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Karnataka
Karnataka
is a state in the south western region of India. It was formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of the States Reorganisation Act. Originally known as the State of Mysore, it was renamed Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1973. The state corresponds to the Carnatic region. The capital and largest city is Bangalore
Bangalore
(Bengaluru). Karnataka
Karnataka
is bordered by the Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
to the west, Goa
Goa
to the northwest, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north, Telangana
Telangana
to the northeast, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the east, Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
to the southeast, and Kerala
Kerala
to the south. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres (74,122 sq mi), or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest Indian state by area. With 61,130,704 inhabitants at the 2011 census, Karnataka
Karnataka
is the eighth largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. Kannada, one of the classical languages of India, is the most widely spoken and official language of the state alongside Konkani, Tulu, Tamil, Telugu, Kodava, Beary. Karnataka
Karnataka
also has the only 3 naturally Sanskrit-speaking districts in India. The two main river systems of the state are the Krishna and its tributaries, the Bhima, Ghataprabha, Vedavathi, Malaprabha, and Tungabhadra, in the north, and the Kaveri
Kaveri
and its tributaries, the Hemavati, Shimsha, Arkavati, Lakshmana Thirtha and Kabini, in the south. Most of these rivers flow out of Karnataka
Karnataka
eastward, reaching the sea at the Bay of Bengal. Though several etymologies have been suggested for the name Karnataka, the generally accepted one is that Karnataka
Karnataka
is derived from the Kannada
Kannada
words karu and nādu, meaning "elevated land". Karu nadu may also be read as karu, meaning "black", and nadu, meaning "region", as a reference to the black cotton soil found in the Bayalu Seeme
Bayalu Seeme
region of the state. The British used the word Carnatic, sometimes Karnatak, to describe both sides of peninsular India, south of the Krishna.[8] With an antiquity that dates to the paleolithic, Karnataka
Karnataka
has been home to some of the most powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The philosophers and musical bards patronised by these empires launched socio-religious and literary movements which have endured to the present day. Karnataka
Karnataka
has contributed significantly to both forms of Indian classical music, the Carnatic and Hindustani traditions.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Sub-divisions 4 Demographics 5 Government and administration 6 Economy 7 Transport 8 Culture 9 Religion 10 Language 11 Education

11.1 High literacy districts 11.2 High literacy taluks

12 Media 13 Sports 14 Flora and fauna 15 Tourism 16 See also 17 Notes 18 References 19 External links

History[edit] Main articles: History of Karnataka, Political history of medieval Karnataka, and Etymology of Karnataka

Mallikarjuna temple and Kashi Vishwanatha temple at Pattadakal, built successively by the kings of the Chalukya Empire and Rashtrakuta Empire is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site.

Karnataka's pre-history goes back to a paleolithic hand-axe culture evidenced by discoveries of, among other things, hand axes and cleavers in the region.[9] Evidence of neolithic and megalithic cultures have also been found in the state. Gold discovered in Harappa was found to be imported from mines in Karnataka, prompting scholars to hypothesise about contacts between ancient Karnataka
Karnataka
and the Indus Valley Civilisation ca. 3300 BCE.[10][11] Prior to the third century BCE, most of Karnataka
Karnataka
formed part of the Nanda Empire
Nanda Empire
before coming under the Mauryan empire
Mauryan empire
of Emperor Ashoka. Four centuries of Satavahana rule followed, allowing them to control large areas of Karnataka. The decline of Satavahana power led to the rise of the earliest native kingdoms, the Kadambas
Kadambas
and the Western Gangas, marking the region's emergence as an independent political entity. The Kadamba Dynasty, founded by Mayurasharma, had its capital at Banavasi;[12][13] the Western Ganga Dynasty
Western Ganga Dynasty
was formed with Talakad as its capital.[14][15]

Sala fighting the Lion, the emblem of Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire

These were also the first kingdoms to use Kannada
Kannada
in administration, as evidenced by the Halmidi inscription
Halmidi inscription
and a fifth-century copper coin discovered at Banavasi.[16][17] These dynasties were followed by imperial Kannada
Kannada
empires such as the Badami
Badami
Chalukyas,[18][19] the Rashtrakuta Empire of Manyakheta[20][21] and the Western Chalukya Empire,[22][23] which ruled over large parts of the Deccan and had their capitals in what is now Karnataka. The Western Chalukyas patronised a unique style of architecture and Kannada literature
Kannada literature
which became a precursor to the Hoysala
Hoysala
art of the 12th century.[24][25] Parts of modern-day Southern Karnataka
Karnataka
(Gangavadi) were occupied by the Chola Empire
Chola Empire
at the turn of the 11th century.[26] The Cholas and the Hoysalas fought over the region in the early 12th century before it eventually came under Hoysala
Hoysala
rule.[26]

Statue of Ugranarasimha at Hampi
Hampi
(a World Heritage Site), located within the ruins of Vijayanagara, the former capital of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire

At the turn of the first millennium, the Hoysalas gained power in the region. Literature flourished during this time, which led to the emergence of distinctive Kannada
Kannada
literary metres, and the construction of temples and sculptures adhering to the Vesara
Vesara
style of architecture.[27][28][29][30] The expansion of the Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire brought minor parts of modern Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
under its rule. In the early 14th century, Harihara
Harihara
and Bukka Raya established the Vijayanagara empire
Vijayanagara empire
with its capital, Hosapattana (later named Vijayanagara), on the banks of the Tungabhadra River
Tungabhadra River
in the modern Bellary
Bellary
district. The empire rose as a bulwark against Muslim
Muslim
advances into South India, which it completely controlled for over two centuries.[31][32] In 1565, Karnataka
Karnataka
and the rest of South India
India
experienced a major geopolitical shift when the Vijayanagara empire
Vijayanagara empire
fell to a confederation of Islamic sultanates in the Battle of Talikota.[33] The Bijapur
Bijapur
Sultanate, which had risen after the demise of the Bahmani Sultanate of Bidar, soon took control of the Deccan; it was defeated by the Moghuls in the late 17th century.[34][35] The Bahmani and Bijapur
Bijapur
rulers encouraged Urdu
Urdu
and Persian literature and Indo-Saracenic
Indo-Saracenic
architecture, the Gol Gumbaz
Gol Gumbaz
being one of the high points of this style.[36] During the sixteenth century, Konkani Hindus migrated to Karnataka, mostly from Salcette, Goa,[37] while during the seventeenth and eighteenth century, Goan Catholics
Goan Catholics
migrated to North Canara and South Canara, especially from Bardes, Goa, as a result of food shortages, epidemics and heavy taxation imposed by the Portuguese.[38]

1792 Portrait of Tipu Sultan, in the care of the British Library

In the period that followed, parts of northern Karnataka
Karnataka
were ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maratha Empire, the British, and other powers.[39] In the south, the Mysore
Mysore
Kingdom, a former vassal of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire, was briefly independent.[40] With the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II, Haidar Ali, the commander-in-chief of the Mysore
Mysore
army, gained control of the region. After his death, the kingdom was inherited by his son Tipu Sultan.[41] To contain European expansion in South India, Haidar Ali
Haidar Ali
and later Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan
fought four significant Anglo- Mysore
Mysore
Wars, the last of which resulted in Tippu Sultan's death and the incorporation of Mysore
Mysore
into the British Raj
British Raj
in 1799.[42] The Kingdom of Mysore
Mysore
was restored to the Wodeyars and Mysore
Mysore
remained a princely state under the British Raj.

