Karl Barth (/bɑːrθ/; German: [baʀt]; (1886-05-10)May 10, 1886
– (1968-12-10)December 10, 1968) was a Swiss
Reformed theologian who
is often regarded as the greatest
Protestant theologian of the
twentieth century. His influence expanded well beyond the
academic realm to mainstream culture, leading him to be featured on
the cover of Time on April 20, 1962.
Beginning with his experience as a pastor, Barth rejected his training
in the predominant liberal theology typical of 19th-century European
Protestantism. He also rejected more conservative forms of
Christianity. Instead he embarked on a new theological path
initially called dialectical theology due to its stress on the
paradoxical nature of divine truth (e.g., God's relationship to
humanity embodies both grace and judgment). Many critics have
referred to Barth as the father of neo-orthodoxy – a term that
Barth emphatically rejected. A more charitable description of his
work might be "a theology of the Word". Barth's work had a
profound impact on twentieth century theology and figures such as
Dietrich Bonhoeffer – who supported the Confessing
Church – Thomas F. Torrance, Reinhold Niebuhr, Jacques Ellul,
Stanley Hauerwas, Hans Küng, Jürgen Moltmann, and novelists such as
John Updike and Miklós Szentkuthy.
Barth's unease with the dominant theology which characterized Europe
led him to become a leader in the
Confessing Church in Germany, which
Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. In particular,
Barth and other members of the movement vigorously attempted to
prevent the Nazis from taking over the existing church and
establishing a state church controlled by the regime. This culminated
in Barth's authorship of the Barmen Declaration, which fiercely
criticized Christians who supported the Nazis.
One of the most prolific and influential theologians of the twentieth
century, Barth emphasized the sovereignty of God, particularly
through his reinterpretation of the Calvinistic doctrine of election,
the sinfulness of humanity, and the "infinite qualitative distinction
between God and mankind". His most famous works are his The Epistle to
the Romans, which marked a clear break from his earlier thinking, and
his massive thirteen-volume work Church Dogmatics, one of the largest
works of systematic theology ever written.
1 Early life and education
2 The Epistle to the Romans
3 Barmen Declaration
4 Church Dogmatics
5 Later life and death
6.1 Trinitarian focus
6.4 Understanding of Mary
6.5 Barth, liberals, and fundamentalists
7 Influence on Christian ethics
8 Relationship with Charlotte von Kirschbaum
9 In literature
10 Center for Barth Studies
Church Dogmatics in English translation
14 External links
Early life and education
Karl Barth was born on May 10, 1886, in Basel, Switzerland, to Johann
Friedrich "Fritz" Barth and Anna Katharina (Sartorius) Barth. Fritz
Barth was a theology professor and pastor who would greatly influence
his son's life. In particular, Fritz Barth was fascinated by
philosophy, especially the implications of Friedrich Nietzsche's
theories on free will. Barth spent his childhood years in Bern. One of
the places at which he studied was Marburg University, where he was
taught for a year by the Jewish Kantian thinker, Hermann Cohen. From
1911 to 1921 he served as a
Reformed pastor in the village of Safenwil
in the canton of Aargau. In 1913 he married Nelly Hoffmann, a talented
violinist. They had a daughter and four sons, one of whom was the New
Markus Barth (October 6, 1915 – July 1,
1994). Later he was professor of theology in
Münster (1925–1930) and
Bonn (1930–1935) (Germany). While serving
Göttingen he met Charlotte von Kirschbaum, who became his
long-time secretary and assistant; she played a large role in the
writing of his epic, the Church Dogmatics. He had to leave Germany
in 1935 after he refused to swear allegiance to
Adolf Hitler and went
Switzerland and became a professor in
Barth was originally trained in German
Protestant Liberalism under
such teachers as Wilhelm Herrmann, but he reacted against this
theology at the time of the First World War. His reaction was fed by
several factors, including his commitment to the German and Swiss
Religious Socialist movement surrounding men such as Hermann Kutter,
the influence of the biblical realism movement surrounding men such as
Christoph Blumhardt and Søren Kierkegaard, and the effect of the
skeptical philosophy of Franz Overbeck.
Kierkegaard’s influence on Barth’s early theology is evident in
The Epistle to the Romans. The early Barth read at least three volumes
of Kierkegaard’s works: Practice in Christianity, The Moment, and an
Anthology from his journals and diaries. Almost all key terms from
Kierkegaard which had an important role in The Epistle to the Romans
can be found in Practice in Christianity. The concept of the indirect
communication, the paradox, and the moment of Practice in
Christianity, in particular, confirmed and sharpened Barth’s ideas
on contemporary Christianity and the Christian life.
The most important catalyst, however, was Barth's reaction to the
support that most of his liberal teachers voiced for German war aims.
