KARNATAKA is a state in the south western region of
India . It was
formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States
Reorganisation Act . Originally known as the State of
Mysore , it was
Karnataka in 1973. The capital and largest city is Bangalore
Karnataka is bordered by the
Arabian Sea to the west, Goa
to the northwest,
Maharashtra to the north,
Telangana to the
Andhra Pradesh to the east,
Tamil Nadu to the southeast,
Kerala to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square
kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical
area of India. It is the seventh largest Indian state by area . With
61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census,
Karnataka is the eighth
largest state by population , comprising 30 districts .
Kannada , one
of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and
official language of the state.
The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its
Bhima , Ghataprabha , Vedavathi , Malaprabha , and
Tungabhadra , in the north, and the
Kaveri and its tributaries, the
Arkavati , Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini , in the
south. Most of these rivers flow out of
Karnataka eastward, reaching
the sea at the
Bay of Bengal .
Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name
Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that
Karnataka is derived
Kannada words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu
nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black", and nadu, meaning
"region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu
Seeme region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic ,
sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south
of the Krishna.
With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic ,
Karnataka has been
home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval
India . The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires
launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to
the present day.
Karnataka has contributed significantly to both forms
of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.
* 1 History
* 2 Geography
* 3 Sub-divisions
* 4 Demographics
* 5 Government and administration
* 6 Economy
* 7 Transport
* 8 Culture
* 9 Religion
* 10 Language
* 11 Education
* 11.1 High literacy districts
* 11.2 High literacy taluks
* 12 Media
* 13 Sports
* 14 Flora and fauna
* 15 Tourism
* 16 See also
* 17 Notes
* 18 References
* 19 External links
History of Karnataka , Political history of medieval
Karnataka , and
Etymology of Karnataka Mallikarjuna temple and
Kashi Vishwanatha temple at
Pattadakal , built successively by the
kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a
Heritage Site .
Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture
evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and
cleavers in the region. Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures
have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in
found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to
hypothesise about contacts between ancient
Karnataka and the Indus
Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.
Prior to the third century BCE, most of
Karnataka formed part of the
Nanda Empire before coming under the
Mauryan empire of Emperor Ashoka
. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control
large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the
rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the
Kadambas and the Western
Gangas , marking the region's emergence as an independent political
Kadamba Dynasty , founded by
Mayurasharma , had its
Banavasi ; the
Western Ganga Dynasty was formed with
Talakad as its capital. Sala fighting the Lion, the emblem of
These were also the first kingdoms to use
Kannada in administration,
as evidenced by the
Halmidi inscription and a fifth-century copper
coin discovered at Banavasi. These dynasties were followed by
Kannada empires such as the
Badami Chalukyas , the
Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta and the
Western Chalukya Empire ,
which ruled over large parts of the
Deccan and had their capitals in
what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style
of architecture and
Kannada literature which became a precursor to the
Hoysala art of the 12th century. Parts of modern-day Southern
Karnataka (Gangavadi) were occupied by the
Chola Empire at the turn of
the 11th century. The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region
in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala
rule. Statue of Ugranarasimha at
World Heritage Site ),
located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the
At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the
region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the
emergence of distinctive
Kannada literary metres , and the
construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the
Vesara style of
architecture. The expansion of the
Hoysala Empire brought minor
parts of modern
Andhra Pradesh and
Tamil Nadu under its rule. In the
early 14th century,
Bukka Raya established the
Vijayanagara empire with its capital, Hosapattana (later named
Vijayanagara ), on the banks of the
Tungabhadra River in the modern
Bellary district. The empire rose as a bulwark against
into South India, which it completely controlled for over two
Karnataka and the rest of South
India experienced a major
geopolitical shift when the
Vijayanagara empire fell to a
confederation of Islamic sultanates in the
Battle of Talikota . The
Bijapur Sultanate , which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani
Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated
by the Moghuls in the late 17th century. The Bahmani and Bijapur
Urdu and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic
Gol Gumbaz being one of the high points of this
style. During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to
Karnataka, mostly from
Goa , while during the seventeenth
and eighteenth century,
Goan Catholics migrated to
North Canara and
South Canara , especially from Bardes , Goa, as a result of food
shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese .
Tipu Sultan (1792) of the
Mysore Kingdom, in the care
In the period that followed, parts of northern
Karnataka were ruled
Nizam of Hyderabad , the
Maratha Empire , the British , and
other powers. In the south, the
Mysore Kingdom , a former vassal of
Vijayanagara Empire, was briefly independent. With the death of
Krishnaraja Wodeyar II ,
Haidar Ali , the commander-in-chief of the
Mysore army, gained control of the region. After his death, the
kingdom was inherited by his son
Tipu Sultan . To contain European
expansion in South India,
Haidar Ali and later
Tipu Sultan fought four
Anglo-Mysore Wars , the last of which resulted in Tippu
Sultan's death and the incorporation of
Mysore into the
British Raj in
1799. The Kingdom of
Mysore was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore
remained a princely state under the British Raj. Chief Minister
Dr. Devaraj Urs announcing the new name of the
Mysore state as
As the "doctrine of lapse " gave way to dissent and resistance from
princely states across the country,
Kittur Chennamma , Sangolli
Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in
Karnataka in 1830, nearly
three decades before the
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857 . However, Kitturu
was taken over by the British East
India Company even before the
doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848. Other
uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa ,
Dandeli . These rebellions — which coincided with the
Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857 – were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar
Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas,
Raja Venkatappa Nayaka and others. By
the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum;
Karnad Sadashiva Rao,
Aluru Venkata Raya ,
S. Nijalingappa , Kengal
Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the
struggle into the early 20th century.