Chief Minister Dr. Devaraj Urs announcing the new name of the Mysore state as 'Karnataka'

As the "doctrine of lapse" gave way to dissent and resistance from princely states across the country, Kittur
Kittur
Chennamma, Sangolli Rayanna and others spearheaded rebellions in Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1830, nearly three decades before the Indian Rebellion of 1857. However, Kitturu was taken over by the British East India
India
Company even before the doctrine was officially articulated by Lord Dalhousie in 1848.[43] Other uprisings followed, such as the ones at Supa, Bagalkot, Shorapur, Nargund
Nargund
and Dandeli. These rebellions — which coincided with the Indian Rebellion of 1857
Indian Rebellion of 1857
– were led by Mundargi Bhimarao, Bhaskar Rao Bhave, the Halagali Bedas, Raja Venkatappa Nayaka
Raja Venkatappa Nayaka
and others. By the late 19th century, the independence movement had gained momentum; Karnad Sadashiva Rao, Aluru Venkata Raya, S. Nijalingappa, Kengal Hanumanthaiah, Nittoor Srinivasa Rau and others carried on the struggle into the early 20th century.[44] After India's independence, the Maharaja, Jayachamarajendra Wodeyar, allowed his kingdom's accession to India. In 1950, Mysore
Mysore
became an Indian state of the same name; the former Maharaja served as its Rajpramukh (head of state) until 1975. Following the long-standing demand of the Ekikarana Movement, Kodagu- and Kannada-speaking regions from the adjoining states of Madras, Hyderabad and Bombay were incorporated into the Mysore
Mysore
state, under the States Reorganisation Act of 1956. The thus expanded state was renamed Karnataka, seventeen years later, in 1973.[45] In the early 1900s through the post-independence era, industrial visionaries such as Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya, born in Muddenahalli, Chikballapur
Chikballapur
district, played an important role in the development of Karnataka's strong manufacturing and industrial base. Geography[edit] Main articles: Geography of Karnataka, Rainfall in Karnataka, and Beaches in Karnataka

Jog Falls, formed by Sharavathi
Sharavathi
River, are the second highest plunge waterfalls in India.

The state has three principal geographical zones:

The coastal region of Karavali The hilly Malenadu
Malenadu
region comprising the Western Ghats The Bayaluseeme
Bayaluseeme
region comprising the plains of the Deccan plateau

The bulk of the state is in the Bayaluseeme
Bayaluseeme
region, the northern part of which is the second-largest arid region in India.[46] The highest point in Karnataka
Karnataka
is the Mullayanagiri
Mullayanagiri
hills in Chickmagalur district which has an altitude of 1,929 metres (6,329 ft). Some of the important rivers in Karnataka
Karnataka
are Kaveri, Tungabhadra, Krishna, Malaprabha and the Sharavathi. A large number of dams and reservoirs are constructed across these rivers which richly add to the irrigation and hydel power generation capacities of the state. Karnataka
Karnataka
consists of four main types of geological formations[47] — the Archean
Archean
complex made up of Dharwad
Dharwad
schists and granitic gneisses, the Proterozoic
Proterozoic
non-fossiliferous sedimentary formations of the Kaladgi and Bhima
Bhima
series, the Deccan trappean and intertrappean deposits and the tertiary and recent laterites and alluvial deposits. Significantly, about 60% of the state is composed of the Archean
Archean
complex which consist of gneisses, granites and charnockite rocks. Laterite
Laterite
cappings that are found in many districts over the Deccan Traps
Deccan Traps
were formed after the cessation of volcanic activity in the early tertiary period. Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka, viz. Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols.[47] Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types, viz. red, lateritic, black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils. Karnataka
Karnataka
experiences four seasons. The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May, the monsoon season between June and September and the post-monsoon season from October till December. Meteorologically, Karnataka
Karnataka
is divided into three zones — coastal, north interior and south interior. Of these, the coastal zone receives the heaviest rainfall with an average rainfall of about 3,638.5 mm (143 in) per annum, far in excess of the state average of 1,139 mm (45 in). Agumbe
Agumbe
in the Shivamogga district
Shivamogga district
receives the second highest annual rainfall in India.[48] The highest recorded temperature was 45.6 °C (114 °F) at Raichur
Raichur
and the lowest recorded temperature was 2.8 °C (37 °F) at Bidar. About 38,724 km2 (14,951 sq mi) of Karnataka
Karnataka
(i.e. 20% of the state's geographic area) is covered by forests. The forests are classified as reserved, protected, unclosed, village and private forests. The percentage of forested area is slightly less than the all- India
India
average of about 23%, and significantly less than the 33% prescribed in the National Forest Policy.[49] Sub-divisions[edit] Main article: Districts of Karnataka There are 30 districts in Karnataka:

Bagalkote Bangalore
Bangalore
Rural Bangalore
Bangalore
Urban Belagavi Ballari Bidar Chamarajanagar Chikkaballapur[50] Chikkamagaluru Chitradurga Dakshina Kannada Davanagere Dharwad Gadag Gulbarga Hassan Haveri Kodagu Kolar Koppal Mandya Mysuru Raichur Ramanagara[50] Shivamogga Tumakuru Udupi Uttara Kannada Vijayapur Yadgir

Each district is governed by a district commissioner or district magistrate. The districts are further divided into sub-divisions, which are governed by sub-divisional magistrates; sub-divisions comprise blocks containing panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities. At the 2011 census, Karnataka's ten largest cities, sorted in order of decreasing population, were Bangalore, Hubballi-Dharwad, Mysuru, Mangaluru, Gulbarga, Belagavi, Davangere, Ballary, Vijayapur
Vijayapur
and Shivamogga.

Regions of Karnataka

Rank City District Population (2011)

1 Bangalore
Bangalore
(Bengaluru) Bangalore
Bangalore
Urban 8,728,906

2 Hubballi- Dharwad
Dharwad
(Hubli) Dharwad
Dharwad
district 943,857

3 Mysore
Mysore
(Mysuru) Mysore
Mysore
district 887,446

4 Mangalore
Mangalore
(Mangaluru) Dakshina Kannada 532,031

5 Gulbarga
Gulbarga
(Kalaburagi) Gulbarga
Gulbarga
district 499,487

6 Belgaum
Belgaum
(Belagavi) Belgaum
Belgaum
district 490,045

7 Davanagere
Davanagere
(Davangere) Davanagere
Davanagere
district 435,128

8 Bellary
Bellary
(Ballari) Bellary
Bellary
district 409,444

9 Vijayapur
Vijayapur
(Bijapur) Vijayapur
Vijayapur
district 327,427

10 Shimoga
Shimoga
(Shivamogga) Shimoga
Shimoga
district 322,428

Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Karnataka

Population Growth 

Census Pop.

1951 19,402,000

1961 23,587,000

21.6%

1971 29,299,000

24.2%

1981 37,136,000

26.7%

1991 44,977,000

21.1%

2001 52,850,562

17.5%

2011 61,095,297

15.6%

Source:Census of India[51]

According to the 2011 census of India,[52] the total population of Karnataka
Karnataka
was 61,095,297 of which 30,966,657 (50.7%) were male and 30,128,640 (49.3%) were female, or 1000 males for every 973 females. This represents a 15.60% increase over the population in 2001. The population density was 319 per km2 and 38.67% of the people lived in urban areas. The literacy rate was 75.36% with 82.47% of males and 68.08% of females being literate. 84.00% of the population were Hindu, 12.92% were Muslim, 1.87% were Christian, 0.72% were Jains, 0.16% were Buddhist, 0.05% were Sikh
Sikh
and 0.02% were belonging to other religions and 0.27% of the population did not state their religion.[53] Kannada
Kannada
is the official language of Karnataka
Karnataka
and spoken as a native language by about 66.26% of the people as of 2001. Other linguistic minorities in the state were Urdu
Urdu
(10.54%), Telugu (7.03%), Tamil (3.57%), Marathi (3.6%), Tulu (3.0%), Hindi
Hindi
(2.56%), Konkani (1.46%), Malayalam
Malayalam
(1.33%) and Kodava Takk
Kodava Takk
(0.3%).[54] In 2007 the state had a birth rate of 2.2%, a death rate of 0.7%, an infant mortality rate of 5.5% and a maternal mortality rate of 0.2%. The total fertility rate was 2.2.[55] In the field of speciality health care, Karnataka's private sector competes with the best in the world.[56] Karnataka
Karnataka
has also established a modicum of public health services having a better record of health care and child care than most other states of India. In spite of these advances, some parts of the state still leave much to be desired when it comes to primary health care.[57] Government and administration[edit] Main articles: Government of Karnataka, Karnataka
Karnataka
Legislature, Unification of Karnataka, and Taluks of Karnataka

Vidhana Soudha
Vidhana Soudha
in Bangalore
Bangalore
(seat of the Legislative Assembly)