The 1914 "
Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals to the
Civilized World" carried the signature of his former teacher Adolf
von Harnack. Barth believed that his teachers had been misled by a
theology which tied God too closely to the finest, deepest expressions
and experiences of cultured human beings, into claiming divine support
for a war which they believed was waged in support of that
culture – the initial experience of which appeared to increase
people's love of and commitment to that culture. Much of Barth's early
theology can be seen as a reaction to the theology of Friedrich
The Epistle to the Romans
Main article: The Epistle to the Romans (Barth)
Barth first began his commentary The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der
Römerbrief) in the summer of 1916 while he was still a pastor in
Safenwil, with the first edition appearing in December 1918 (but with
a publication date of 1919). On the strength of the first edition of
the commentary, Barth was invited to teach at the University of
Göttingen. Barth decided around October 1920 that he was dissatisfied
with the first edition and heavily revised it the following eleven
months, finishing the second edition around September 1921.
Particularly in the thoroughly re-written second edition of 1922,
Barth argued that the God who is revealed in the cross of Jesus
challenges and overthrows any attempt to ally God with human cultures,
achievements, or possessions. The book's popularity led to its
republication and reprinting in several languages.
In the decade following the First World War, Barth was linked with a
number of other theologians – actually very diverse in
outlook – who had reacted against their teachers' liberalism,
in a movement known as "Dialectical Theology" (Ger. Dialektische
Theologie). The members of the movement included Rudolf Bultmann,
Eduard Thurneysen, Eberhard Grisebach, Emil Brunner, and Friedrich
In 1934, as the
Protestant Church attempted to come to terms with the
Third Reich, Barth was largely responsible for the writing of the
Barmen declaration (Ger. Barmer Erklärung). This declaration rejected
the influence of
Nazism on German Christianity by arguing that the
Church's allegiance to the God of Jesus Christ should give it the
impetus and resources to resist the influence of other lords, such as
the German Führer, Adolf Hitler. Barth mailed this declaration to
Hitler personally. This was one of the founding documents of the
Confessing Church and Barth was elected a member of its leadership
council, the Bruderrat.
He was forced to resign from his professorship at the University of
Bonn in 1935 for refusing to swear an oath to Hitler. Barth then
returned to his native Switzerland, where he assumed a chair in
systematic theology at the University of Basel. In the course of his
appointment he was required to answer a routine question asked of all
Swiss civil servants: whether he supported the national defense. His
answer was, "Yes, especially on the northern border!" The newspaper
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung carried his 1936 criticism of Martin Heidegger
for his support of the Nazis. In 1938 he wrote a letter to a Czech
Josef Hromádka in which he declared that soldiers who
fought against the
Third Reich were serving a Christian cause.
Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics
Barth's theology found its most sustained and compelling expression in
his thirteen-volume magnum opus, the
Church Dogmatics (Ger.
"Kirchliche Dogmatik"). Widely regarded as an important theological
Church Dogmatics represents the pinnacle of Barth's
achievement as a theologian.
Church Dogmatics runs to over six million
words and 8,000 pages (in English; over 9,000 in German) – one of
the longest works of systematic theology ever written.
Church Dogmatics address four major doctrines: Revelation, God,
Creation, and Atonement or Reconciliation. Barth had initially also
intended to complete his dogmatics by addressing the doctrines of
redemption and eschatology, but decided not to complete the project in
the later years of his life.
Later life and death
Karl Barth on jacket of one of his books
After the end of the Second World War, Barth became an important voice
in support both of German penitence and of reconciliation with
churches abroad. Together with Hans-Joachim Iwand, he authored the
Darmstadt Statement in 1947 – a more concrete statement of
German guilt and responsibility for the
Third Reich and Second World
War than the 1945 Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt. In it, he made the
point that the Church's willingness to side with anti-socialist and
conservative forces had led to its susceptibility for National
Socialist ideology. In the context of the developing Cold War, that
controversial statement was rejected by anti-Communists in the West
who supported the CDU course of re-militarization, as well as by East
German dissidents who believed that it did not sufficiently depict the
dangers of Communism. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950. In the 1950s, Barth
sympathized with the peace movement and opposed German rearmament.
Karl Barth in 1956
Barth wrote a 1960 article for
The Christian Century regarding the
"East-West question" in which he denied any inclination toward Eastern
communism and stated he did not wish to live under Communism or wish
anyone to be forced to do so; he acknowledged a fundamental
disagreement with most of those around him, writing: "I do not
comprehend how either politics or Christianity require [sic] or even
permit such a disinclination to lead to the conclusions which the West
has drawn with increasing sharpness in the past 15 years. I regard
anticommunism as a matter of principle an evil even greater than
In 1962, Barth visited the United States and lectured at Princeton
Theological Seminary, the University of Chicago, the Union Theological
Seminary and the San Francisco Theological Seminary. He was invited to
be a guest at the Second Vatican Council. At the time Barth's health
did not permit him to attend. However, he was able to visit the
Vatican and be a guest of the pope in 1967, after which he wrote the
small volume Ad Limina Apostolorum [At the Threshold of the
Barth was featured on the cover of the April 20, 1962 issue of Time
magazine, an indication that his influence had reached out of academic
and ecclesiastical circles and into mainstream American religious
Barth died on December 10, 1968, at his home in Basel, Switzerland.
