Commission for Culture and the Arts. 1 (2): 3–12. Archived from the
original on 2010-11-15.
* ^ Epifanio 1918 , p. 38
* ^ Epifanio 1918 , p. 41
Gregorio Zaide translated as Highest and Most Respected
Association of the Sons of the Country.
* ^ Fernandez 1926 , p. 15
Isabelo de los Reyes 1899 , p. 27
* ^ Kalaw 1925 , p. 87
* ^ A B C D E F Richardson, Jim (February 2007). "Studies on the
Katipunan: Notes on the
Katipunan in Manila, 1892–96". Retrieved
* ^ "Philippine History – The Katipunan: The Supreme Councils".
* ^ Ricarte 1926 , p. 27
* ^ Zaide 1984 , pp. 158–162
* ^ Lamberto Gabriel,Ang Pilipinas:Heograpiya,Kasaysayan at
Pamahalaan(Isang Pagsusuri) ISBN 971-621-192-9
* ^ Santos 1930 , pp. 17–21
* ^ A B Agoncillo 1990 , p. 151
* ^ Kalaw 1926 , p. 75
* ^ Borromeo-Buehler 1998 , pp. 169, 171
* ^ Agoncillo 1990 , pp. 151–152
* ^ A B C Agoncillo 1990 , p. 152
* ^ Agoncillo 1990 , p. 166
* ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911 , p. 30
* ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911 , pp. 30–31
* ^ Agoncillo 1990 , pp. 152–153
* ^ Agoncillo 1990 , p. 153
* ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911 , pp. 32–33
* ^ A B C D Cruz 1922 VI
* ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911 , pp. 45–49
* ^ A B "Ang Aklat ni Andres Bonifacio" (in Tagalog). Retrieved 13
* ^ Bonifacio declared that Katagalugan (lit. Tagalog land) is
equivalent to all Philippine territories.
* ^ A B C Zaide 1957 , p. 157
* ^ Gregoria de Jesus 1932
* ^ A B Rojas, Jean. "Filipino Women Warriors". Retrieved
* ^ Fernandez 1930
* ^ Zaide ">"". Retrieved 2009-08-20.
* ^ Artigas y Cuerva 1911 , p. 403
* ^ "Documents of the Katipunan: Andrés Bonifacio: Katungkulang
Gagawin ng mga Z. Ll. B.". Retrieved 2009-08-20.
* ^ A B C D E F "Kalayaan: The
Filipino.biz.ph. Retrieved 2009-08-22.
* ^ Richardson, Jim (October 2005). "Roster of Katipuneros at
Balintawak, August 1896". Retrieved 2009-08-22.
* ^ A B C D E F G H Rihardson, Jim (November 2005). "Notes on
Katipunan paper". Retrieved 2009-08-22.
* ^ Zaide & October 25, 1930
* ^ A B C Zaide 1957 , p. 158
* ^ Woods 2006 , p. 44
* ^ Epifanio 1918 , p. 79
* ^ May be transliterated as Cartilla, Kartilla, or Cartilya
depending on the speaker and user.
* ^ "The Teachings of the Katipunan". Retrieved 2009-10-20.
* ^ Cruz 1922 VI.
* ^ A B C D E Zaide 1992 , p. 203
* ^ A B C D E F G H I Alvarez, S.V., 1992, Recalling the
Revolution, Madison: Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of
Wisconsin-Madison, ISBN 1-881261-05-0
* ^ A B Dr.
Pío Valenzuela , Memoirs, Unpublished manuscript.
* ^ A B "The Revolution". Retrieved 2009-08-22.
* ^ De la Costa 1961 , p. 108
* ^ Alejandro 1971 , p. 70
* ^ A B Zaide 1957 , p. 159
* ^ De la Costa 1961 , p. 98
* ^ Retana 1897 , pp. 348–350
* ^ Retana 1897 , p. 351
* ^ A B C Zaide 1957 , p. 160
* ^ "Katipunan". Retrieved 2009-08-22.
* ^ A B C Zaide 1957 , p. 161
* ^ "Amice, Ascende Superius!". Retrieved 2009-08-21.
* ^ Zaide 1931 , pp. 32–58
National Historical Institute 1989 , p. 476
* ^ Agoncillo 1990 , p. 170
* ^ Halili 2004, p. 145.
* ^ Halili 2004, p. 145-146.
* ^ "The
Project Gutenberg eBook of Dimasalang Kalendariong Tagalog
(1922), by Honorio López.".
* ^ Sagmit 2007 , p. 158
* ^ Agoncillo 1990 , pp. 180-181.
* ^ National Historical Institute; Historical Markers: Regions I-IV
and CAR. Manila: National Historical Institute, 1993.
* ^ Gen. Jose Ignacio Paua: A Chinese General in the Philippine
* ^ Worcester 1914 , p. 180
* Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1990) . "History of the Filipino People"
(8th ed.). Quezon City: Garotech Publishing. ISBN 971-8711-06-6 .