Karnataka
Karnataka
has a parliamentary system of government with two democratically elected houses, the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council. The Legislative Assembly consists of 224 members who are elected for five-year terms.[58] The Legislative Council is a permanent body of 75 members with one-third (25 members) retiring every two years.[58] The government of Karnataka
Karnataka
is headed by the Chief Minister who is chosen by the ruling party members of the Legislative Assembly. The Chief Minister, along with the council of ministers, drives the legislative agenda and exercises most of the executive powers.[59] However, the constitutional and formal head of the state is the Governor who is appointed for a five-year term by the President of India
India
on the advice of the Union government.[60] The people of Karnataka
Karnataka
also elect 28 members to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Indian Parliament.[61] The members of the state Legislative Assembly elect 12 members to the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian Parliament. For administrative purposes, Karnataka
Karnataka
has been divided into four revenue divisions, 49 sub-divisions, 30 districts, 175 taluks and 745 hoblies / revenue circles.[62] The administration in each district is headed by a Deputy Commissioner who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Karnataka
Karnataka
state services. The Deputy Commissioner of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service
Indian Police Service
and assisted by the officers of the Karnataka
Karnataka
Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district. The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of managing forests, environment and wildlife of the district, he will be assisted by the officers belonging to Karnataka Forest Service and officers belonging to Karnataka
Karnataka
Forest Subordinate Service. Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the district head of each development department such as Public Works Department, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc. The judiciary in the state consists of the Karnataka High Court
Karnataka High Court
(Attara Kacheri) in Bangalore, district and session courts in each district and lower courts and judges at the taluk level. Politics in Karnataka
Karnataka
has been dominated by three political parties, the Indian National Congress, the Janata Dal (Secular)
Janata Dal (Secular)
and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[63] Politicians from Karnataka
Karnataka
have played prominent roles in federal government of India
India
with some of them having held the high positions of Prime Minister and Vice-President. Border disputes involving Karnataka's claim on the Kasaragod[64] and Solapur[65] districts and Maharashtra's claim on Belgaum
Belgaum
are ongoing since the states reorganisation.[66] The official emblem of Karnataka has a Ganda Berunda in the centre. Surmounting this are four lions facing the four directions, taken from the Lion Capital of Ashoka
Lion Capital of Ashoka
at Sarnath. The emblem also carries two Sharabhas with the head of an elephant and the body of a lion. Economy[edit] Main articles: Economy of Karnataka, Software industry in Karnataka, Banking in Karnataka, Economy of Bangalore, and Economy of Mangalore

GSDP Growth of the Karnatakan Economy over the previous years

Karnataka
Karnataka
had an estimated GSDP (Gross State Domestic Product) of about US$115.86 billion in the 2014–15 fiscal year.[67] The state registered a GSDP growth rate of 7% for the year 2014–2015.[68] Karnataka's contribution to India's GDP in the year 2014–15 was 7.54%.[67] With GDP growth of 17.59% and per capita GDP growth of 16.04%, Karnataka
Karnataka
is on the 6th position among all states and union territories.[69][70] In an employment survey conducted for the year 2013–2014, the unemployment rate in Karnataka
Karnataka
was 1.8% compared to the national rate of 4.9%.[71] In 2011–2012, Karnataka
Karnataka
had an estimated poverty ratio of 20.91% compared to the national ratio of 21.92%.[72] Nearly 56% of the workforce in Karnataka
Karnataka
is engaged in agriculture and related activities.[73] A total of 12.31 million hectares of land, or 64.6% of the state's total area, is cultivated.[74] Much of the agricultural output is dependent on the southwest monsoon as only 26.5% of the sown area is irrigated.[74] Karnataka
Karnataka
is the manufacturing hub for some of the largest public sector industries in India, including Hindustan Aeronautics Limited, National Aerospace Laboratories, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Bharat Earth Movers Limited
Bharat Earth Movers Limited
and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools), which are based in Bengaluru. Many of India's premier science and technology research centres, such as Indian Space Research Organisation, Central Power Research Institute, Bharat Electronics Limited and the Central Food Technological Research Institute, are also headquartered in Karnataka. Mangalore
Mangalore
Refinery and Petrochemicals Limited is an oil refinery, located in Mangalore. The state has also begun to invest heavily in solar power centred on the Pavagada Solar Park. As of December 2017, the state has installed an estimated 2.2 gigwatts of block solar panelling and in January 2018 announced a tender to generate a further 1.2 gigawatts in the coming years: Karnataka
Karnataka
Renewable Energy Development suggests that this will be based on 24 separate systems (or 'blocks') generating 50 megawatts each.[75]

Contribution to economy by sector

Since the 1980s, Karnataka
Karnataka
has emerged as the pan-Indian leader in the field of IT (information technology). In 2007, there were nearly 2,000 firms operating in Karnataka. Many of them, including two of India's biggest software firms, Infosys
Infosys
and Wipro, are also headquartered in the state.[76] Exports from these firms exceeded ₹50,000 crores ($12.5 billion) in 2006–07, accounting for nearly 38% of all IT exports from India.[76] The Nandi Hills area in the outskirts of Devanahalli
Devanahalli
is the site of the upcoming $22 billion, 50 square kilometre BIAL IT Investment Region, one of the largest infrastructure projects in the history of Karnataka.[77] All this has earned the state capital, Bangalore, the sobriquet Silicon Valley of India.[78] Karnataka
Karnataka
also leads the nation in biotechnology. It is home to India's largest biocluster, with 158 of the country's 320 biotechnology firms being based here.[79] The state accounts for 75% of India's floriculture, an upcoming industry which supplies flowers and ornamental plants worldwide.[80] Seven of India's banks, Canara Bank, Syndicate Bank, Corporation Bank, Vijaya Bank, Karnataka
Karnataka
Bank, ING Vysya Bank
ING Vysya Bank
and the State Bank of Mysore
Mysore
originated in this state.[81] The coastal districts of Udupi and Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
have a branch for every 500 persons—the best distribution of banks in India.[82] In March 2002, Karnataka
Karnataka
had 4767 branches of different banks with each branch serving 11,000 persons, which is lower than the national average of 16,000.[83] A majority of the silk industry in India
India
is headquartered in Karnataka, much of it in Doddaballapura, and the state government intends to invest ₹70 crore in a "Silk City" at Muddenahalli, near Bangalore
Bangalore
International Airport.[84][85] Transport[edit] Main articles: Transport in Karnataka, List of National Highways in Karnataka, and List of state highways in Karnataka Air transport in Karnataka, as in the rest of the country, is still a fledgling but fast expanding sector. Karnataka
Karnataka
has airports at Bengaluru, Mangalore, Belgaum, Hubli, Hampi, Bellary
Bellary
and Mysore
Mysore
with international operations from Bangalore
Bangalore
and Mangalore
Mangalore
airports.[86] Karnataka
Karnataka
has a railway network with a total length of approximately 3,089 kilometres (1,919 mi). Until the creation of the South Western Zone headquartered at Hubli
Hubli
in 2003, the railway network in the state was in the Southern and Western railway zones. Several parts of the state now come under the South Western Zone, with the remainder under the Southern Railways. Coastal Karnataka
Coastal Karnataka
is covered under the Konkan railway
Konkan railway
network which was considered India's biggest railway project of the century.[87] Bangalore
Bangalore
is well-connected with inter-state destinations, while other towns in the state are not.[88]

Norwegian Star, a Cruise ship
Cruise ship
docked at the New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port

Karnataka
Karnataka
has 11 ports, including the New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port, a major port and ten minor ports, of which three were operational in 2012.[89] The New Mangalore
Mangalore
port was incorporated as the ninth major port in India on 4 May 1974.[90] This port handled 32.04 million tonnes of traffic in the fiscal year 2006–07 with 17.92 million tonnes of imports and 14.12 million tonnes of exports. The port also handled 1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006–07. Foreigners can enter Mangalore
Mangalore
through the New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port with the help of Electronic visa (e-visa).[91] Cruise ships from Europe, North America and UAE
UAE
arrive at New Mangalore
Mangalore
Port to visit the tourist places across Coastal Karnataka.[92][93] The total lengths of National Highways and state highways in Karnataka are 3,973 and 9,829 kilometres (2,469 and 6,107 mi), respectively. The KSRTC, the state public transport corporation, transports an average of 2.2 million passengers daily and employs about 25,000 people.[94] In the late nineties, KSRTC was split into four corporations, viz., The Bangalore
Bangalore
Metropolitan Transport Corporation, The North-East Karnataka
Karnataka
Road Transport Corporation and The North-West Karnataka
Karnataka
Road Transport Corporation with their headquarters in Bangalore, Gulbarga
Gulbarga
and Hubli
Hubli
respectively, and with the remnant of the KSRTC maintaining operations in the rest of the state from its headquarters in Bangalore.[94] Culture[edit] Main articles: Art and culture of Karnataka, Carnatic music, Cuisine of Karnataka, Kannada
Kannada
people, and Tuluvas

State flag for Karnataka
Karnataka
unilaterally adopted by the Government of Karnataka
Karnataka
in 2018

