KARL BARTH (/bɑːrt/ ; German: ; (1886-05-10)May 10, 1886 –
December 10, 1968(1968-12-10)) was a Swiss
Reformed theologian who is
often regarded as the greatest
Protestant theologian of the twentieth
century. His influence expanded well beyond the academic realm to
mainstream culture, leading him to be featured on the cover of Time on
April 20, 1962.
Beginning with his experience as a pastor, Barth rejected his
training in the predominant liberal theology typical of 19th-century
European Protestantism. He also rejected more conservative forms of
Christianity. Instead he embarked on a new theological path
initially called dialectical theology due to its stress on the
paradoxical nature of divine truth (e.g., God's relationship to
humanity embodies both grace and judgment). Many critics have
referred to Barth as the father of neo-orthodoxy – a term that
Barth emphatically rejected. A more charitable description of his
work might be "a theology of the Word." Barth's work had a profound
impact on twentieth century theology and figures such as Dietrich
Bonhoeffer – who like Barth became a leader in the Confessing Church
Thomas F. Torrance ,
Reinhold Niebuhr ,
Jacques Ellul , Stanley
Hans Kung , Jürgen Moltmann , and novelists such as John
Miklós Szentkuthy .
Barth's unease with the dominant theology which characterized Europe
led him to become a leader in the
Confessing Church in Germany, which
Adolf Hitler and the
Nazi regime . In particular,
Barth and other members of the movement vigorously attempted to
prevent the Nazis from taking over the existing church and
establishing a state church controlled by the regime . This culminated
in Barth's authorship of the
Barmen Declaration , which fiercely
criticized Christians who supported the Nazis .
One of the most prolific and influential theologians of the twentieth
century, Barth emphasized the sovereignty of God, particularly
through his reinterpretation of the Calvinistic doctrine of election ,
the sinfulness of humanity, and the "infinite qualitative distinction
between God and mankind ". His most famous works are his The Epistle
to the Romans , which marked a clear break from his earlier thinking,
and his massive thirteen-volume work
Church Dogmatics , one of the
largest works of systematic theology ever written.
* 1 Early life and education
* 2 The Epistle to the Romans
* 5 Later life and death
* 6.1 Trinitarian focus
* 6.2 Election
* 6.3 Salvation
* 6.4 Understanding of Mary
* 6.5 Barth, liberals, and fundamentalists
* 7 Influence on
* 8 Relationship with
Charlotte von Kirschbaum
* 9 In literature
* 10 Center for Barth Studies
* 11 See also
* 12 Writings
* 12.1 The
Church Dogmatics in English translation
* 12.2 Audio
* 13 References
* 14 Sources
* 15 External links
EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATION
Karl Barth was born on May 10, 1886, in
Switzerland , to
Johann Friedrich "Fritz" Barth and Anna Katharina (Sartorius) Barth.
Fritz Barth was a theology professor and pastor who would greatly
influence his son's life. In particular, Fritz Barth was fascinated by
philosophy, especially the implications of Friedrich Nietzsche's
theories on free will. Barth spent his childhood years in
Bern . From
1911 to 1921 he served as a
Reformed pastor in the village of Safenwil
in the canton of
Aargau . In 1913 he married Nelly Hoffmann, a
talented violinist. They had a daughter and four sons, one of whom was
the New Testament scholar
Markus Barth (October 6, 1915 – July 1,
1994). Later he was professor of theology in
Münster (1925–1930) and
Bonn (1930–1935) (Germany). While serving
Göttingen he met
Charlotte von Kirschbaum , who became his
long-time secretary and assistant; she played a large role in the
writing of his epic, the Church Dogmatics. He had to leave Germany in
1935 after he refused to swear allegiance to
Adolf Hitler and went
Switzerland and became a professor in
Barth was originally trained in German
Protestant Liberalism under
such teachers as
Wilhelm Herrmann , but he reacted against this
theology at the time of the
First World War
First World War . His reaction was fed by
several factors, including his commitment to the German and Swiss
Religious Socialist movement surrounding men such as
Hermann Kutter ,
the influence of the biblical realism movement surrounding men such as
Christoph Blumhardt and
Søren Kierkegaard , and the effect of the
skeptical philosophy of
Franz Overbeck .