The evening before his death, he had encouraged his lifelong friend
Eduard Thurneysen that he should not be downhearted, "For things are
ruled, not just in Moscow or in Washington or in Peking, but things
are ruled – even here on earth—entirely from above, from heaven
One major objective of Barth is to recover the doctrine of the Trinity
in theology from its putative loss in liberalism. His argument
follows from the idea that God is the object of God's own
self-knowledge, and revelation in the Bible means the self-unveiling
to humanity of the God who cannot be discovered by humanity simply
through its own intuition. God's revelation comes to man
'vertically from above' (Senkrecht von Oben).
One of the most influential and controversial features of Barth's
Dogmatics was his doctrine of election (
Church Dogmatics II/2).
Barth's theology entails a rejection of the idea that God chose each
person to either be saved or damned based on purposes of the Divine
will, and it was impossible to know why God chose some and not
Barth's doctrine of election involves a firm rejection of the notion
of an eternal, hidden decree. In keeping with his Christo-centric
methodology, Barth argues that to ascribe the salvation or damnation
of humanity to an abstract absolute decree is to make some part of God
more final and definitive than God's saving act in Jesus Christ. God's
absolute decree, if one may speak of such a thing, is God's gracious
decision to be for humanity in the person of Jesus Christ. Drawing
from the earlier
Reformed tradition, Barth retains the notion of
double predestination but makes Jesus himself the object of both
divine election and reprobation simultaneously; Jesus embodies both
God's election of humanity and God's rejection of human sin. While
some regard this revision of the doctrine of election as an
improvement on the Augustinian-
Calvinist doctrine of the
predestination of individuals, critics, namely Brunner, have
charged that Barth's view amounts to a soft universalism, thereby
departing from Augustinian-Calvinism.
Barth’s doctrine of objective atonement develops as he distances
himself from Anselm of Canterbury’s doctrine of the atonement.
In The Epistle to the Romans, Barth endorses Anselm’s idea that God
who is robbed of his honor must punish those who robbed him. In Church
Dogmatics I/2, Barth advocates divine freedom in the incarnation with
the support of Anselm’s Cur Deus Homo. Barth holds that Anselm’s
doctrine of the atonement preserves both God’s freedom and the
necessity of Christ’s incarnation. The positive endorsement of
Anselmian motives in
Cur Deus Homo
Cur Deus Homo continues in
Church Dogmatics II/1.
Barth maintains with Anselm that the sin of humanity cannot be removed
by the merciful act of divine forgiveness alone. In Church Dogmatics
IV/1, however, Barth’s doctrine of the atonement diverges from that
of Anselm. By over-christologizing the doctrine, Barth completes
his formulation of objective atonement. He finalizes the necessity of
God’s mercy at the place where Anselm firmly establishes the dignity
and freedom of the will of God. In Barth’s view, God’s mercy
is identified with God’s righteousness in a distinctive way where
God’s mercy always takes the initiative. The change in Barth’s
reception of Anselm’s doctrine of the atonement shows that Barth’s
doctrine entails support for universalism.
Barth argued that previous perspectives on sin and salvation,
influenced by strict
Calvinist thinking, sometimes misled Christians
into thinking that predestination set up humanity such that the vast
majority of human beings were foreseen to disobey and reject God, with
damnation coming to them as a matter of fate.
Barth's view of salvation is centrally Christological, with his
writings stating that in Jesus Christ the reconciliation of all of
mankind to God has essentially already taken place and that through
Christ man is already elect and justified.
Though not an advocate of Christian universalism, strictly speaking,
Barth asserted that eternal salvation for everyone, even those that
reject God, is a possibility that isn't just an open question but
should be hoped for by Christians as a matter of grace; specifically,
he wrote, "Even though theological consistency might seem to lead our
thoughts and utterances most clearly in this direction, we must not
arrogate to ourselves that which can be given and received only as a
free gift", just hoping for total reconciliation.
Barth, in the words of a later scholar, went a "significant step
beyond traditional theology" in that he argued against more
conservative strains of
Protestant Christianity in which damnation is
seen as an absolute certainty for many or most people. To Barth,
Christ's grace is central.
Understanding of Mary
Main article: Karl Barth's views on Mary
Protestant theologians, Barth wrote on the topic of
Mariology (the theological study of Mary). Barth's views on the
subject agreed with much Roman Catholic dogma but he disagreed with
the Catholic veneration of Mary. Aware of the common dogmatic
tradition of the early Church, Barth fully accepted the dogma of Mary
as the Mother of God, seeing a rejection of that title equivalent to
rejecting the doctrine that Christ's human and divine natures are
inseparable (contra the Nestorian heresy). Through Mary, Jesus belongs
to the human race. Through Jesus, Mary is Mother of God.
Barth, liberals, and fundamentalists
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help
improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2017) (Learn
how and when to remove this template message)
A desk in Karl Barth's old office with a painting of Matthias
Grünewald’s crucifixion scene.