The Kannada flag
Kannada flag
is widely used in Karnataka, though it is not officially recognised

A yakshagana artist

The diverse linguistic and religious ethnicities that are native to Karnataka, combined with their long histories, have contributed immensely to the varied cultural heritage of the state. Apart from Kannadigas, Karnataka
Karnataka
is home to Tuluvas, Kodavas and Konkanis. Minor populations of Tibetan Buddhists and tribes like the Soligas, Yeravas, Todas and Siddhis also live in Karnataka. The traditional folk arts cover the entire gamut of music, dance, drama, storytelling by itinerant troupes, etc. Yakshagana
Yakshagana
of Malnad and coastal Karnataka, a classical dance drama, is one of the major theatrical forms of Karnataka. Contemporary theatre culture in Karnataka
Karnataka
remains vibrant with organisations like Ninasam, Ranga Shankara, Rangayana
Rangayana
and Prabhat Kalavidaru continuing to build on the foundations laid by Gubbi Veeranna, T. P. Kailasam, B. V. Karanth, K V Subbanna, Prasanna and others.[95] Veeragase, Kamsale, Kolata and Dollu Kunitha
Dollu Kunitha
are popular dance forms. The Mysore
Mysore
style of Bharatanatya, nurtured and popularised by the likes of the legendary Jatti Tayamma, continues to hold sway in Karnataka, and Bangalore
Bangalore
also enjoys an eminent place as one of the foremost centres of Bharatanatya.[96] Karnataka
Karnataka
also has a special place in the world of Indian classical music, with both Karnataka[97] (Carnatic) and Hindustani styles finding place in the state, and Karnataka
Karnataka
has produced a number of stalwarts in both styles. The Haridasa
Haridasa
movement of the sixteenth century contributed significantly to the development of Karnataka (Carnatic) music as a performing art form. Purandara Dasa, one of the most revered Haridasas, is known as the Karnataka
Karnataka
Sangeeta Pitamaha ('Father of Karnataka
Karnataka
a.k.a. Carnatic music').[98] Celebrated Hindustani musicians like Gangubai Hangal, Mallikarjun Mansur, Bhimsen Joshi, Basavaraja Rajaguru, Sawai Gandharva
Sawai Gandharva
and several others hail from Karnataka, and some of them have been recipients of the Kalidas Samman, Padma Bhushan
Padma Bhushan
and Padma Vibhushan
Padma Vibhushan
awards. Noted Carnatic musicians include Violin T. Chowdiah, Veena Sheshanna, Mysore Vasudevachar, Doreswamy Iyengar and Thitte Krishna Iyengar. Gamaka is another classical music genre based on Carnatic music
Carnatic music
that is practised in Karnataka. Kannada
Kannada
Bhavageete is a genre of popular music that draws inspiration from the expressionist poetry of modern poets. The Mysore
Mysore
school of painting has produced painters like Sundarayya, Tanjavur Kondayya, B. Venkatappa and Keshavayya.[99] Chitrakala Parishat
Chitrakala Parishat
is an organisation in Karnataka
Karnataka
dedicated to promoting painting, mainly in the Mysore
Mysore
painting style. Saree
Saree
is the traditional dress of women in Karnataka. Women in Kodagu have a distinct style of wearing the saree, different from the rest of Karnataka. Dhoti, known as Panche in Karnataka, is the traditional attire of men. Shirt, Trousers
Trousers
and Salwar kameez
Salwar kameez
are widely worn in Urban areas. Mysore
Mysore
Peta is the traditional headgear of southern Karnataka, while the pagadi or pataga (similar to the Rajasthani turban) is preferred in the northern areas of the state. Rice
Rice
and Ragi form the staple food in South Karnataka, whereas Jolada rotti, Sorghum
Sorghum
is staple to North Karnataka. Bisi bele bath, Jolada rotti, Ragi mudde, Uppittu, Benne Dose, Masala Dose and Maddur Vade are some of the popular food items in Karnataka. Among sweets, Mysore Pak, Karadantu
Karadantu
of Gokak
Gokak
and Amingad, Belgaavi Kunda and Dharwad
Dharwad
pedha are popular. Apart from this, coastal Karnataka
Karnataka
and Kodagu
Kodagu
have distinctive cuisines of their own. Udupi
Udupi
cuisine of coastal Karnataka is popular all over India. Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Karnataka

Religion in Karnataka
Religion in Karnataka
(2011)[100]    Hinduism
Hinduism
(84.00%)    Islam
Islam
(12.92%)    Christianity
Christianity
(1.87%)    Jainism
Jainism
(0.72%)    Buddhism
Buddhism
(0.16%)    Sikhism
Sikhism
(0.05%)   Other (0.02%)   Not religious (0.27%)

Vishnu, Badami
Badami
cave temple no.3

Gomateswara (982–983) at Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
is an important centre of Jain
Jain
pilgrimage.

Mandyada Shri Shiradi Sai Baba Mandir in Mandya

Adi Shankaracharya
Adi Shankaracharya
(788–820) chose Sringeri
Sringeri
in Karnataka
Karnataka
to establish the first of his four mathas (monastery). Madhvacharya (1238–1317) was the chief proponent of Tattvavada (Philosophy of Reality), popularly known as Dvaita
Dvaita
or Dualistic school of Hindu philosophy — one of the three most influential Vedanta philosophies. Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
was one of the important philosophers during the Bhakti movement. He was a pioneer in many ways, going against standard conventions and norms. According to tradition, Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
is believed to be the third incarnation of Vayu (Mukhyaprana), after Hanuman
Hanuman
and Bhima. The Haridasa
Haridasa
devotional movement is considered as one of the turning points in the cultural history of India. Over a span of nearly six centuries, several saints and mystics helped shape the culture, philosophy and art of South India
India
and Karnataka
Karnataka
in particular by exerting considerable spiritual influence over the masses and kingdoms that ruled South India. This movement was ushered in by the Haridasas (literally "servants of Lord Hari") and took shape in the 13th century – 14th century CE, period, prior to and during the early rule of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire. The main objective of this movement was to propagate the Dvaita philosophy of Madhvacharya
Madhvacharya
(Madhva Siddhanta) to the masses through a literary medium known as Dasa Sahitya literature of the servants of the Lord. Purandaradasa is widely recognised as the "Pithamaha" of Carnatic Music
Carnatic Music
for his immense contribution. Ramanujacharya, the leading expounder of Vishishtadvaita, spent many years in Melkote. He came to Karnataka
Karnataka
in 1098 AD and lived here until 1122 AD. He first lived in Tondanur and then moved to Melkote
Melkote
where the Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple and a well-organised matha were built. He was patronised by the Hoysala
Hoysala
king, Vishnuvardhana.[101] In the twelfth century, Lingayatism
Lingayatism
emerged in northern Karnataka
Karnataka
as a protest against the rigidity of the prevailing social and caste system. Leading figures of this movement were Basava, Akka Mahadevi and Allama Prabhu, who established the Anubhava Mantapa which was the centre of all religious and philosophical thoughts and discussions pertaining to Ligayats. These three social reformers did so by the literary means of " Vachana
Vachana
Sahitya" which is very famous for its simple, straight forward and easily understandable Kannada
Kannada
language. Lingayatism
Lingayatism
preached women equality by letting women wear Ishtalinga i.e. Symbol of god around their neck. Basava
Basava
shunned the sharp hierarchical divisions that existed and sought to remove all distinctions between the hierarchically superior master class and the subordinate, servile class. He also supported inter-caste marriages and Kaayaka Tatva of Basavanna. This was the basis of the Lingayat faith which today counts millions among its followers.[102] The Jain
Jain
philosophy and literature have contributed immensely to the religious and cultural landscape of Karnataka. Islam, which had an early presence on the west coast of India
India
as early as the tenth century, gained a foothold in Karnataka
Karnataka
with the rise of the Bahamani and Bijapur
Bijapur
sultanates that ruled parts of Karnataka.[103] Christianity
Christianity
reached Karnataka
Karnataka
in the sixteenth century with the arrival of the Portuguese and St. Francis Xavier
St. Francis Xavier
in 1545.[104] Buddhism
Buddhism
was popular in Karnataka
Karnataka
during the first millennium in places such as Gulbarga
Gulbarga
and Banavasi. A chance discovery of edicts and several Mauryan relics at Sannati
Sannati
in Gulbarga district
Gulbarga district
in 1986 has proven that the Krishna River
Krishna River
basin was once home to both Mahayana
Mahayana
and Hinayana
Hinayana
Buddhism. There are Tibetan refugee camps in Karnataka. Mysore
Mysore
Dasara is celebrated as the Nada habba (state festival) and this is marked by major festivities at Mysore.[105] Ugadi
Ugadi
( Kannada
Kannada
New Year), Makara Sankranti
Makara Sankranti
(the harvest festival), Ganesh Chaturthi, Nagapanchami, Basava
Basava
Jayanthi, Deepavali, and Ramzan are the other major festivals of Karnataka. Language[edit] Main articles: Kannada
Kannada
language, Kannada
Kannada
literature, Tulu language, Konkani language, Urdu
Urdu
language, Kodava language, and Beary bashe

Halmidi inscription
Halmidi inscription
(450 CE) is the earliest attested inscription in the Kannada
Kannada
language.