Kierkegaard’s influence on Barth’s early theology is evident in
The Epistle to the Romans . The early Barth read at least three
volumes of Kierkegaard’s works:
Practice in Christianity , The
Moment, and an Anthology from his journals and diaries. Almost all key
terms from Kierkegaard which had an important role in The Epistle to
the Romans can be found in Practice in Christianity. The concept of
the indirect communication, the paradox, and the moment of Practice in
Christianity, in particular, confirmed and sharpened Barth’s ideas
on contemporary Christianity and the Christian life.
The most important catalyst, however, was Barth's reaction to the
support that most of his liberal teachers voiced for German war aims.
The 1914 "
Manifesto of the Ninety-Three German Intellectuals to the
Civilized World " carried the signature of his former teacher Adolf
von Harnack . Barth believed that his teachers had been misled by a
theology which tied God too closely to the finest, deepest expressions
and experiences of cultured human beings, into claiming divine support
for a war which they believed was waged in support of that culture –
the initial experience of which appeared to increase people's love of
and commitment to that culture. Much of Barth's early theology can be
seen as a reaction to the theology of
Friedrich Schleiermacher .
THE EPISTLE TO THE ROMANS
Barth first began his commentary The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der
Römerbrief) in the summer of 1916 while he was still a pastor in
Safenwil, with the first edition appearing in December 1918 (but with
a publication date of 1919). On the strength of the first edition of
the commentary, Barth was invited to teach at the University of
Göttingen . Barth decided around October 1920 that he was
dissatisfied with the first edition and heavily revised it the
following eleven months, finishing the second edition around September
1921. Particularly in the thoroughly re-written second edition of
1922, Barth argued that the God who is revealed in the cross of Jesus
challenges and overthrows any attempt to ally God with human cultures,
achievements, or possessions. The book's popularity led to its
republication and reprinting in several languages.
In the decade following the First World War, Barth was linked with a
number of other theologians – actually very diverse in outlook –
who had reacted against their teachers' liberalism, in a movement
known as "Dialectical
Theology " (Ger. Dialektische Theologie). The
members of the movement included
Rudolf Bultmann , Eduard Thurneysen,
Emil Brunner , and
Friedrich Gogarten .
In 1934, as the
Protestant Church attempted to come to terms with the
Third Reich , Barth was largely responsible for the writing of the
Barmen declaration (Ger. Barmer Erklärung). This declaration rejected
the influence of
Nazism on German Christianity by arguing that the
Church 's allegiance to the God of Jesus Christ should give it the
impetus and resources to resist the influence of other lords, such as
the German Führer,
Adolf Hitler . Barth mailed this declaration to
Hitler personally. This was one of the founding documents of the
Confessing Church and Barth was elected a member of its leadership
council, the Bruderrat.
He was forced to resign from his professorship at the University of
Bonn in 1935 for refusing to swear an oath to Hitler . Barth then
returned to his native Switzerland, where he assumed a chair in
systematic theology at the University of
Basel . In the course of his
appointment he was required to answer a routine question asked of all
Swiss civil servants: whether he supported the national defense. His
answer was, "Yes, especially on the northern border!" The newspaper
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung carried his 1936 criticism of Martin Heidegger
for his support of the Nazis. In 1938 he wrote a letter to a Czech
Josef Hromádka in which he declared that soldiers who
fought against the
Third Reich were serving a Christian cause.
Barth's theology found its most sustained and compelling expression
in his thirteen-volume magnum opus, the
Church Dogmatics (Ger.
"Kirchliche Dogmatik"). Widely regarded as an important theological
Church Dogmatics represents the pinnacle of Barth's
achievement as a theologian.
Church Dogmatics runs to over six million
words and 8,000 pages (in English; over 9,000 in German) – one of
the longest works of systematic theology ever written.