* Agoncillo, Teodoro C. (1956). "The Revolt of the Masses: the story
of Bonifacio and the Katipunan". Quezon City: University of the
Philippines Press .
* Artigas y Cuerva, Manuel (1911). "
Andres Bonifacio y el
Katipunan". La Vanguardia. Manila.
* Borromeo-Buehler, Soledad Masangkay (1998). The Cry of Balintawak:
a contrived controversy. Ateneo de
Manila University Press. ISBN
* Cruz, Hermenegildo (November 16, 1922). Tamiko I. Camacho, Jerome
Espinosa Baladad and PG Distributed Proofreaders, ed. Kartilyang
Makabayan: Mga Tanong at Sagot Ukol Kay
Andrés Bonifacio at sa KKK.
e-book reproduction from Project Gutenberg. (in Tagalog) (Internet,
Project Gutenberg ed.). Manila: Guillermo Masangkay, Alvarado St.,
Brgy. 535, Manila. External link in work= (help )
* Diwa, Ladislao (December 24, 1926). "
Andres Bonifacio y el
Katipunan". La Opinión. Manila.
* Fernandez, Leandro H. (1926). The Philippine Republic. New York :
Columbia University Press
Columbia University Press .
* Fernandez, Leandro H. (1930). "Autobiography of Gregoria de
Jesus". Philippine Magazine. Manila.
* Reynaldo, Ileto (1998). "Filipinos and their revolution: event,
discourse, and historiography". Ateneo de
Manila University Press.
* Guerrero, Milagros C. (1996). "Balintawak: The Cry for a
Nationwide Revolution". Sulyap Kultura (Manila: National Commission
for Culture and the Arts).
* Halili, Maria Christine N. (2004). Philippine History. Manila: Rex
Book Store. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9 .
* Jesus-Nakpil, Gregoria (1932). "Mga Tala ng Aking Buhay at mga
Ulat ng Katipunan". published by Jose P. Santos.
* Kalaw, Maximo M. The Development of Philippine Politics
(1872–1920) (Manila: Oriental Commercial Co. Inc., 1926; reprint
ed., Manila: Solar Publishing Corp., 1986)
* Kalaw, Teodoro M. (1925). "The Philippine Revolution". Manila:
Manila Book Store Company.
National Historical Institute . Filipinos in History 5 vols.
(Manila: National Historical Institute, 1989)
* Reyes, Isabelo de los (1899). "La Sensacional memoria sobre la
revolución filipina" (in Spanish). Madrid: Tip. lit. de J. Corrales.
* Retana, Wenceslao E. (1897). "Archivo del biblio filipino". Madrid
* Retana, Wenceslao E. (1907). "Vida y Escritos del Dr. José Rizal
". At Google Books
* Retana, Wenceslao. Vida y Escritorios de Dr. José Rizal. Madrid:
* Ricarte, Artemio (1926). "The Hispano-Philippine Revolution".
Yokohama. This book was published by Ricarte himself, includes his
memoirs on the Philippine Revolution.
* St. Clair, Francis (1902). "Kataastaasang Kagalanggalangang
Katipunan Nang Manga Anac Nang Bayan". Manila.
* Sagmit, Rosario S.; Sagmit-Mendosa, Lourdes (2007). The Filipino
Moving Onward 5 (2007 ed.). Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 978-971-23-4154-0
* Santos, Epifanio de los (1918). "Andres Bonifacio". The Philippine
* Santos, Epifanio de los (1961). "The Trial of Rizal". Horacio de
la Costa, S.J. Quezon City: Ateneo de
Manila University Press .
* Santos, Jose P. (1930). "Kung Sino si Jacinto". Pagkakaisa.
* Woods, Damon L. (2006) . The Philippines: a global studies
handbook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-675-2 .
* Zaide, Gregorio F. (1984). Philippine History and Government.
National Bookstore Printing Press.
* Zaide, Gregorio F. (1957). Philippine Political and Cultural
Philippines Since the British Invasion. II (1957 Revised
ed.). Manila: McCullough Printing Company.
* Zaide, Gregorio (November 26, 1932). "The Women of the Katipunan".
Philippines Free Press. Manila.
* Zaide, Gregorio F. (1973).
Manila during the Revolutionary Period.
National Historical Commission . citing a letter sent to him
Pío Valenzuela dated December 19, 1931.
* Zaide, Gregorio (1939). "History of the Katipunan". Loyal Press.
* Zaide, Gregorio F. (1931). Documentary History of the Katipunan
* Zaide, Gregorio (October 25, 1930). "The Rise and Fall of the
Katipunan Press". The Sunday Tribune Magazine. Manila.
* The Catholic Historical Review. Washington, D.C.: American
Catholic Historical Association. 4. 1919. Missing or empty title=
* Draft of preliminary reading for initiation into the Katipunan.
* Oaths and form of initiation into the
* Kartilyang Makabayan Pamphlet about the
Katipunan written by
Philippines – Historical Flags to 1899.
* (in Spanish) El sitio de Baler: los últimos de Filipinas (The
site of Baler : Final