After India's independence, the Maharaja,
Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar ,
allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950,
Mysore became an
Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its
Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing
demand of the Ekikarana Movement , Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking
regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were
incorporated into the
Mysore state, under the States Reorganisation
Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen
years later, in 1973. In the early 1900s through the
post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam
Visvesvarayya , born in
Chikballapur district, played
an important role in the development of Karnataka's strong
manufacturing and industrial base.
Geography of Karnataka
Geography of Karnataka ,
Rainfall in Karnataka , and
Beaches in Karnataka
Jog Falls , formed by
Sharavathi River, are
the second highest plunge waterfalls in India.
The state has three principal geographical zones:
* The coastal region of
* The hilly
Malenadu region comprising the
Bayaluseeme region comprising the plains of the
The bulk of the state is in the
Bayaluseeme region, the northern part
of which is the second-largest arid region in India. The highest
Karnataka is the
Mullayanagiri hills in Chickmagalur district
which has an altitude of 1,929 metres (6,329 ft). Some of the
important rivers in
Tungabhadra , Krishna ,
Malaprabha and the
Sharavathi . A large number of dams and reservoirs
are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation
and hydel power generation capacities of the state.
Karnataka consists of four main types of geological formations —
Archean complex made up of
Dharwad schists and granitic gneisses ,
Proterozoic non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the
Bhima series, the
Deccan trappean and intertrappean
deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits.
Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean
complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks.
Laterite cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan
Traps were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the
early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in
Karnataka, viz. Entisols ,
Inceptisols , Mollisols , Spodosols ,
Alfisols , Ultisols , Oxisols , Aridisols , Vertisols , Andisols and
Histosols . Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the
soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic , black ,
alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils.
Karnataka experiences four seasons. The winter in January and
February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon
season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from
October till December. Meteorologically ,
Karnataka is divided into
three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these,
the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average
rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the
state average of 1,139 mm (45 in).
Agumbe in the
receives the second highest annual rainfall in India. The highest
recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F ) at
Raichur and the lowest
recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at
About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of
Karnataka (i.e. 20% of the state's
geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as
reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The
percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all-India
average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed
in the National Forest Policy.
Districts of Karnataka
Districts of Karnataka
There are 30 districts in Karnataka:
Each district is governed by a district commissioner or district
magistrate. The districts are further divided into sub-divisions,
which are governed by sub-divisional magistrates; sub-divisions
comprise blocks containing panchayats (village councils) and town
At the 2011 census, Karnataka's ten largest cities, sorted in order
of decreasing population, were
Dharwad , Mysuru
Ballary , Vijayapur
Bangalore Urban ,
Mysore . Regions
Demographics of Karnataka
Demographics of Karnataka
According to the 2011 census of India, the total population of
Karnataka was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and
30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females.
This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The
population density was 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in
urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and
68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the population were Hindu
, 12.92% were
Muslim , 1.87% were
Christian , 0.72% were Jains , 0.16%
Buddhist , 0.05% were
Sikh and 0.02% were belonging to other
religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.
Kannada is the official language of
Karnataka and spoken as a native
language by about 66.26% of the people as of 2001. Other linguistic
minorities in the state were
Urdu (10.54%), Telugu (7.03%), Tamil
(3.57%), Marathi (3.6%), Tulu (3.0%),
Hindi (2.56%), Konkani (1.46%),
Malayalam (1.33%) and
Kodava Takk (0.3%). In 2007 the state had a
birth rate of 2.2%, a death rate of 0.7%, an infant mortality rate of
5.5% and a maternal mortality rate of 0.2%. The total fertility rate
In the field of speciality health care, Karnataka's private sector
competes with the best in the world.
Karnataka has also established a
modicum of public health services having a better record of health
care and child care than most other states of India. In spite of these
advances, some parts of the state still leave much to be desired when
it comes to primary health care.
GOVERNMENT AND ADMINISTRATION
Government of Karnataka ,
Karnataka Legislature ,
Unification of Karnataka , and
Taluks of Karnataka Vidhana
Bangalore (seat of the
Legislative Assembly )
Karnataka has a parliamentary system of government with two
democratically elected houses, the
Legislative Assembly and the
Legislative Council. The
Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members
who are elected for five-year terms. The Legislative Council is a
permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring
every two years.