The Kannada language
Kannada language
serves as the official language of the state of Karnataka, as the native language of approximately 65% of its population and as one of the classical languages of India.[106][107] Kannada
Kannada
played a crucial role in the creation of Karnataka: linguistic demographics played a major role in defining the new state in 1956. Tulu, Konkani and Kodava are other minor native languages that share a long history in the state. Urdu
Urdu
is spoken widely by the Muslim population. Less widely spoken languages include Beary bashe and certain languages such as Sankethi. Some of the regional languages in Karnataka
Karnataka
are Tulu, Kodava, Konkani and Beary.[108][109][110] Kannada
Kannada
features a rich and ancient body of literature including religious and secular genre, covering topics as diverse as Jainism (such as Puranas), Veerashaivism (such as Vachanas), Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
(such as Haridasa
Haridasa
Sahitya) and modern literature. Evidence from edicts during the time of Ashoka
Ashoka
(reigned 274–232 BCE) suggest that Buddhist
Buddhist
literature influenced the Kannada script
Kannada script
and its literature. The Halmidi
Halmidi
inscription, the earliest attested full-length inscription in the Kannada language
Kannada language
and script, dates from 450 CE, while the earliest available literary work, the Kavirajamarga, has been dated to 850 CE. References made in the Kavirajamarga, however, prove that Kannada literature
Kannada literature
flourished in the native composition meters such as Chattana, Beddande and Melvadu during earlier centuries. The classic refers to several earlier greats (purvacharyar) of Kannada
Kannada
poetry and prose.[111] Kuvempu, the renowned Kannada
Kannada
poet and writer who wrote Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate, the state anthem of Karnataka[112] was the first recipient of the " Karnataka
Karnataka
Ratna" award, the highest civilian award bestowed by the Government of Karnataka. Contemporary Kannada literature has received considerable acknowledgement in the arena of Indian literature, with eight Kannada
Kannada
writers winning India's highest literary honour, the Jnanpith award. Tulu is spoken mainly in the coastal districts of Udupi
Udupi
and Dakshina Kannada. Tulu Mahabharato, written by Arunabja in the Tigalari script, is the oldest surviving Tulu text.[113] Tigalari script was used by Brahmins to write Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language. The use of the Kannada script
Kannada script
for writing Tulu and non-availability of print in Tigalari script contributed to the marginalisation of Tigalari script. Konkani is mostly spoken in the Uttara Kannada
Uttara Kannada
and Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
districts and in parts of Udupi, Konkani use the Kannada script
Kannada script
for writing.[114] The Kodavas who mainly reside in the Kodagu
Kodagu
district, speak Kodava Takk. Two regional variations of the language exist, the northern Mendale Takka and the southern Kiggaati Takka.[115] Kodava Takk
Kodava Takk
use the Kannada script
Kannada script
for writing. English is the medium of education in many schools and widely used for business communication in most private companies. All of the state's languages are patronised and promoted by governmental and quasi-governmental bodies. The Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat and the Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Akademi are responsible for the promotion of Kannada
Kannada
while the Karnataka
Karnataka
Konkani Sahitya Akademi,[116] the Tulu Sahitya Akademi and the Kodava Sahitya Akademi promote their respective languages. Education[edit] Main article: Education in Karnataka See also: List of institutions of higher education in Karnataka

Indian Institute of Science
Indian Institute of Science
is one of the premier institutes of India.

As per the 2011 census, Karnataka
Karnataka
had a literacy rate of 75.60%, with 82.85% of males and 68.13% of females in the state being literate.[5] In 2001, the literacy rate of the state were 67.04%, with 76.29% of males and 57.45% of females being literate.[117] The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India such as the Indian Institute of Science, the Indian Institute of Management, the Indian Institute of Technology
Indian Institute of Technology
Dharwad
Dharwad
the National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, the National Institute of Technology Karnataka
Karnataka
and the National Law School of India University. In March 2006, Karnataka
Karnataka
had 54,529 primary schools with 252,875 teachers and 8.495 million students,[118] and 9498 secondary schools with 92,287 teachers and 1.384 million students.[118] There are three kinds of schools in the state, viz., government-run, private aided (financial aid is provided by the government) and private unaided (no financial aid is provided). The primary languages of instruction in most schools are Kannada
Kannada
and English. The syllabus taught in the schools is either of the CBSE, the ICSE or the state syllabus (SSLC) defined by the Department of Public Instruction of the Government of Karnataka. However, some schools follow the NIOS syllabus. The state has two sainik schools — in Kodagu
Kodagu
Sainik School in Kodagu
Kodagu
and in Bijapur
Bijapur
Sainik School in Bijapur. To maximise attendance in schools, the Karnataka
Karnataka
Government has launched a midday meal scheme in government and aided schools in which free lunch is provided to the students.[119] Statewide board examinations are conducted at the end of secondary education. Students who qualify are allowed to pursue a two-year pre-university course, after which they become eligible to pursue under-graduate degrees.

Literacy rates of Karnataka
Karnataka
districts[120]

There are 481 degree colleges affiliated with one of the universities in the state, viz. Bangalore
Bangalore
University, Gulbarga
Gulbarga
University, Karnatak University, Kuvempu
Kuvempu
University, Mangalore
Mangalore
University and Mysore University.[121] In 1998, the engineering colleges in the state were brought under the newly formed Visvesvaraya Technological University headquartered at Belgaum, whereas the medical colleges are run under the jurisdiction of the Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences. Some of these baccalaureate colleges are accredited with the status of a deemed university. There are 186 engineering, 39 medical and 41 dental colleges in the state.[122] Udupi, Sringeri, Gokarna and Melkote
Melkote
are well-known places of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Vedic learning. In 2015 the Central Government decided to establish the first Indian Institute of Technology in Karnataka
Karnataka
at Dharwad.[123] Tulu and Konkani[124] languages are taught as an optional subject in the twin districts of South Canara
South Canara
and Udupi.[125] High literacy districts[edit]

Rank District Literacy

1 Dakshina Kannada
Dakshina Kannada
(South Canara) 88.57%

2 Bengaluru 87.67%

3 Udupi 86.24%

4 Uttara Kannada
Uttara Kannada
(North Canara) 84.06%

5 Kodagu 82.61%

High literacy taluks[edit]

Rank Taluk Literacy

1 Mangaluru
Mangaluru
(Dakshina Kannada) 92%

2 Karwar
Karwar
(Uttara Kannada) 90%

3 Udupi
Udupi
(Udupi) 89%

4 Madikeri
Madikeri
(Kodagu) 88%

5 Sirsi (Uttara Kannada) 88%

Media[edit] Main article: Media in Karnataka The era of Kannada
Kannada
newspapers started in the year 1843 when Hermann Mögling, a missionary from Basel Mission, published the first Kannada newspaper called Mangalooru Samachara in Mangalore. The first Kannada periodical, Mysuru
Mysuru
Vrittanta Bodhini was started by Bhashyam Bhashyacharya in Mysore. Shortly after Indian independence in 1948, K. N. Guruswamy founded The Printers (Mysore) Private Limited and began publishing two newspapers, Deccan Herald and Prajavani. Presently the Times of India
India
and Vijaya Karnataka are the largest-selling English and Kannada
Kannada
newspapers respectively.[126][127] A vast number of weekly, biweekly and monthly magazines are under publication in both Kannada
Kannada
and English. Udayavani, Kannadaprabha, Samyukta Karnataka, VarthaBharathi, Sanjevani, Eesanje, Hosa digantha, Karavali
Karavali
Ale are also some popular dailies published from Karnataka. Doordarshan
Doordarshan
is the broadcaster of the Government of India
India
and its channel DD Chandana is dedicated to Kannada. Prominent Kannada channels include Janasri News, Colors Kannada, Zee Kannada, Udaya TV, TV 9, Asianet Suvarna
Asianet Suvarna
and Kasturi TV. Karnataka
Karnataka
occupies a special place in the history of Indian radio. In 1935, Aakashvani, the first private radio station in India, was started by Prof. M.V. Gopalaswamy in Mysore.[128] The popular radio station was taken over by the local municipality and later by All India
India
Radio (AIR) and moved to Bangalore
Bangalore
in 1955. Later in 1957, AIR adopted the original name of the radio station, Aakashavani as its own. Some of the popular programs aired by AIR Bangalore
Bangalore
included Nisarga Sampada and Sasya Sanjeevini which were programs that taught science through songs, plays and stories. These two programs became so popular that they were translated and broadcast in 18 different languages and the entire series was recorded on cassettes by the Government of Karnataka
Government of Karnataka
and distributed to thousands of schools across the state.[128] Karnataka
Karnataka
has witnessed a growth in FM radio channels, mainly in the cities of Bangalore, Mangalore
Mangalore
and Mysore, which has become hugely popular.[129][130] Sports[edit] Main article: Sports in Karnataka

Anil Kumble, former captain of the Indian Test team and spin legend, is the highest wicket-taker for India
India
in international cricket.