Church Dogmatics address four major doctrines: Revelation, God,
Creation, and Atonement or Reconciliation. Barth had initially also
intended to complete his dogmatics by addressing the doctrines of
redemption and eschatology, but decided not to complete the project in
the later years of his life.
LATER LIFE AND DEATH
Karl Barth on jacket of one of his books
After the end of the
Second World War
Second World War , Barth became an important
voice in support both of German penitence and of reconciliation with
churches abroad. Together with Hans-Joachim Iwand , he authored the
Darmstadt Statement in 1947 – a more concrete statement of German
guilt and responsibility for the
Third Reich and
Second World War
Second World War than
Stuttgart Declaration of Guilt . In it, he made the point
that the Church's willingness to side with anti-socialist and
conservative forces had led to its susceptibility for National
Socialist ideology. In the context of the developing
Cold War , that
controversial statement was rejected by anti-Communists in the West
who supported the CDU course of re-militarization, as well as by East
German dissidents who believed that it did not sufficiently depict the
dangers of Communism. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences
American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1950. In the 1950s, Barth
sympathized with the peace movement and opposed German rearmament .
Karl Barth in 1956
Barth wrote a 1960 article for
The Christian Century regarding the
"East-West question" in which he denied any inclination toward Eastern
communism and stated he did not wish to live under Communism or wish
anyone to be forced to do so; he acknowledged a fundamental
disagreement with most of those around him, writing: "I do not
comprehend how either politics or Christianity require or even permit
such a disinclination to lead to the conclusions which the West has
drawn with increasing sharpness in the past 15 years. I regard
anticommunism as a matter of principle an evil even greater than
In 1962, Barth visited the United States and lectured at Princeton
Theological Seminary , the
University of Chicago
University of Chicago , the Union
Theological Seminary and the
San Francisco Theological Seminary . He
was invited to be a guest at the
Second Vatican Council
Second Vatican Council , after which
he wrote a small volume, Ad Limina Apostolorum .
Barth was featured on the cover of the April 20, 1962 issue of Time
magazine, an indication that his influence had reached out of academic
and ecclesiastical circles and into mainstream American religious
Barth died on December 10, 1968 at his home in
Basel , Switzerland.
The evening before his death, he had encouraged his lifelong friend
Eduard Thurneysen that he should not be downhearted, "For things are
ruled, not just in Moscow or in Washington or in Peking, but things
are ruled – even here on earth—entirely from above, from heaven
One major objective of Barth is to recover the doctrine of the
Trinity in theology from its putative loss in liberalism . His
argument follows from the idea that God is the object of God's own
self-knowledge, and revelation in the Bible means the self-unveiling
to humanity of the God who cannot be discovered by humanity simply
through its own intuition.
One of the most influential and controversial features of Barth's
Dogmatics was his doctrine of election (
Church Dogmatics II/2).
Barth's theology entails a rejection of the idea that God chose each
person to either be saved or damned based on purposes of the Divine
will, and it was impossible to know why God chose some and not others.
Barth's doctrine of election involves a firm rejection of the notion
of an eternal, hidden decree. In keeping with his Christo-centric
methodology, Barth argues that to ascribe the salvation or damnation
of humanity to an abstract absolute decree is to make some part of God
more final and definitive than God's saving act in Jesus Christ. God's
absolute decree, if one may speak of such a thing, is God's gracious
decision to be for humanity in the person of Jesus Christ. Drawing
from the earlier
Reformed tradition, Barth retains the notion of
double predestination but makes Jesus himself the object of both
divine election and reprobation simultaneously; Jesus embodies both
God's election of humanity and God's rejection of human sin . While
some regard this revision of the doctrine of election as an
improvement on the Augustinian -
Calvinist doctrine of the
predestination of individuals, critics, namely Brunner, have charged
that Barth's view amounts to a soft universalism , thereby departing
Barth’s doctrine of objective atonement develops as he distances
Anselm of Canterbury
Anselm of Canterbury ’s doctrine of the atonement. In
The Epistle to the Romans , Barth endorses Anselm’s idea that God
who is robbed of his honor must punish those who robbed him. In Church
Dogmatics I/2, Barth advocates divine freedom in the incarnation with
the support of Anselm’s
Cur Deus Homo . Barth holds that Anselm’s
doctrine of the atonement preserves both God’s freedom and the
necessity of Christ’s incarnation. The positive endorsement of
Anselmian motives in
Cur Deus Homo continues in
Church Dogmatics II/1.