The government of
Karnataka is headed by the Chief Minister who is
chosen by the ruling party members of the
Legislative Assembly . The
Chief Minister, along with the council of ministers, drives the
legislative agenda and exercises most of the executive powers.
However, the constitutional and formal head of the state is the
Governor who is appointed for a five-year term by the President of
India on the advice of the Union government. The people of Karnataka
also elect 28 members to the
Lok Sabha , the lower house of the Indian
Parliament. The members of the state
Legislative Assembly elect 12
members to the
Rajya Sabha , the upper house of the Indian Parliament.
For administrative purposes,
Karnataka has been divided into four
revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 30 districts, 175 taluks and 745
hoblies / revenue circles. The administration in each district is
headed by a Deputy Commissioner who belongs to the Indian
Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers
Karnataka state services. The Deputy Commissioner of
Police , an officer belonging to the
Indian Police Service and
assisted by the officers of the
Karnataka Police Service, is entrusted
with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related
issues in each district. The Deputy Conservator of Forests , an
officer belonging to the
Indian Forest Service , is entrusted with the
responsibility of managing forests, environment and wildlife of the
district, he will be assisted by the officers belonging to Karnataka
Forest Service and officers belonging to
Karnataka Forest Subordinate
Service. Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the
district head of each development department such as Public Works
Department, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc. The
judiciary in the state consists of the
Karnataka High Court (Attara
Kacheri) in Bangalore, district and session courts in each district
and lower courts and judges at the taluk level.
Karnataka has been dominated by three political parties,
Indian National Congress , the
Janata Dal (Secular)
Janata Dal (Secular) and the
Bharatiya Janata Party . Politicians from
Karnataka have played
prominent roles in federal government of
India with some of them
having held the high positions of Prime Minister and Vice-President.
Border disputes involving Karnataka's claim on the Kasaragod and
Solapur districts and
Maharashtra 's claim on
Belgaum are ongoing
since the states reorganisation. The official emblem of
a Ganda Berunda in the centre. Surmounting this are four lions facing
the four directions, taken from the
Lion Capital of Ashoka
Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath
. The emblem also carries two Sharabhas with the head of an elephant
and the body of a lion .
Economy of Karnataka
Economy of Karnataka , Software industry in Karnataka
Banking in Karnataka GSDP Growth of the Karnatakan Economy
over the previous years
Karnataka had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of
about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal year. The state
registered a GSDP growth rate of 7% for the year 2014–2015.
Karnataka's contribution to India's GDP in the year 2014–15 was
7.54%. With GDP growth of 17.59% and per capita GDP growth of 16.04%,
Karnataka is on the 6th position among all states and union
territories. In an employment survey conducted for the year
2013–2014, the unemployment rate in
Karnataka was 1.8% compared to
the national rate of 4.9%. In 2011–2012,
Karnataka had an estimated
poverty ratio of 20.91% compared to the national ratio of 21.92%.
Nearly 56% of the workforce in
Karnataka is engaged in agriculture
and related activities. A total of 12.31 million hectares of land, or
64.6% of the state's total area, is cultivated. Much of the
agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon as only
26.5% of the sown area is irrigated.
Karnataka is the manufacturing hub for some of the largest public
sector industries in India, including
Hindustan Aeronautics Limited ,
National Aerospace Laboratories ,
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited ,
Bharat Earth Movers Limited and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine
Tools), which are based in Bangalore. Many of India's premier science
and technology research centres, such as Indian Space Research
Central Power Research Institute , Bharat Electronics
Limited and the
Central Food Technological Research Institute , are
also headquartered in Karnataka.
Mangalore Refinery and Petrochemicals
Limited is an oil refinery , located in Mangalore. Contribution
to economy by sector
Since the 1980s,
Karnataka has emerged as the pan-Indian leader in
the field of IT (information technology ). In 2007, there were nearly
2,000 firms operating in Karnataka. Many of them, including two of
India's biggest software firms,
Wipro , are also
headquartered in the state. Exports from these firms exceeded
₹50,000 crores ($12.5 billion) in 2006–07, accounting for nearly
38% of all IT exports from India. The Nandi Hills area in the
Devanahalli is the site of the upcoming $22 billion, 50
BIAL IT Investment Region , one of the largest
infrastructure projects in the history of Karnataka. All this has
earned the state capital, Bangalore, the sobriquet Silicon Valley of
Karnataka also leads the nation in biotechnology . It is home to
India's largest biocluster, with 158 of the country's 320
biotechnology firms being based here. The state accounts for 75% of
India's floriculture , an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and
ornamental plants worldwide.
Seven of India's banks,
Canara Bank ,
Syndicate Bank , Corporation
Vijaya Bank ,
Karnataka Bank ,
ING Vysya Bank
ING Vysya Bank and the State
Mysore originated in this state. The coastal districts of
Dakshina Kannada have a branch for every 500 persons—the
best distribution of banks in India. In March 2002,
4767 branches of different banks with each branch serving 11,000
persons, which is lower than the national average of 16,000.