Karnataka's smallest district, Kodagu, is a major contributor to Indian field hockey, producing numerous players who have represented India
India
at the international level.[131] The annual Kodava Hockey Festival is the largest hockey tournament in the world.[132] Bangalore has hosted a WTA tennis event and, in 1997, it hosted the fourth National Games of India.[133] The Sports Authority of India, the premier sports institute in the country, and the Nike Tennis
Tennis
Academy are also situated in Bangalore. Karnataka
Karnataka
has been referred to as the cradle of Indian swimming because of its high standards in comparison to other states. One of the most popular sports in Karnataka
Karnataka
is cricket. The state cricket team has won the Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
seven times, second only to Mumbai in terms of success.[134] Chinnaswamy Stadium
Chinnaswamy Stadium
in Bangalore regularly hosts international matches and is also the home of the National Cricket
Cricket
Academy, which was opened in 2000 to nurture potential international players. Many cricketers have represented India
India
and in one international match held in the 1990s; players from Karnataka
Karnataka
composed the majority of the national team.[135][136] The Royal Challengers Bangalore, an Indian Premier League
Indian Premier League
franchise, the Bengaluru
Bengaluru
Football Club, an Indian Football League : I-League franchise, the Bengaluru
Bengaluru
Yodhas, a Pro Wrestling League franchise, the Bengaluru
Bengaluru
Top Guns, a Premier Badminton League
Premier Badminton League
franchise and the Bengaluru
Bengaluru
Bulls, a Pro Kabaddi League
Pro Kabaddi League
franchise are based in Bangalore. The Karnataka Premier League is an inter-regional Twenty20 cricket tournament played in the state. Notable sportsmen from Karnataka
Karnataka
include B.S. Chandrasekhar, Anil Kumble, Javagal Srinath, Rahul Dravid, Venkatesh Prasad, Robin Uthappa, Vinay Kumar, Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, Stuart Binny, Ashwini Ponnappa, Mahesh Bhupathi, Rohan Bopanna, Prakash Padukone
Prakash Padukone
who won the All England Badminton Championships
All England Badminton Championships
in 1980 and Pankaj Advani who has won three world titles in cue sports by the age of 20 including the amateur World Snooker Championship
World Snooker Championship
in 2003 and the World Billiards Championship in 2005.[137][138] Bijapur
Bijapur
district has produced some of the best known road cyclists in the national circuit. Premalata Sureban was part of the Indian contingent at the Perlis Open '99 in Malaysia. In recognition of the talent of cyclists in the district, the state government laid down a cycling track at the B.R. Ambedkar Stadium at a cost of ₹ 40 lakh.[139] Sports like kho kho, kabaddi, chinni daandu and goli (marbles) are played mostly in Karnataka's rural areas. Flora and fauna[edit] Main article: Wildlife of Karnataka

The state bird, Indian roller

Bengal tigers at Bannerghatta National Park
Bannerghatta National Park
near Bangalore

Karnataka
Karnataka
has a rich diversity of flora and fauna. It has a recorded forest area of 38,720 km2 (14,950 sq mi) which constitutes 20.19% of the total geographical area of the state. These forests support 25% of the elephant and 10% of the tiger population of India. Many regions of Karnataka
Karnataka
are as yet unexplored, so new species of flora and fauna are found periodically. The Western Ghats, a biodiversity hotspot, includes the western region of Karnataka. Two sub-clusters in the Western Ghats, viz. Talacauvery and Kudremukh, both in Karnataka, are on the tentative list of World Heritage Sites of UNESCO.[140] The Bandipur and Nagarahole National Parks, which fall outside these subclusters, were included in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve in 1986, a UNESCO
UNESCO
designation.[141] The Indian roller
Indian roller
and the Indian elephant
Indian elephant
are recognised as the state bird and animal while sandalwood and the lotus are recognised as the state tree and flower respectively. Karnataka
Karnataka
has five national parks: Anshi, Bandipur, Bannerghatta, Kudremukh
Kudremukh
and Nagarhole.[142] It also has 27 wildlife sanctuaries of which seven are bird sanctuaries.[143] Wild animals that are found in Karnataka
Karnataka
include the elephant, the tiger, the leopard, the gaur, the sambar deer, the chital or spotted deer, the muntjac, the bonnet macaque, the slender loris, the common palm civet, the small Indian civet, the sloth bear, the dhole, the striped hyena and the golden jackal. Some of the birds found here are the great hornbill, the Malabar pied hornbill, the Ceylon frogmouth, herons, ducks, kites, eagles, falcons, quails, partridges, lapwings, sandpipers, pigeons, doves, parakeets, cuckoos, owls, nightjars, swifts, kingfishers, bee-eaters and munias.[142] Some species of trees found in Karnataka
Karnataka
are Callophyllum tomentosa, Callophyllum wightianum, Garcina cambogia, Garcina morealla, Alstonia
Alstonia
scholaris, Flacourtia montana, Artocarpus
Artocarpus
hirsutus, Artocarpus
Artocarpus
lacoocha, Cinnamomum
Cinnamomum
zeylanicum, Grewia
Grewia
tilaefolia, Santalum
Santalum
album, Shorea talura, Emblica
Emblica
officinalis, Vitex
Vitex
altissima and Wrightia
Wrightia
tinctoria. Wildlife in Karnataka
Karnataka
is threatened by poaching, habitat destruction, human-wildlife conflict and pollution.[142] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Karnataka See also: Architecture of Karnataka

Keshava Temple, Somanathapura

By virtue of its varied geography and long history, Karnataka
Karnataka
hosts numerous spots of interest for tourists. There is an array of ancient sculptured temples, modern cities, scenic hill ranges, forests and beaches. Karnataka
Karnataka
has been ranked as the fourth most popular destination for tourism among the states of India.[144] Karnataka
Karnataka
has the second highest number of nationally protected monuments in India, second only to Uttar Pradesh,[145] in addition to 752 monuments protected by the State Directorate of Archaeology and Museums. Another 25,000 monuments are yet to receive protection.[146][147]

Gol Gumbaz
Gol Gumbaz
at Bijapur, has the second largest pre-modern dome in the world after the Byzantine Hagia Sophia.

The districts of the Western Ghats
Western Ghats
and the southern districts of the state have popular eco-tourism locations including Kudremukh, Madikeri and Agumbe. Karnataka
Karnataka
has 25 wildlife sanctuaries and five national parks. Popular among them are Bandipur National Park, Bannerghatta National Park and Nagarhole National Park. The ruins of the Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire at Hampi
Hampi
and the monuments of Pattadakal
Pattadakal
are on the list of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites. The cave temples at Badami and the rock-cut temples at Aihole
Aihole
representing the Badami
Badami
Chalukyan style of architecture are also popular tourist destinations. The Hoysala
Hoysala
temples at Belur
Belur
and Halebidu, which were built with Chloritic schist (soapstone) are proposed UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage sites.[148] The Gol Gumbaz
Gol Gumbaz
and Ibrahim Rauza are famous examples of the Deccan Sultanate style of architecture. The monolith of Gomateshwara Bahubali at Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
is the tallest sculpted monolith in the world, attracting tens of thousands of pilgrims during the Mahamastakabhisheka
Mahamastakabhisheka
festival.[149]

Mysore Palace
Mysore Palace
at night, Mysore

The waterfalls of Karnataka
Karnataka
and Kudremukh
Kudremukh
are considered by some to be among the "1001 Natural Wonders of the World".[150] Jog Falls is India's tallest single-tiered waterfall with Gokak
Gokak
Falls, Unchalli Falls, Magod Falls, Abbey Falls
Abbey Falls
and Shivanasamudra Falls
Shivanasamudra Falls
among other popular waterfalls.