Barth maintains with Anselm that the sin of humanity cannot be removed
by the merciful act of divine forgiveness alone. In Church Dogmatics
IV/1, however, Barth’s doctrine of the atonement diverges from that
of Anselm. By over-christologizing the doctrine, Barth completes his
formulation of objective atonement. He finalizes the necessity of
God’s mercy at the place where Anselm firmly establishes the dignity
and freedom of the will of God. In Barth’s view, God’s mercy is
identified with God’s righteousness in a distinctive way where
God’s mercy always takes the initiative. The change in Barth’s
reception of Anselm’s doctrine of the atonement shows that Barth’s
doctrine entails support for universalism.
Barth argued that previous perspectives on sin and salvation,
influenced by strict
Calvinist thinking, sometimes misled Christians
into thinking that predestination set up humanity such that the vast
majority of human beings were foreseen to disobey and reject God, with
damnation coming to them as a matter of fate. Barth's view of
salvation is centrally Christological, with his writings stating that
in Jesus Christ the reconciliation of all of mankind to God has
essentially already taken place and that through Christ man is already
elect and justified. Though not an advocate of Christian universalism
, strictly speaking, Barth asserted that eternal salvation for
everyone, even those that reject God, is a possibility that isn't just
an open question but should be hoped for by Christians as a matter of
grace ; specifically, he wrote, "Even though theological consistency
might seem to lead our thoughts and utterances most clearly in this
direction, we must not arrogate to ourselves that which can be given
and received only as a free gift", just hoping for total
Barth, in the words of a later scholar, went a "significant step
beyond traditional theology" in that he argued against more
conservative strains of
Protestant Christianity in which damnation is
seen as an absolute certainty for many or most people. To Barth,
Christ's grace is central.
UNDERSTANDING OF MARY
Main article: Karl Barth\'s views on Mary
Protestant theologians, Barth wrote on the topic of
Mariology (the theological study of Mary). Barth's views on the
subject agreed with much Roman Catholic dogma but he disagreed with
the Catholic veneration of Mary. Aware of the common dogmatic
tradition of the early Church, Barth fully accepted the dogma of Mary
as the Mother of God, seeing a rejection of that title equivalent to
rejecting the doctrine that Christ's human and divine natures are
inseparable (contra the Nestorian heresy). Through Mary, Jesus belongs
to the human race. Through Jesus, Mary is Mother of God.
BARTH, LIBERALS, AND FUNDAMENTALISTS
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A desk in Karl Barth's old office with a painting of Matthias
Grünewald ’s crucifixion scene .
Although Barth's theology rejected German
Protestant liberalism, his
theology has usually not found favour with those at the other end of
the theological spectrum: confessionalists and fundamentalists . His
doctrine of the Word of God, for instance, holds that Christ is the
Word of God, and does not proceed by arguing or proclaiming that the
Bible must be uniformly historically and scientifically accurate, and
then establishing other theological claims on that foundation.
Some fundamentalist critics have joined liberals in referring to
Barth as "neo-orthodox " because, while his theology retains most or
all of the tenets of their understanding of Christianity, he is seen
as rejecting the belief which is a linchpin of their theological
system: biblical inerrancy . Such critics believe the written text
must be considered to be historically accurate and verifiable and see
Barth's view as a separation of theological truth from historical
truth. Barth could respond by saying that the claim that the
foundation of theology is biblical inerrancy is to use a foundation
other than Jesus Christ, and that our understanding of Scripture's
accuracy and worth can only properly emerge from consideration of what
it means for it to be a true witness to the incarnate Word, Jesus.