A majority of the silk industry in
India is headquartered in
Karnataka, much of it in
Doddaballapura , and the state government
intends to invest ₹70 crore in a "Silk City" at
Muddenahalli , near
Bangalore International Airport .
Transport in Karnataka
Transport in Karnataka , List of National Highways in
Karnataka , and
List of state highways in Karnataka
Air transport in Karnataka, as in the rest of the country, is still a
fledgling but fast expanding sector.
Karnataka has airports at
Bellary and Mysore
with international operations from
Karnataka has a railway network with a total length of approximately
3,089 kilometres (1,919 mi). Until the creation of the South Western
Zone headquartered at
Hubli in 2003, the railway network in the state
was in the Southern and Western railway zones. Several parts of the
state now come under the South Western Zone, with the remainder under
the Southern Railways.
Coastal Karnataka is covered under the Konkan
railway network which was considered India's biggest railway project
of the century.
Hubli are extensively connected with
inter-state destinations while other important cities and towns in the
state are not so well-connected.
Norwegian Star , a Cruise ship
docked at the New
Karnataka has 11 ports , including the New
Mangalore Port , a major
port and ten minor ports, of which three were operational in 2012.
Mangalore port was incorporated as the ninth major port in
India on 4 May 1974. This port handled 32.04 million tonnes of
traffic in the fiscal year 2006–07 with 17.92 million tonnes of
imports and 14.12 million tonnes of exports. The port also handled
1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006–07.
Foreigners can enter
Mangalore through the New
Mangalore Port with the
help of Electronic visa (e-visa). Cruise ships from
Europe , North
UAE arrive at New
Mangalore Port to promote tourism across
Coastal Karnataka .
The total lengths of National Highways and state highways in
Karnataka are 3,973 and 9,829 kilometres (2,469 and 6,107 mi),
respectively. The KSRTC , the state public transport corporation,
transports an average of 2.2 million passengers daily and employs
about 25,000 people. In the late nineties, KSRTC was split into four
corporations, viz., The
Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation,
Karnataka Road Transport Corporation and The North-West
Karnataka Road Transport Corporation with their headquarters in
Hubli respectively, and with the remnant of
the KSRTC maintaining operations in the rest of the state from its
headquarters in Bangalore.
Art and culture of Karnataka ,
Carnatic music ,
Cuisine of Karnataka
Cuisine of Karnataka ,
Kannada people , and
Tuluvas The Kannada
flag is widely used in
Karnataka even though it is not an official
flag. A yakshagana artist
The diverse linguistic and religious ethnicities that are native to
Karnataka, combined with their long histories, have contributed
immensely to the varied cultural heritage of the state. Apart from
Karnataka is home to
Tuluvas , Kodavas and
Minor populations of Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas ,
Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The traditional
folk arts cover the entire gamut of music, dance, drama, storytelling
by itinerant troupes, etc.
Yakshagana of Malnad and coastal Karnataka,
a classical dance drama, is one of the major theatrical forms of
Karnataka. Contemporary theatre culture in
Karnataka remains vibrant
with organisations like
Ranga Shankara ,
Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by
Gubbi Veeranna ,
T. P. Kailasam ,
B. V. Karanth ,
K V Subbanna ,
Prasanna and others .
Kolata and Dollu Kunitha
are popular dance forms. The
Mysore style of Bharatanatya , nurtured
and popularised by the likes of the legendary Jatti Tayamma ,
continues to hold sway in Karnataka, and
Bangalore also enjoys an
eminent place as one of the foremost centres of Bharatanatya.
Karnataka also has a special place in the world of Indian classical
music , with both
Karnataka (Carnatic ) and Hindustani styles finding
place in the state, and
Karnataka has produced a number of stalwarts
in both styles . The
Haridasa movement of the sixteenth century
contributed significantly to the development of
music as a performing art form.
Purandara Dasa , one of the most
revered Haridasas , is known as the
Karnataka Sangeeta Pitamaha
Karnataka a.k.a. Carnatic music'). Celebrated Hindustani
Gangubai Hangal ,
Mallikarjun Mansur ,
Bhimsen Joshi ,
Basavaraja Rajaguru ,
Sawai Gandharva and several others hail from
Karnataka, and some of them have been recipients of the Kalidas Samman
Padma Bhushan and
Padma Vibhushan awards. Noted Carnatic musicians
include Violin T. Chowdiah, Veena Sheshanna,
Doreswamy Iyengar and Thitte Krishna Iyengar.
Gamaka is another classical music genre based on
Carnatic music that
is practised in Karnataka.
Kannada Bhavageete is a genre of popular
music that draws inspiration from the expressionist poetry of modern
Mysore school of painting has produced painters like
Sundarayya, Tanjavur Kondayya, B. Venkatappa and Keshavayya.
Chitrakala Parishat is an organisation in
Karnataka dedicated to
promoting painting, mainly in the
Mysore painting style.