Although Barth's theology rejected German
Protestant liberalism, his
theology has usually not found favour with those at the other end of
the theological spectrum: confessionalists and fundamentalists. His
doctrine of the Word of God, for instance, holds that Christ is the
Word of God, and does not proceed by arguing or proclaiming that the
Bible must be uniformly historically and scientifically accurate, and
then establishing other theological claims on that foundation.
Some fundamentalist critics have joined liberals in referring to Barth
as "neo-orthodox" because, while his theology retains most or all
of the tenets of their understanding of Christianity, he is seen as
rejecting the belief which is a linchpin of their theological system:
biblical inerrancy. Such critics believe the written text must be
considered to be historically accurate and verifiable and see Barth's
view as a separation of theological truth from historical truth.
Barth could respond by saying that the claim that the foundation of
theology is biblical inerrancy is to use a foundation other than Jesus
Christ, and that our understanding of Scripture's accuracy and worth
can only properly emerge from consideration of what it means for it to
be a true witness to the incarnate Word, Jesus.
The relationship between Barth, liberalism, and fundamentalism goes
far beyond the issue of inerrancy, however. From Barth's perspective,
liberalism, as understood in the sense of the 19th century with
Friedrich Schleiermacher and
Hegel as its leading exponents and not
necessarily expressed in any particular political ideology, is the
divinization of human thinking. This, to him, inevitably leads one or
more philosophical concepts to become the false God, thus attempting
to block the true voice of the living God. This, in turn, leads to the
captivity of theology by human ideology. In Barth's theology, he
emphasizes again and again that human concepts of any kind, breadth or
narrowness quite beside the point, can never be considered as
identical to God's revelation. In this aspect, Scripture is also
written human language, which bears witness to the self-revelation of
God in Jesus Christ. Scripture cannot be considered as identical to
God's self-revelation, which is properly only Jesus Christ. However,
in his freedom and love, God truly reveals himself through human
language and concepts, with a view toward their necessity in reaching
fallen humanity. Thus Barth claims that Christ is truly presented in
Scripture and the preaching of the church, echoing a stand expressed
in his native Swiss
Helvetic Confession of the 16th
He opposes any attempts to closely relate theology and philosophy,
although Barth consistently insists that he is not
"anti-philosophical." His approach in that respect is
predominantly Christocentric, and is thus termed "kerygmatic", as
opposed to "apologetic".
Influence on Christian ethics
Among many other areas, Barth has also had a profound influence on
modern Christian ethics. He has influenced the work of
ethicists such as Stanley Hauerwas, John Howard Yoder, Jacques Ellul
and Oliver O'Donovan.
Relationship with Charlotte von Kirschbaum
Charlotte von Kirschbaum was Barth's secretary and theological
assistant for more than three decades. When Barth first met her in
1924 he had already been married for 12 years and, in 1929, she moved
into the Barth family household, which included his wife Nelly and
George Hunsinger summarizes the influence of von
Kirschbaum on Barth's work: "As his unique student, critic,
researcher, adviser, collaborator, companion, assistant, spokesperson,
Charlotte von Kirschbaum was indispensable to him. He
could not have been what he was, or have done what he did, without
The long-standing work relationship was not without its
difficulties. It caused offense among some of Barth's friends, as
well as his mother. While Nelly supplied the household and the
children, von Kirschbaum and Barth shared an academic relationship.
The feminist scholar, Suzanne Selinger says "[p]art of any realistic
response to the subject of Barth and von Kirschbaum must be anger",
because she has been largely unrecognized by Barthian scholars for her
work. Barth lauds von Kirschbaum for her assistance in the preface
of Church Dogmatics: Volume 3 – The Doctrine of Creation Part 3.
An article written in 2017 by Christiane Tietz (originally a paper she
delivered at the 2016 American Academy of
Religion in San Antonio,
Texas) for the academic journal
Theology Today engages letters
released in both 2000 and 2008 written by Barth, Charlotte von
Kirschbaum, and Nelly Barth, which discuss the complicated
relationship between all three individuals that occurred over the span
of 40 years. The letters published in 2008 between von Kirschbaum and
Barth from 1925-1935 made public "the deep, intense, and overwhelming
love between these two human beings." 
In John Updike's Roger's Version, Roger Lambert is a professor of
religion. Lambert is influenced by the works of Karl Barth. That is
the primary reason that he rejects his student's attempt to use
computational methods to understand God.
Harry Mulisch's The Discovery of Heaven makes mentions of Barth's
Church Dogmatics, as does David Markson's The Last Novel. In the case
of Mulisch and Markson, it is the ambitious nature of the Church
Dogmatics that seems to be of significance. In the case of Updike, it
is the emphasis on the idea of God as "Wholly Other" that is
In Marilynne Robinson's Gilead, the preacher John Ames reveres Barth's
"Epistle to the Romans" and refers to it as his favorite book other
than the Bible.
Whittaker Chambers cites Barth in nearly all his books: Witness
(p. 507), Cold Friday (p. 194), and Odyssey of a Friend
(pp. 201, 231).