Mysore
Mysore
painting depicting Goddess Saraswati

Several popular beaches dot the coastline, including Murudeshwara, Gokarna, Malpe
Malpe
and Karwar. In addition, Karnataka
Karnataka
is home to several places of religious importance. Several Hindu
Hindu
temples including the famous Udupi
Udupi
Sri Krishna Matha, the Marikamba Temple at Sirsi, the Sri Manjunatha Temple at Dharmasthala, Kukke Subramanya Temple
Kukke Subramanya Temple
and Sharadamba Temple at Shringeri
Shringeri
attract pilgrims from all over India. Most of the holy sites of Lingayatism, like Kudalasangama
Kudalasangama
and Basavana Bagewadi, are found in northern parts of the state. Shravanabelagola, Mudabidri
Mudabidri
and Karkala
Karkala
are famous for Jain
Jain
history and monuments. Jainism
Jainism
had a stronghold in Karnataka
Karnataka
in the early medieval period with Shravanabelagola
Shravanabelagola
as its most important centre. The Shettihalli Rosary Church near Shettihalli, an example of French colonial Gothic architecture, is a rare example of a Christian
Christian
ruin, is a popular tourist site. Recently Karnataka
Karnataka
has emerged as a hot spot for health care tourism. Karnataka
Karnataka
has the highest number of approved health systems and alternative therapies in India. Along with some ISO certified government-owned hospitals, private institutions which provide international-quality services have caused the health care industry to grow by 30% during 2004–05. Hospitals in Karnataka
Karnataka
treat around 8,000 health tourists every year.[151]

See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal South Asia portal India
India
portal Karnataka
Karnataka
portal Bangalore
Bangalore
portal

Lingayatism Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Outline of India Outline of Karnataka Index of India-related articles List of Chief Ministers of Karnataka List of Governors of Karnataka List of districts of Karnataka List of people from Karnataka List of butterflies of Karnataka List of airports in Karnataka

Notes[edit]

^ "Protected Areas of India: State-wise break up of Wildlife Sanctuaries" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016.  ^ "Figures at a glance" (PDF). 2011 Provisional census data. Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. Archived (PDF) from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2011.  ^ " Karnataka
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Budget 2018-19" (PDF). Karnataka
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Finance Dept. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2018. Retrieved 15 March 2018.  ^ 50th Report of the Commission for Linguistic Minorities in India (PDF). nclm.nic.in. p. 123. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 July 2016.  ^ a b "Population and Literacy Rate of cities in Karnataka". Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.  ^ "Inequality- Adjusted Human Development Index
Human Development Index
for India's States". Archived from the original on 10 May 2017.  ^ "Symbols of Karnataka". Government of Karnataka. Archived from the original on 10 October 2013. Retrieved 15 October 2013.  ^ See Lord Macaulay's life of Clive and James Talboys Wheeler: Early History of British India, London (1878) p.98. The principal meaning is the western half of this area, but the rulers there controlled the Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
as well. ^ Paddayya, K.; et al. (10 September 2002). "Recent findings on the Acheulian of the Hunsgi and Baichbal valleys, Karnataka, with special reference to the Isampur excavation and its dating". Current Science. 83 (5): 641–648.  ^ S. Ranganathan. "THE Golden Heritage of Karnataka". Department of Metallurgy. Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Archived from the original on 21 January 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007.  ^ "Trade". The British Museum. Archived from the original on 26 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007.  ^ From the Talagunda
Talagunda
inscription (Dr. B. L. Rice
Rice
in Kamath (2001), p. 30.) ^ Moares (1931), p. 10. ^ Adiga and Sheik Ali in Adiga (2006), p. 89. ^ Ramesh (1984), pp. 1–2. ^ From the Halmidi inscription
Halmidi inscription
(Ramesh 1984, pp. 10–11.) ^ Kamath (2001), p. 10. ^ The Chalukyas hailed from present-day Karnataka
Karnataka
(Keay (2000), p. 168.) ^ The Chalukyas were native Kannadigas
Kannadigas
(N. Laxminarayana Rao and Dr. S. C. Nandinath in Kamath (2001), p. 57.) ^ Altekar (1934), pp. 21–24. ^ Masica (1991), pp. 45–46. ^ Balagamve in Mysore
Mysore
territory was an early power centre (Cousens (1926), pp. 10, 105.) ^ Tailapa II, the founder king was the governor of Tardavadi in modern Bijapur
Bijapur
district, under the Rashtrakutas (Kamath (2001), p. 101.). ^ Kamath (2001), p. 115. ^ Foekema (2003), p. 9. ^ a b Sastri (1955), p.164 ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 132–134. ^ Sastri (1955), pp. 358–359, 361. ^ Foekema (1996), p. 14. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 122–124. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 157–160. ^ Kulke and Rothermund (2004), p. 188. ^ Kamath (2001), pp. 190–191. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 201. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 202. ^ Kamath (2001), p. 207. ^ Jain, Dhanesh; Cardona, George (2003). Jain, Dhanesh; Cardona, George, eds. The Indo-Aryan languages. Routledge language family series. 2. Routledge. p. 757. ISBN 0-7007-1130-9.  ^ Pinto, Pius Fidelis (1999). History of Christians in coastal Karnataka, 1500–1763 A.D. Mangalore: Samanvaya Prakashan. p. 124.  ^ A History of India
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References[edit]

John Keay, India: A History, 2000, Grove publications, New York, ISBN 0-8021-3797-0 Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath, Concise history of Karnataka, 2001, MCC, Bangalore
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(Reprinted 2002) ISBN 0-19-560686-8. R. Narasimhacharya, History of Kannada
Kannada
Literature, 1988, Asian Educational Services, New Delhi, Madras, 1988, ISBN 81-206-0303-6. K.V. Ramesh, Chalukyas of Vātāpi, 1984, Agam Kala Prakashan, Delhi. OCLC 13869730. OL 3007052M. LCCN 84-900575. . OCLC 13869730. Malini Adiga (2006), The Making of Southern Karnataka: Society, Polity and Culture in the early medieval period, AD 400–1030, Orient Longman, Chennai, ISBN 81-250-2912-5 Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1934) [1934]. The Rashtrakutas And Their Times; being a political, administrative, religious, social, economic and literary history of the Deccan during C. 750 A.D. to C. 1000 A.D. Poona: Oriental Book Agency. OCLC 3793499.  Masica, Colin P. (1991) [1991]. The Indo-Aryan Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29944-6.  Cousens, Henry (1996) [1926]. The Chalukyan Architecture of Kanarese District. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India. OCLC 37526233.  Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, fourth edition, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-32919-1 Foekema, Gerard [2003] (2003). Architecture decorated with architecture: Later medieval temples of Karnataka, 1000–1300 AD. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 81-215-1089-9.

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Karnataka.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Karnataka.