Saree is the traditional dress of women in Karnataka. Women in Kodagu
have a distinct style of wearing the saree, different from the rest of
Dhoti , known as Panche in Karnataka, is the traditional
attire of men.
Salwar kameez are widely worn in
Mysore Peta is the traditional headgear of southern
Karnataka, while the pagadi or pataga (similar to the Rajasthani
turban ) is preferred in the northern areas of the state.
Rice and Ragi form the staple food in South Karnataka, whereas Jolada
Sorghum is staple to North Karnataka.
Bisi bele bath
Bisi bele bath , Jolada
Ragi mudde , Uppittu ,
Benne Dose , Masala Dose and Maddur
Vade are some of the popular food items in Karnataka. Among sweets,
Mysore Pak ,
Gokak and Amingad , Belgaavi Kunda and
Dharwad pedha are popular. Apart from this, coastal
Kodagu have distinctive cuisines of their own.
Udupi cuisine of
Karnataka is popular all over India.
Religion in Karnataka
Religion in Karnataka (2011)
Buddhism (0.16%) Sikhism
(0.05%) Other (0.02%) Not religious (0.27%) Vishnu, Badami
cave temple no.3 Gomateswara (982–983) at
an important centre of
Jain pilgrimage. Mandyada Shri Shiradi
Sai Baba Mandir in
Adi Shankaracharya (788–820) chose
establish the first of his four mathas (monastery). Madhvacharya
(1238–1317) was the chief proponent of Tattvavada (Philosophy of
Reality), popularly known as
Dvaita or Dualistic school of Hindu
philosophy — one of the three most influential
Madhvacharya was one of the important philosophers during the Bhakti
movement . He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard
conventions and norms. According to tradition,
believed to be the third incarnation of
Vayu (Mukhyaprana), after
Bhima . The
Haridasa devotional movement is considered as
one of the turning points in the cultural history of India. Over a
span of nearly six centuries, several saints and mystics helped shape
the culture, philosophy and art of South
particular by exerting considerable spiritual influence over the
masses and kingdoms that ruled South India.
This movement was ushered in by the Haridasas (literally "servants of
Lord Hari") and took shape in the 13th century – 14th century CE,
period, prior to and during the early rule of the
The main objective of this movement was to propagate the Dvaita
Madhvacharya (Madhva Siddhanta) to the masses through a
literary medium known as
Dasa Sahitya literature of the servants of
the Lord. Purandaradasa is widely recognised as the "Pithamaha" of
Carnatic Music for his immense contribution.
Ramanujacharya , the
leading expounder of
Vishishtadvaita , spent many years in
He came to
Karnataka in 1098 AD and lived here until 1122 AD. He first
lived in Tondanur and then moved to
Melkote where the Cheluvanarayana
Swamy Temple and a well-organised matha were built. He was patronised
In the twelfth century,
Lingayatism emerged in northern
a protest against the rigidity of the prevailing social and caste
system. Leading figures of this movement were
Basava , Akka Mahadevi
Allama Prabhu , who established the
Anubhava Mantapa which was the
centre of all religious and philosophical thoughts and discussions
pertaining to Ligayats. These three social reformers did so by the
literary means of "
Vachana Sahitya" which is very famous for its
simple, straight forward and easily understandable
Lingayatism preached women equality by letting women wear Ishtalinga
i.e. Symbol of god around their neck.
Basava shunned the sharp
hierarchical divisions that existed and sought to remove all
distinctions between the hierarchically superior master class and the
subordinate, servile class. He also supported inter-caste marriages
and Kaayaka Tatva of Basavanna. This was the basis of the Lingayat
faith which today counts millions among its followers.
Jain philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the
religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka.
Islam , which had an
early presence on the west coast of
India as early as the tenth
century, gained a foothold in
Karnataka with the rise of the Bahamani
Bijapur sultanates that ruled parts of Karnataka. Christianity
Karnataka in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the
St. Francis Xavier in 1545.
Buddhism was popular in
Karnataka during the first millennium in
places such as
Banavasi . A chance discovery of edicts
and several Mauryan relics at
Gulbarga district in 1986 has
proven that the
Krishna River basin was once home to both
Hinayana Buddhism. There are Tibetan refugee camps in Karnataka.
Mysore Dasara is celebrated as the Nada habba (state festival) and
this is marked by major festivities at Mysore.
Makara Sankranti (the harvest festival),
Ganesh Chaturthi ,
Basava Jayanthi , Deepavali , and Ramzan are the other
major festivals of Karnataka.
Kannada language ,
Kannada literature , Tulu language
Konkani language ,
Kodava language , and
Beary bashe Halmidi
inscription (450 CE) is the earliest attested inscription in the
Kannada language .
Kannada language serves as the official language of the state of
Karnataka, as the native language of approximately 65% of its
population and as one of the classical languages of
India . Kannada
played a crucial role in the creation of Karnataka: linguistic
demographics played a major role in defining the new state in 1956.