Center for Barth Studies
Princeton Theological Seminary, where Barth lectured in 1962, houses
the Center for Barth Studies, which is dedicated to supporting
scholarship related to the life and theology of Karl Barth. The Barth
Center was established in 1997 and sponsors seminars, conferences, and
other events. It also holds the
Karl Barth Research Collection, the
largest in the world, which contains nearly all of Barth's works in
English and German, several first editions of his works, and an
original handwritten manuscript by Barth.
The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der Römerbrief I, 1st ed., 1919)
The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der Römerbrief. Zweite Fassung,
1922). E. C. Hoskyns, trans. London: Oxford University Press, 1933,
1968 ISBN 0-19-500294-6
The Word of God and The Word of Man (Ger. Das Wort Gottes und die
Theologie, 1928). New York: Harper & Bros, 1957.
ISBN 978-0-8446-1599-8; The Word of God and Theology. Amy Marga,
trans. New York: T & T Clark, 2011.
Preaching Through the Christian Year. H. Wells and J. McTavish, eds.
Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1978. ISBN 0-8028-1725-4
God Here and Now. London: Routledge, 1964.
Fides Quaerens Intellectum: Anselm's Proof of the
Existence of God
Existence of God in
the Context of His Theological Scheme (written in 1931). I. W.
Robertson, trans. London: SCM, 1960; reprinted by Pickwick
Publications (1985) ISBN 0-915138-75-1
Church and State. G.R. Howe, trans. London: SCM, 1939.
The Church and the War. A. H. Froendt, trans. New York: Macmillan,
Prayer according to the Catechisms of the Reformation. S.F. Terrien,
trans. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1952 (Also published as: Prayer and
Preaching. London: SCM, 1964).
The Humanity of God, J.N. Thomas and T. Wieser, trans. Richmond, VA:
John Knox Press, 1960. ISBN 0-8042-0612-0
Evangelical Theology: An Introduction. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans,
The Christian Life.
Church Dogmatics IV/4: Lecture Fragments. Grand
Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1981. ISBN 0-567-09320-4,
The Word in this World: Two Sermons by Karl Barth. Edited by Kurt I.
Johanson. Regent Publishing (Vancouver, BC, Canada): 2007
"No Angels of Darkness and Light," The Christian Century, January 20,
1960, p. 72 (reprinted in Contemporary Moral Issues. H. K.
Girvetz, ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1963. pp. 6–8).
Göttingen Dogmatics: Instruction in the Christian Religion, vol.
1. G.W. Bromiley, trans. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991.
Dogmatics in Outline (1947 lectures), Harper Perennial, 1959,
A Unique Time of God: Karl Barth's WWI Sermons, William Klempa,
editor. Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press.
Church Dogmatics in English translation
Volume I Part 1: Doctrine of the Word of God: Prolegomena to Church
Dogmatics, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09013-2, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05059-9 (German: 1932)
Volume I Part 2: Doctrine of the Word of God, hardcover:
ISBN 0-567-09012-4, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05069-6 (German:
Volume II Part 1: The Doctrine of God: The Knowledge of God; The
Reality of God, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09021-3, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05169-2 (German: 1940)
Volume II Part 2: The Doctrine of God: The Election of God; The
Command of God, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09022-1, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05179-X (German: 1942)
Volume III Part 1: The Doctrine of Creation: The Work of Creation,
hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09031-0, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05079-3
Volume III Part 2: The Doctrine of Creation: The Creature, hardcover:
ISBN 0-567-09032-9, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05089-0 (German:
Volume III Part 3: The Doctrine of Creation: The Creator and His
Creature, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09033-7, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05099-8 (German: 1950)
Volume III Part 4: The Doctrine of Creation: The Command of God the
Creator, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09034-5, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05109-9 (German: 1951)
Volume IV Part 1: The Doctrine of Reconciliation, hardcover:
ISBN 0-567-09041-8, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05129-3 (German:
Volume IV Part 2: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the Servant
As Lord, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09042-6, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05139-0 (German: 1955)
Volume IV Part 3, first half: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ
the True Witness, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09043-4, softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05189-7 (German: 1959)
Volume IV Part 3, second half: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus
Christ the True Witness, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09044-2,
softcover: ISBN 0-567-05149-8 (German: 1959)
Volume IV Part 4 (unfinished): Doctrine of Reconciliation: The
Foundation of the Christian Life (Baptism), hardcover:
ISBN 0-567-09045-0, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05159-5 (German:
Volume V: Church Dogmatics: Contents and Indexes, hardcover:
ISBN 0-567-09046-9, softcover: ISBN 0-567-05119-6
Church Dogmatics, 14 volume set, softcover, ISBN 0-567-05809-3
Church Dogmatics: A Selection, with intro. by H. Gollwitzer, 1961,
Westminster John Knox Press 1994, ISBN 0-664-25550-7
Church Dogmatics, dual language German and English, books with CD-ROM,
Church Dogmatics, dual language German and English, CD-ROM only,
On Religion. Edited and translated by Garrett Green. London: T & T
Evangelical Theology, American lectures 1962 – given by Barth in
Chicago, Illinois and Princeton, New Jersey,
ISBN 978-0-9785738-0-5 and ISBN 0-9785738-0-3
^ "Barth". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
^ McGrath, Alister E (January 14, 2011), Christian Theology: An
Introduction, John Wiley & Sons, pp. 76–,
^ Brown, Stuart; Collinson, Diane; Wilkinson, Robert (September 10,
2012), Biographical Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Philosophers,
Taylor & Francis, pp. 52–,
^ "Barth in Retirement", Time, May 31, 1963, retrieved
^ a b Barbour, Ian (1966), Issues in Science and Religion,
Prentice-Hall, pp. 116–19, 229, 292, 422–25, 456, 459
^ Lecture on Karl Barth, TCU, retrieved 2013-09-04
^ McKim, Donald K (1996). Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms.
Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 76–77.
Church Dogmatics III/3, xii.
^ Thomas Forsyth Torrance (December 1, 2000). Karl Barth: An
Introduction to His Early Theology, 1910–1931. T & T Clark.
^ Thomas Forsyth Torrance (1990). Karl Barth, Biblical and Evangelical
Theologian. T & T Clark. ISBN 978-0-567-09572-5.
Karl Barth - Christian History".
^ Barmen Declaration. Ucc.org. Retrieved on 2013-09-04.
Timothy Gorringe (1999), Karl Barth: Against Hegemony, Oxford
University Press, pp. 316–, ISBN 978-0-19-875247-9
^ Name (Boston Collaborative Encyclopedia of Western Theology).
People.bu.edu. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
^ Church Dogmatics, ed. T. F. Torrance and G. W. Bromiley (1932–67;
ET Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1956–75).
^ Woo, B. Hoon (2014). "Kierkegaard's Influence on Karl Barth's Early
Theology". Journal of Christian Philosophy. 18: 197–245.
Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals, 1914.
^ Gignilliat, pp. 38-39.
^ Kenneth Oakes, Reading Karl Barth: A Companion to Karl Barth's
Epistle to the Romans, Eugene: Cascade, 2011, p. 27.
^ Chalamet, Christophe (2004). Dialectical Theologians: Wilhelm
Karl Barth and Rudolf Bultmann. Zurich: Theologischer
Verlag. pp. 125–30. ISBN 3290173240. Retrieved 19 October
^ Michael Allen (18 December 2012). Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics: An
Introduction and Reader. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 5–.
^ Ian Ward (1992) Law, philosophy, and National Socialism. Bern: Peter
Lang. p 117. ISBN 3-261-04536-1.
^ The T & T Clark Blog: Church Dogmatics. Tandtclark.typepad.com.
Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
^ Myers, Ben. (November 27, 2005)
Faith and Theology: Church Dogmatics
in a week. Faith-theology.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
^ Grau, H. G. (1973). "Archived copy".
Theology Today. p. 138.
doi:10.1177/004057367303000205. Archived from the original on August
21, 2006. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
^ Green, Garrett. "Introduction" to On
Religion by Karl Barth, Trans.
Garrett Green. (London: T&T Clark, 2006) p. 3
^ "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter B" (PDF). American Academy of
Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
^ Barth, Karl. "No Angels of Darkness and Light", The Christian
Century, January 20, 1960, pp. 72 ff.
^ Eberhard Jüngel (1986). Karl Barth, a Theological Legacy.
Westminster Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-664-24031-8.
^ TIME Magazine Cover:
Karl Barth – April 20, 1962 –
Christianity. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
^ "Biography Center for Barth Studies". barth.ptsem.edu. Retrieved
^ Braatan, 80-81
^ Gorringe, 135-36.
^ Mangina, 76.
^ Chung, 385-86.
^ Webster (2000), 93-95.
^ Douglas Atchison Campbell (2005). The Quest For Paul's Gospel: A
Suggested Strategy. T & T Clark International. p. 42.
^ Brunner, Emil, The Christian Doctrine of God: Dogmatics: Volume 1,
(Philadelphia: Westminster, 1950)
^ Mikkelsen, Hans Vium (2010). Reconciled Humanity:
Karl Barth in
Dialogue. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. p. 5. ISBN 0802863639.
Retrieved 19 October 2015.
^ Bloesch, Donald G. (2001). Jesus is Victor!: Karl Barth's Doctrine
of Salvation. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 43–50.
ISBN 0687202256. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
^ Hasel, Frank M. (Autumn 1991). "Karl Barth's
Church Dogmatics on the
Atonement: Some Translational Problems" (PDF). Andrews University
Seminary Studies. 29 (3): 205–211. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
^ Woo, B. Hoon (2014). "Karl Barth's Doctrine of the Atonement and
Reformed Journal. 32: 243–291.
^ a b Richard Bauckham, "Universalism: a historical survey", Themelios
4.2 (September 1978): 47–54.
^ Louth, Andrew (1977). Mary and the Mystery of the Incarnation: An
Essay on the Mother of God in the
Theology of Karl Barth. Oxford:
Fairacres. pp. 1–24. ISBN 0728300737.
^ Roger E. Olson (2004). The Westminster Handbook to Evangelical
Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 43–.