The relationship between Barth, liberalism, and fundamentalism goes
far beyond the issue of inerrancy, however. From Barth's perspective,
liberalism, as understood in the sense of the 19th century with
Friedrich Schleiermacher and
Hegel as its leading exponents and not
necessarily expressed in any particular political ideology, is the
divinization of human thinking. This, to him, inevitably leads one or
more philosophical concepts to become the false God, thus attempting
to block the true voice of the living God. This, in turn, leads to the
captivity of theology by human ideology. In Barth's theology, he
emphasizes again and again that human concepts of any kind, breadth or
narrowness quite beside the point, can never be considered as
identical to God's revelation. In this aspect, Scripture is also
written human language, which bears witness to the self-revelation of
God in Jesus Christ. Scripture cannot be considered as identical to
God's self-revelation, which is properly only Jesus Christ. However,
in his freedom and love, God truly reveals himself through human
language and concepts, with a view toward their necessity in reaching
fallen humanity. Thus Barth claims that Christ is truly presented in
Scripture and the preaching of the church, echoing a stand expressed
in his native Swiss
Helvetic Confession of the 16th
He opposes any attempts to closely relate theology and philosophy,
although Barth consistently insists that he is not
"anti-philosophical." His approach in that respect is predominantly
Christocentric, and is thus termed "kerygmatic ," as opposed to
INFLUENCE ON CHRISTIAN ETHICS
Among many other areas, Barth has also had a profound influence on
Christian ethics . He has influenced the work of ethicists
Stanley Hauerwas ,
John Howard Yoder
John Howard Yoder ,
Jacques Ellul and
Oliver O\'Donovan .
RELATIONSHIP WITH CHARLOTTE VON KIRSCHBAUM
Charlotte von Kirschbaum was Barth's secretary and theological
assistant for more than three decades. When Barth first met her in
1924 he had already been married for 12 years and, in 1929, she moved
into the Barth family household, which included his wife Nelly and
George Hunsinger summarizes the influence of von
Kirschbaum on Barth's work: "As his unique student, critic,
researcher, adviser, collaborator, companion, assistant, spokesperson,
Charlotte von Kirschbaum was indispensable to him. He
could not have been what he was, or have done what he did, without
The long-standing work relationship was not without its difficulties.
It caused offense among some of Barth's friends, as well as his
mother. While Nelly supplied the household and the children, von
Kirschbaum and Barth shared an academic relationship. The feminist
scholar, Suzanne Selinger says "art of any realistic response to the
subject of Barth and von Kirschbaum must be anger", because she has
been largely unrecognized by Barthian scholars for her work. Barth
lauds von Kirschbaum for her assistance in the preface of Church
Dogmatics: Volume 3 – The Doctrine of Creation Part 3.
John Updike 's Roger\'s Version , Roger Lambert is a professor of
religion. Lambert is influenced by the works of Karl Barth. That is
the primary reason that he rejects his student's attempt to use
computational methods to understand God.
Harry Mulisch 's The Discovery of Heaven makes mentions of Barth's
Church Dogmatics, as does
David Markson 's The Last Novel. In the case
of Mulisch and Markson, it is the ambitious nature of the Church
Dogmatics that seems to be of significance. In the case of Updike, it
is the emphasis on the idea of God as "Wholly Other" that is
Marilynne Robinson 's Gilead , the preacher John Ames reveres
Barth's "Epistle to the Romans" and refers to it as his favorite book
other than the Bible.
Whittaker Chambers cites Barth in nearly all his books: Witness (p.
507), Cold Friday (p. 194), and Odyssey of a Friend (pp. 201, 231).
CENTER FOR BARTH STUDIES
Princeton Theological Seminary
Princeton Theological Seminary , where Barth lectured in 1962, houses
the Center for Barth Studies, which is dedicated to supporting
scholarship related to the work of Karl Barth. The center was
established in 1997 and sponsors seminars, conferences, and other
events. It also holds the
Karl Barth Research Collection, which
contains nearly all of Barth's works in English and German, several
first editions of his works, and an original handwritten manuscript by
* Saints portal
* Calvinism portal
* Karl Barth\'s views on Mary
* The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der Römerbrief I, 1st ed., 1919)
* The Epistle to the Romans (Ger. Der Römerbrief. Zweite Fassung,
1922). E. C. Hoskyns, trans. London: Oxford University Press, 1933,
1968] ISBN 0-19-500294-6
* The Word of God and The Word of Man (Ger. Das Wort Gottes und die
Theologie, 1928). New York: Harper The Word of God and Theology. Amy
Marga, trans. New York: T & T Clark, 2011.