Tulu , Konkani and Kodava are other minor native languages that share
a long history in the state.
Urdu is spoken widely by the Muslim
population. Less widely spoken languages include
Beary bashe and
certain languages such as Sankethi . Some of the regional languages in
Karnataka are Tulu , Kodava , Konkani and Beary .
Kannada features a rich and ancient body of literature including
religious and secular genre, covering topics as diverse as Jainism
(such as Puranas ), Veerashaivism (such as Vachanas ), Vaishnavism
Haridasa Sahitya ) and modern literature . Evidence from
edicts during the time of
Ashoka (reigned 274–232 BCE) suggest that
Buddhist literature influenced the
Kannada script and its literature.
Halmidi inscription , the earliest attested full-length
inscription in the
Kannada language and script, dates from 450 CE,
while the earliest available literary work, the
Kavirajamarga , has
been dated to 850 CE. References made in the Kavirajamarga, however,
Kannada literature flourished in the native composition
meters such as Chattana, Beddande and Melvadu during earlier
centuries. The classic refers to several earlier greats (purvacharyar)
Kannada poetry and prose.
Kuvempu , the renowned
Kannada poet and writer who wrote Jaya Bharata
Jananiya Tanujate , the state anthem of
Karnataka was the first
recipient of the "
Karnataka Ratna " award, the highest civilian award
bestowed by the
Government of Karnataka . Contemporary Kannada
literature has received considerable acknowledgement in the arena of
Indian literature, with eight
Kannada writers winning India's highest
literary honour, the
Jnanpith award .
Tulu is spoken mainly in the coastal districts of
Udupi and Dakshina
Kannada . Tulu Mahabharato, written by Arunabja in the Tigalari
script, is the oldest surviving Tulu text. Tigalari script was used
by Brahmins to write
Sanskrit language. The use of the
for writing Tulu and non-availability of print in Tigalari script
contributed to the marginalisation of Tigalari script. Konkani is
mostly spoken in the
Uttara Kannada and
Dakshina Kannada districts and
in parts of
Udupi , Konkani use the
Devanagari script for writing.
The Kodavas who mainly reside in the
Kodagu district , speak Kodava
Takk. Two regional variations of the language exist, the northern
Mendale Takka and the southern Kiggaati Takka.
Kodava Takk use the
Kannada script for writing. English is the medium of education in many
schools and widely used for business communication in most private
All of the state's languages are patronised and promoted by
governmental and quasi-governmental bodies. The
Parishat and the
Kannada Sahitya Akademi are responsible for the
Kannada while the
Karnataka Konkani Sahitya Akademi, the
Tulu Sahitya Akademi and the Kodava Sahitya Akademi promote their
Education in Karnataka
Education in Karnataka See also: List of institutions
of higher education in
Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science is
one of the premier institutes of India.
As per the 2011 census,
Karnataka had a literacy rate of 75.60%, with
82.85% of males and 68.13% of females in the state being literate. In
2001, the literacy rate of the state were 67.04%, with 76.29% of males
and 57.45% of females being literate. The state is home to some of
the premier educational and research institutions of
India such as the
Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science , the
Indian Institute of Management , the
Indian Institute of Technology
Dharwad the National Institute of
Mental Health and Neurosciences , the National Institute of Technology
Karnataka and the National Law School of
India University .
In March 2006,
Karnataka had 54,529 primary schools with 252,875
teachers and 8.495 million students, and 9498 secondary schools with
92,287 teachers and 1.384 million students. There are three kinds of
schools in the state, viz., government-run, private aided (financial
aid is provided by the government) and private unaided (no financial
aid is provided). The primary languages of instruction in most schools
Kannada and English.
The syllabus taught in the schools is either of the CBSE , the ICSE
or the state syllabus (
SSLC ) defined by the Department of Public
Instruction of the
Government of Karnataka . However, some schools
follow the NIOS syllabus. The state has two sainik schools — in
Kodagu Sainik School in
Kodagu and in
Bijapur Sainik School in Bijapur
To maximise attendance in schools, the
Karnataka Government has
launched a midday meal scheme in government and aided schools in which
free lunch is provided to the students.
Statewide board examinations are conducted at the end of secondary
education. Students who qualify are allowed to pursue a two-year
pre-university course , after which they become eligible to pursue
under-graduate degrees. Literacy rates of
There are 481 degree colleges affiliated with one of the universities
in the state, viz.
Bangalore University ,
Gulbarga University ,
Karnatak University ,
Kuvempu University ,
Mangalore University and
Mysore University . In 1998, the engineering colleges in the state
were brought under the newly formed Visvesvaraya Technological
University headquartered at
Belgaum , whereas the medical colleges are
run under the jurisdiction of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health
Sciences . Some of these baccalaureate colleges are accredited with
the status of a deemed university . There are 186 engineering, 39
medical and 41 dental colleges in the state.