Kannada
Kannada
edition of, the free encyclopedia

Government

Official Site of Karnataka

General information

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Karnataka
Encyclopædia Britannica entry Karnataka
Karnataka
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Geographic data related to Karnataka
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v t e

Hindu
Hindu
Temples in Karnataka

Amrutesvara Temple, Amruthapura Ananthasayana temple Anekere Annapoorneshwari Temple Annigeri Antara Gange Avani, Kolar Badami
Badami
Cave Temples Balligavi Banashankari Amma Temple Banashankari Temple, Amargol Banavasi Bankapura Begur, Bangalore Brahmeshvara Temple, Kikkeri Bucesvara Temple, Koravangala Bhoganidishvara, Chikkaballapur district Bhutanatha group Chamundeshwari Temple Chamundeswari Temple Chandramouleshwara Temple Chaudayyadanapura Cheluvanarayana Swamy Temple Chennakesava Temple Chennakeshava Temple, Aralaguppe Chennakesava Temple, Somanathapura Chitrapur Math Chowdeshwari Temple Devarayana Durga Dharmaraya Swamy Temple Dharmasthala
Dharmasthala
Temple Dodda Ganeshana Gudi Doddabasappa Temple
Doddabasappa Temple
Dambal Durga temple, Aihole Gadag-Betigeri Kalakaleshwara Temple Gajendragad Galaganatha Gaurishvara Temple, Yelandur Gavi Gangadhareshwara Temple Godachi Gokarnanatheshwara Temple Halasi Halasuru Someshwara Temple Hangal Harihareshwara Temple Panchalingewara Temple Hooli Hoysaleswara Temple Hulimavu cave Temple Ganesha Temple, Idagunji Ikkeri Ishvara Temple, Arasikere Itagi Bhimambika Kadri Manjunath Temple Kaitabheshvara Temple, Kubatur Kalasa Kalghatgi Kalikamba Temple Kalleshvara Temple, Ambali Kalleshvara Temple, Aralaguppe Kalleshvara Temple, Bagali] Kalleshwara Temple, Hire Hadagali Kamala Narayana Temple
Kamala Narayana Temple
Belagavi Kanakagiri Karighatta temple Karikanamma Kasivisvesvara Temple, Lakkundi Kedareswara temple, Halebidu Kedareshvara Temple, Balligavi Keladi Keshava Temple Kodlamane Shree Vishnumurthy Temple Kodandarama Temple Koodli Kote Venkataramana Temple Kotilingeshwara Krauncha Giri Kudalasangama Kudroli Bhagavathi Kukke Subramanya Temple Kuknur Kumara Swamy Devasthana, Bangalore Kundgol Kurudumale Kuruvathi Basaveshwara temple Lad Khan Temple Lakkundi Lakshmeshwar Lakshmi Devi Temple, Doddagaddavalli Lakshmi Narasimha
Narasimha
Temple, Bhadravathi Lakshminarasimha Temple, Haranhalli Lakshminarasimha Temple, Javagal Lakshmi Narasimha
Narasimha
Temple, Nuggehalli Lakshminarayana Temple, Hosaholalu Mahabaleshwar Temple, Gokarna Maha Ganapathi Mahammaya Temple Mahadeva Temple, Itagi Mahakuta
Mahakuta
group of temples Mallikarjuna Temple, Basaralu Mallikarjuna Temple, Kuruvatti Mandarthi Mangaladevi Temple Maranakatte Mariyamma Temple Melukote Mookambika
Mookambika
Temple Kollooru Mudukuthore Mundkur Sri Durgaparameshwari Temple Murudeshwara Mylara Lingeshwara Temple at Mylara Nandi Temple Nagamangala Nageshvara-Chennakeshava Temple complex, Mosale Navalinga Temple Narasimha
Narasimha
Jhira Cave Temple, Bidar Nellitheertha Cave Temple Padutirupathi Panchalingeshwara temple, Govindanahalli Pattadakal Polali Rajarajeshwari Temple Ragigudda Anjaneya Temple Rameshvara Temple, Narasamangala Ranganathaswamy Temple, Bangalore Sadasiva Temple Saundatti Sharana Basaveshwara Temple Shree Vishnumurthy Temple Shri Vinayaka Shankaranarayana Durgamba Temple Shringeri Shringeri
Shringeri
Sharadamba Temple Siddhesvara Temple
Siddhesvara Temple
Haveri Srikanteshwara Temple, Nanjangud Sirsangi Kalika Temple Kolar Someshwara Temple Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Shivanasamudra Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangapatna Sudi Talagunda Talakad Tamboor Temples in Tulunadu Temples of North Karnataka Thirunarayanapuram Timmalapura Trikuteshwara
Trikuteshwara
Temple Gadag Tripurantaka Temple Turuvekere Udupi
Udupi
Sri Krishna Matha Veera Narayana Temple, Belavadi Vijayanarayana Temple, Gundlupet Virupaksha Temple Western Chalukya temples Yediyur Siddhalingeshwara Swamy Temple Yelluru Shri Vishweshwara Temple

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Indian state of Karnataka

Overviews

Architecture Cinema Climate Cuisine Demography Economy Education Folk Arts Geography History Media People Sports Transportation Wildlife

History

Aihole Alupa dynasty Amoghavarsha Badami Banavasi Balligavi Belur Chalukya dynasty Chitradurga
Chitradurga
Nayakas Deva Raya II Durvinita Halebidu Haleri Kingdom Halmidi Hampi Hoysala
Hoysala
Empire Kadamba dynasty Kalyani Chalukyas Keladi
Keladi
Nayakas Shivappa Nayaka Kittur
Kittur
Chennamma Kingdom of Mysore Mayurasharma Pattadakal Pulakeshin II Rashtrakuta dynasty Sringeri Srirangapatna Tipu Sultan Unification of Karnataka Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
Empire Vijayanagara Vishnuvardhana Veera Ballala II Vikramaditya II Vikramaditya VI Western Ganga dynasty

Geography

Cities and towns Districts Rivers Dams and Reservoirs Taluks Villages Highest point Bayalu Seeme Malenadu Karavali Western Ghats

Culture

Bharata Natyam Bhuta Kola Bidriware Channapatna toys Chitrakala Parishat Gaarudi Gombe Ilkal saree Kamsale Kannada Karnatik music Kasuti Khedda Mysore
Mysore
Dasara Togalu Gombeyaata Udupi
Udupi
cuisine Veeragase Yakshagana Mysore
Mysore
musicians

Literature

Kannada

Milestones Epics Medieval Rashtrakuta Western Ganga Western Chalukya Hoysala Vijayanagara Vachana Haridasa Mysore Play Modern

Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Parishat Kannada
Kannada
Sahitya Sammelana Karnataka

Noted poets

Asaga Gunavarma I Adikavi Pampa Sri Ponna Ranna Devar Dasimayya Basava Akka Mahadevi Allama Prabhu Siddharama Harihara Raghavanka Rudrabhatta Janna Kumara Vyasa Chamarasa Nijaguna Shivayogi Ratnakaravarni Purandara Dasa Kanaka Dasa Vijaya Dasa Gopala Dasa Jagannatha Dasa Lakshmisa Sarvajna Shishunala Sharif Krishnaraja Wadiyar III D. R. Bendre Gopalakrishna Adiga K. S. Narasimhaswamy M. Govinda Pai Kuvempu D. V. Gundappa G. S. Shivarudrappa

People and Society

Karnataka
Karnataka
ethnic groups List of people from Karnataka

Tourism

Beaches Dams Forts National Parks Hindu
Hindu
Temples Jain
Jain
Temples Waterfalls

Awards

Karnataka
Karnataka
Ratna Pampa Award Nrupatunga Award Basava
Basava
Puraskara Rajyotsava Prashasti Jakanachari Award Varnashilpi Venkatappa Award

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States and union territories of India

States

Arunachal Pradesh Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Odisha Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Telangana Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal

Union Territories

Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli National Capital Territory of Delhi Daman and Diu Lakshadweep Puducherry

Capitals in India Proposed states and territories Historical Regions British Provinces

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Archaeological sites and Monuments in Karnataka

Excavation

Sannati Kanaganahalli Brahmagiri Maski

Ancient

Kupgal Lakkundi Badami Aihole Pattadakal Mahakuta Banavasi Balligavi Talagunda Halebid Belur Hampi Anegundi Shravanabelagola Melkote Talakadu Kambadahalli

Forts

Gajendragad Saundatti Bellary Parasgad Fort Kittur Chitradurga Belgaum Bidar Gulbarga Basavakalyan Koppal Madhugiri Devanahalli Nagara Kavaledurga Kumta

Monuments

Mysore Kambadahalli Srirangapatna Lakkundi Annigeri Kanakagiri Dambal Kubetur Hosaholalu Lakshmeshwar Sudi Kudalasangama Badami Aihole Pattadakal Hangal Halasi Banavasi Halebid Belur Somanathapura Itagi Hooli Hampi Kanakagiri Anegundi Galaganatha Chaudayyadanapura Bidar Gulbarga Bijapur Haveri Kuruvatti Bagali Kolar Avani Nandi Begur Keladi Magadi Ikkeri Sringeri Gokarna Amruthapura Doddagaddavalli Arasikere Javagal Belavadi Harihar Korvangla Arasikere Haranhalli Nuggehalli Aralaguppe Yelandur Narasamangala Gundlupet Nandi village Turuvekere Kikkeri Mosale Nanjangud Udupi Murdeshwara Karkala Moodabidri Gokarna Venur Krauncha Giri Ambali Haveri Bankapura Hire Hadagali Timmalapura Hubli Kundgol Govindanahalli

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312994555 LCCN: n79125091 GND: 4110022-0 BNF: cb1194

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