^ This was part of Cornelius Van Til's critique of Barth's doctrine of
scripture. Barth, it seems dismissed Biblical passages that didn't
agree with his theology. Van Til was one of Barth's earliest
(American) conservative critics. See Van Til, Cornelius (May 1954).
Karl Barth Become Orthodox?". Westminster Theological Journal.
16: 138ff. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
^ Kenneth Oakes,
Karl Barth on
Theology and Philosophy, Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2012, p. 242.
^ a b Parsons, Michael (1987). "Man Encountered by the Command of God:
Ethics of Karl Barth" (PDF). Vox Evangelica. 17: 48–65.
^ Daniel L. Migliore (August 15, 2010). Commanding Grace: Studies in
Karl Barth's Ethics. W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
^ Matthew J. Aragon-Bruce.
Ethics in Crisis: Interpreting Barth's
Ethics (book review) Princeton Seminary Library. Retrieved on
2012-07-15. Archived June 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Oxford University Press: The Hastening that Waits: Nigel Biggar
Archived November 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. Oup.com.
Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
^ Journal – The Influence of
Karl Barth on Christian Ethics.
www.kevintaylor.me (April 7, 2011). Retrieved on 2012-07-15. Archived
October 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Choi Lim Ming, Andrew (2003). A Study on Jacques Ellul's Dialectical
Approach to the Modern and Spiritual World. wordpress.com
^ a b Suzanne Selinger (1998). Charlotte Von Kirschbaum and Karl
Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of Theology. Penn State
Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-271-01864-5.
^ George Hunsinger's review of S. Seliger, Charlotte von Kirschbaum
and Karl Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of Theology.
Archived September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
^ Eberhard Busch (2005). Karl Barths Lebenslauf: Nach seinen Briefen
und autobiografischen Texten. Theologischer Verlag Zürich.
pp. 177 ff. ISBN 978-3-290-17304-3.
^ Eberhard Busch; John Bowden, John (June 21, 2005). Karl Barth: His
Life from Letters and Autobiographical Texts. Wipf & Stock.
pp. 185–186. ISBN 978-1-59752-169-7.
^ S. Seliger,
Charlotte von Kirschbaum and Karl Barth; quoted in K.
Karl Barth (May 8, 2004).
Church Dogmatics The Doctrine of Creation,
Volume 3, Part 3: The Creator and His Creature. Continuum
International Publishing Group. pp. 12–.
^ Tietz, Christiane (2017-07-01). "
Karl Barth and Charlotte von
Theology Today. 74 (2): 86–111.
doi:10.1177/0040573617702547. ISSN 0040-5736.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 3, 2015.
Retrieved December 11, 2014. . Princeton Seminary Library.
Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
^ Center for Barth Studies website - http://barth.ptsem.edu
"Witness to an Ancient Truth". Time. April 20, 1962. Retrieved
Bradshaw, Timothy. 1988.
Trinity and Ontology: A Comparative Study of
the Theologies of
Karl Barth and Wolfhart Pannenberg. Rutherford House
Books, reprint, Lewiston; Lampeter: Edwin Mellen Press for Rutherford
House, Edinburgh, 1992.
Braaten, Carl E. (2008). That All May Believe: A
Theology of the
Gospel and the Mission of the Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
ISBN 080286239X. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
Bromiley, Geoffrey William. An introduction to the theology of Karl
Barth. Grand Rapids, Mich. : William B. Eerdmans, 1979.
Buclin, Hadrien, Entre culture du consensus et critique sociale. Les
intellectuels de gauche dans la Suisse de l'après-guerre, Thèse de
doctorat, Université de Lausanne, 2015.
Busch, Eberhard. Karl Barth: His Life from Letters and
Autobiographical Texts. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1976.
——— (2004), The Great Passion: An Introduction to Karl Barth's
Theology, Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans .
Chung, Paul S. Karl Barth: God's Word in Action. James Clarke &
Co, Cambridge (2008), ISBN 978-0-227-17266-7.
Chung, Sung Wook. Admiration and Challenge: Karl Barth's Theological
Relationship with John Calvin. New York: Peter Lang, 2002.
Chung, Sung Wook, ed.
Karl Barth and Evangelical Theology:
Convergences and Divergences. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic,
Clark, Gordon. Karl Barth's Theological Method.
(1997, 2nd ed.), 1963. ISBN 0-940931-51-6.
Fiddes, Paul. 'The status of women in the thought of Karl Barth', in
Janet Martin Soskice, ed., After Eve [alternative title After Eve:
women, theology and the Christian tradition], 1990, pp. 138–55.
Fink, Heinrich. "
Karl Barth und die Bewegung Freies Deutschland in der
Schweiz." [Doctoral dissertation.] "
Karl Barth und die Bewegung Freies
Deutschland in der Schweiz : Dissertation zur Erlangung des
akademischen Grades doctor scientiae theologiae (Dr.sc.theol.),
vorgelegt dem Senat des Wissenschaftlichen Rates der
Humboldt-Universitaaet zu Berlin." Berlin, H. Fink [Selfpublisher],
Galli, Mark (2000). "Neo-Orthodoxy: Karl Barth". Christianity Today.