Melkote are well-known places of
Sanskrit and Vedic
learning. In 2015 the Central Government decided to establish the
Indian Institute of Technology in
Dharwad . Tulu
and Konkani languages are taught as an optional subject in the twin
South Canara and
HIGH LITERACY DISTRICTS
Dakshina Kannada (South Canara)
Uttara Kannada (North Canara)
HIGH LITERACY TALUKS
Dakshina Kannada )
Uttara Kannada )
Uttara Kannada )
Media in Karnataka
The era of
Kannada newspapers started in the year 1843 when Hermann
Mögling , a missionary from
Basel Mission , published the first
Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara in
Mangalore . The first
Mysuru Vrittanta Bodhini was started by Bhashyam
Bhashyacharya in Mysore. Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K.
N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began
publishing two newspapers,
Deccan Herald and
Prajavani . Presently the
Vijaya Karnataka are the largest-selling English
Kannada newspapers respectively. A vast number of weekly,
biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in both Kannada
Samyukta Karnataka ,
Sanjevani , Eesanje,
Hosa digantha ,
Karavali Ale are
also some popular dailies published from Karnataka.
Doordarshan is the broadcaster of the Government of
India and its
DD Chandana is dedicated to Kannada. Prominent Kannada
channels include Janasri News ,
Colors Kannada ,
Zee Kannada , Udaya
TV , TV 9 ,
Asianet Suvarna and Kasturi TV .
Karnataka occupies a special place in the history of Indian radio. In
1935, Aakashvani, the first private radio station in India, was
started by Prof. M.V. Gopalaswamy in
Mysore . The popular radio
station was taken over by the local municipality and later by All
India Radio (AIR) and moved to
Bangalore in 1955. Later in 1957, AIR
adopted the original name of the radio station, Aakashavani as its
own. Some of the popular programs aired by AIR
Nisarga Sampada and Sasya Sanjeevini which were programs that taught
science through songs, plays and stories. These two programs became so
popular that they were translated and broadcast in 18 different
languages and the entire series was recorded on cassettes by the
Government of Karnataka and distributed to thousands of schools across
Karnataka has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels,
mainly in the cities of Bangalore,
Mangalore and Mysore, which has
become hugely popular.
Sports in Karnataka
Anil Kumble , former captain
of the Indian Test team and spin legend, is the highest wicket-taker
India in international cricket.
Karnataka's smallest district,
Kodagu , is a major contributor to
Indian field hockey , producing numerous players who have represented
India at the international level. The annual Kodava Hockey Festival
is the largest hockey tournament in the world.
Bangalore has hosted a
WTA tennis event and, in 1997, it hosted the fourth National Games of
India. The Sports Authority of India, the premier sports institute in
the country, and the Nike
Tennis Academy are also situated in
Karnataka has been referred to as the cradle of Indian
swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states.
One of the most popular sports in
Karnataka is cricket . The state
cricket team has won the
Ranji Trophy seven times, second only to
Mumbai in terms of success.
Chinnaswamy Stadium in Bangalore
regularly hosts international matches and is also the home of the
Cricket Academy , which was opened in 2000 to nurture
potential international players. Many cricketers have represented
India and in one international match held in the 1990s; players from
Karnataka composed the majority of the national team. The Royal
Bangalore , an
Indian Premier League franchise, the
Bengaluru Football Club , an Indian Football League : I-League
franchise, the Bengaluru Yodhas , a
Pro Wrestling League franchise,
the Bengaluru Top Guns , a
Premier Badminton League franchise and the
Bengaluru Bulls , a
Pro Kabaddi League franchise are based in
Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20
cricket tournament played in the state.
Notable sportsmen from
B.S. Chandrasekhar , Ravi
Sanjay Manjrekar ,
Anil Kumble ,
Javagal Srinath , Rahul
Venkatesh Prasad ,
Robin Uthappa ,
Vinay Kumar , Gundappa
Syed Kirmani ,
Stuart Binny ,
Ashwini Ponnappa , Mahesh
Rohan Bopanna ,
Prakash Padukone who won the All England
Badminton Championships in 1980 and
Pankaj Advani who has won three
world titles in cue sports by the age of 20 including the amateur
World Snooker Championship in 2003 and the World Billiards
Championship in 2005.
Bijapur district has produced some of the best known road cyclists in
the national circuit. Premalata Sureban was part of the Indian
contingent at the Perlis Open '99 in
Malaysia . In recognition of the
talent of cyclists in the district, the state government laid down a
cycling track at the B.R. Ambedkar Stadium at a cost of ₹ 40 lakh.
Sports like kho kho , kabaddi , chinni daandu and goli (marbles ) are
played mostly in Karnataka's rural areas.