Gherardini, Brunero. "A domanda risponde. In dialogo con Karl Barth
sulle sue 'Domande a Roma' (A Question Answered. In Dialogue with Karl
Barth on His 'Questions in Rome')". Frigento (Italy): Casa Mariana
Editrice, 2011. ISBN 978-88-9056-111-5.
Gignilliat, Mark S (2009).
Karl Barth and the Fifth Gospel: Barth's
Exegesis of Isaiah. Farnham: Ashgate.
ISBN 0754658562. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
Gorringe, Timothy. Karl Barth: Against Hegemony. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1999.
Hunsinger, George. How to Read Karl Barth: The Shape of His Theology.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
Jae Jin Kim. Die Universalitaet der Versoehnung im Gottesbund. Zur
biblischen Begruendung der Bundestheologie in der kirchlichen Dogmatik
Karl Barths, Lit Verlag, 1992.
Mangina, Joseph L. Karl Barth:
Theologian of Christian Witness.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2004.
McCormack, Bruce. Karl Barth’s Critically Realistic Dialectical
Theology: Its Genesis and Development, 1909–1936. Oxford University
Press, USA (March 27, 1997), ISBN 978-0-19-826956-4
McKenny, Gerald. "The Analogy of Grace: Karl Barth's Moral Theology."
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 0-19-958267-X.
Karl Barth on
Theology and Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2012.
Oakes, Kenneth. Reading Karl Barth: A Companion to Karl Barth's
Epistle to the Romans. Eugene: Cascade, 2011.
Webster, John. Barth. 2nd ed., London: Continuum, 2004.
Webster, John, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Karl Barth. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Karl Barth.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Karl Barth
Publications by and about
Karl Barth in the catalogue Helveticat of
the Swiss National Library
"Top Ten Theologians: Karl Barth", Reclaiming the mind, Parchment
& Pen, Aug 2011 .
The Center for Barth Studies, Princeton Theological Seminary, archived
from the original on January 25, 2013 .
Barth Literature Search Project, NL: PTHU, archived from the original
on 2012-03-02 .[dead link] Complete bibliography of literature by
and about Karl Barth.
Karl Barth Reading Room, with extensive links to on-line primary and
secondary sources, CA: Tyndale Seminary .
"Karl Barth". Time. April 20, 1962. .
Primer on Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics
One Year With
Karl Barth A year-long project promoting discussion and
application of Barth's Church Dogmatics.
Article on Barth and Visual Art
Karl Barth: Courageous theologian article from Christianity Today
Karl Barth Hub to organizations and resources associated with Karl
Philosophy of religion
Concepts in religion
Problem of evil
Conceptions of God
Existence of God
Fine-tuning of the Universe
Divine command theory
Theories about religions
Problem of evil
Best of all possible worlds
(by date active)
Anselm of Canterbury
Augustine of Hippo
Gaunilo of Marmoutiers
Pico della Mirandola
King James VI and I
Marcion of Sinope
Gottfried W Leibniz
Johann G Herder
Karl C F Krause
Georg W F Hegel
W. K. Clifford
J L Mackie
George I Mavrodes
William L Rowe
Dewi Z Phillips
Robert Merrihew Adams
Peter van Inwagen
William Lane Craig
Ali Akbar Rashad
Criticism of religion
Ethics in religion
History of religions
Relationship between religion and science
Political science of religion
Faith and rationality
Ethics of care
Good and evil
Suffering or Pain
Augustine of Hippo
Georg W. F. Hegel
John Stuart Mill
G. E. Moore
J. L. Mackie
G. E. M. Anscombe
R. M. Hare
Robert Merrihew Adams
Ethics of eating meat
Ethics of technology
Ethics in religion
History of ethics
Philosophy of law
Recipients of the Sonning Prize
Winston Churchill (1950)
Albert Schweitzer (1959)
Bertrand Russell (1960)
Niels Bohr (1961)
Alvar Aalto (1962)
Karl Barth (1963)
Dominique Pire (1964)
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi
Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi (1965)
Laurence Olivier (1966)
Willem Visser 't Hooft
Willem Visser 't Hooft (1967)
Arthur Koestler (1968)
Halldór Laxness (1969)
Max Tau (1970)
Danilo Dolci (1971)
Karl Popper (1973)
Hannah Arendt (1975)
Arne Næss (1977)
Hermann Gmeiner (1979)
Dario Fo (1981)
Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir (1983)
William Heinesen (1985)
Jürgen Habermas (1987)
Ingmar Bergman (1989)
Václav Havel (1991)
Krzysztof Kieślowski (1994)
Günter Grass (1996)
Jørn Utzon (1998)
Eugenio Barba (2000)
Mary Robinson (2002)
Mona Hatoum (2004)
Ágnes Heller (2006)
Renzo Piano (2008)
Hans Magnus Enzensberger
Hans Magnus Enzensberger (2010)
Orhan Pamuk (2012)
Michael Haneke (2014)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2101 8582
BNF: cb11890397k (data)