FLORA AND FAUNA
Wildlife of Karnataka
Wildlife of Karnataka The state bird, Indian
roller Bengal tigers at
Bannerghatta National Park near
Karnataka has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded
forest area of 38,720 km2 (14,950 sq mi) which constitutes 20.19% of
the total geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of
the elephant and 10% of the tiger population of India. Many regions of
Karnataka are as yet unexplored, so new species of flora and fauna are
found periodically. The
Western Ghats , a biodiversity hotspot ,
includes the western region of Karnataka. Two sub-clusters in the
Western Ghats, viz. Talacauvery and
Kudremukh , both in Karnataka, are
on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites of
UNESCO . The
Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks, which fall outside these
subclusters, were included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in 1986, a
UNESCO designation. The
Indian roller and the
Indian elephant are
recognised as the state bird and animal while sandalwood and the lotus
are recognised as the state tree and flower respectively. Karnataka
has five national parks: Anshi , Bandipur , Bannerghatta , Kudremukh
and Nagarhole . It also has 27 wildlife sanctuaries of which seven
are bird sanctuaries.
Wild animals that are found in
Karnataka include the elephant , the
tiger , the leopard , the gaur , the sambar deer , the chital or
spotted deer , the muntjac , the bonnet macaque , the slender loris ,
the common palm civet , the small Indian civet , the sloth bear , the
dhole , the striped hyena and the golden jackal . Some of the birds
found here are the great hornbill , the
Malabar pied hornbill
Malabar pied hornbill , the
Ceylon frogmouth , herons, ducks, kites, eagles, falcons , quails ,
partridges , lapwings , sandpipers , pigeons, doves, parakeets ,
cuckoos, owls, nightjars , swifts , kingfishers , bee-eaters and
munias . Some species of trees found in
Karnataka are Callophyllum
tomentosa, Callophyllum wightianum, Garcina cambogia, Garcina
Alstonia scholaris, Flacourtia montana,
Wrightia tinctoria. Wildlife in
Karnataka is threatened by
poaching, habitat destruction, human-wildlife conflict and pollution.
Tourism in Karnataka See also: Architecture of
Keshava Temple ,
By virtue of its varied geography and long history,
numerous spots of interest for tourists. There is an array of ancient
sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and
Karnataka has been ranked as the fourth most popular
destination for tourism among the states of India.
Karnataka has the
second highest number of nationally protected monuments in India,
second only to
Uttar Pradesh , in addition to 752 monuments protected
by the State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Another 25,000
monuments are yet to receive protection.
Gol Gumbaz at Bijapur
, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the
Hagia Sophia .
The districts of the
Western Ghats and the southern districts of the
state have popular eco-tourism locations including
Karnataka has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five
national parks. Popular among them are
Bandipur National Park ,
Bannerghatta National Park and
Nagarhole National Park . The ruins of
Vijayanagara Empire at
Hampi and the monuments of
on the list of
UNESCO 's World Heritage Sites . The cave temples at
Badami and the rock-cut temples at
Aihole representing the Badami
Chalukyan style of architecture are also popular tourist destinations.
Hoysala temples at
Halebidu , which were built with
Chloritic schist (soapstone ) are proposed
UNESCO World Heritage
Gol Gumbaz and Ibrahim Rauza are famous examples of the
Deccan Sultanate style of architecture. The monolith of Gomateshwara
Shravanabelagola is the tallest sculpted monolith in the
world, attracting tens of thousands of pilgrims during the
Mysore Palace at night,
The waterfalls of
Kudremukh are considered by some to
be among the "1001 Natural Wonders of the World".
Jog Falls is
India\'s tallest single-tiered waterfall with
Gokak Falls , Unchalli
Magod Falls ,
Abbey Falls and
Shivanasamudra Falls among other
Mysore painting depicting Goddess
Several popular beaches dot the coastline, including
Karwar . In addition,
Karnataka is home to several
places of religious importance. Several
Hindu temples including the
Udupi Sri Krishna
Matha , the Marikamba Temple at Sirsi , the
Sri Manjunatha Temple at
Kukke Subramanya Temple
Kukke Subramanya Temple and
Sharadamba Temple at
Shringeri attract pilgrims from all over India.
Most of the holy sites of
Lingayatism , like
Basavana Bagewadi , are found in northern parts of the state.
Karkala are famous for
Jainism had a stronghold in
Karnataka in the early
medieval period with
Shravanabelagola as its most important centre.
Shettihalli Rosary Church near
Shettihalli , an example of French
Gothic architecture , is a rare example of a
is a popular tourist site.
Karnataka has emerged as a hot spot for health care tourism.
Karnataka has the highest number of approved health systems and
alternative therapies in India. Along with some ISO certified
government-owned hospitals, private institutions which provide
international-quality services have caused the health care industry to
grow by 30% during 2004–05. Hospitals in
Karnataka treat around
8,000 health tourists every year.
* Geography portal
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Outline of Karnataka
Index of India-related articles
* List of
Chief Ministers of Karnataka
Chief Ministers of Karnataka
* List of
Governors of Karnataka
Governors of Karnataka
List of districts of Karnataka
List of districts of Karnataka
List of people from Karnataka
List of butterflies of Karnataka
List of airports in Karnataka
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* ^ From the
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* ^ Kamath (2001), p. 10.
* ^ The Chalukyas hailed from present-day
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