* Preaching Through the Christian Year. H. Wells and J. McTavish,
eds. Edinburgh: T. reprinted by Pickwick Publications (1985) ISBN
* Church and State. G.R. Howe, trans. London: SCM, 1939.
* The Church and the War. A. H. Froendt, trans. New York: Macmillan,
* Prayer according to the Catechisms of the Reformation. S.F.
Terrien, trans. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1952 (Also published as:
Prayer and Preaching. London: SCM, 1964).
* The Humanity of God, J.N. Thomas and T. Wieser, trans. Richmond,
VA: John Knox Press, 1960. ISBN 0-8042-0612-0
* Evangelical Theology: An Introduction. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans,
* The Christian Life.
Church Dogmatics IV/4: Lecture Fragments.
Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1981. ISBN 0-567-09320-4 , ISBN
* The Word in this World: Two Sermons by Karl Barth. Edited by Kurt
I. Johanson. Regent Publishing (Vancouver, BC, Canada): 2007
* "No Angels of Darkness and Light," The Christian Century, January
20, 1960, p. 72 (reprinted in Contemporary Moral Issues. H. K.
Girvetz, ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1963. pp. 6–8).
Göttingen Dogmatics: Instruction in the Christian Religion,
vol. 1. G.W. Bromiley, trans. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1991. ISBN
* Dogmatics in Outline (1947 lectures), Harper Perennial, 1959, ISBN
THE CHURCH DOGMATICS IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
* Volume I Part 1: Doctrine of the Word of God: Prolegomena to
Church Dogmatics, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09013-2 , softcover: ISBN
0-567-05059-9 (German: 1932)
* Volume I Part 2: Doctrine of the Word of God, hardcover: ISBN
0-567-09012-4 , softcover: ISBN 0-567-05069-6 (German: 1938)
* Volume II Part 1: The Doctrine of God: The Knowledge of God; The
Reality of God, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09021-3 , softcover: ISBN
0-567-05169-2 (German: 1940)
* Volume II Part 2: The Doctrine of God: The Election of God; The
Command of God, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09022-1 , softcover: ISBN
0-567-05179-X (German: 1942)
* Volume III Part 1: The Doctrine of Creation: The Work of Creation,
hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09031-0 , softcover: ISBN 0-567-05079-3 (German:
* Volume III Part 2: The Doctrine of Creation: The Creature,
hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09032-9 , softcover: ISBN 0-567-05089-0 (German:
* Volume III Part 3: The Doctrine of Creation: The Creator and His
Creature, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09033-7 , softcover: ISBN
0-567-05099-8 (German: 1950)
* Volume III Part 4: The Doctrine of Creation: The Command of God
the Creator, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09034-5 , softcover: ISBN
0-567-05109-9 (German: 1951)
* Volume IV Part 1: The Doctrine of Reconciliation, hardcover: ISBN
0-567-09041-8 , softcover: ISBN 0-567-05129-3 (German: 1953)
* Volume IV Part 2: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus Christ the
Servant As Lord, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09042-6 , softcover: ISBN
0-567-05139-0 (German: 1955)
* Volume IV Part 3, first half: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus
Christ the True Witness, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09043-4 , softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05189-7 (German: 1959)
* Volume IV Part 3, second half: Doctrine of Reconciliation: Jesus
Christ the True Witness, hardcover: ISBN 0-567-09044-2 , softcover:
ISBN 0-567-05149-8 (German: 1959)
* Volume IV Part 4 (unfinished): Doctrine of Reconciliation: The
Foundation of the Christian Life (Baptism), hardcover: ISBN
0-567-09045-0 , softcover: ISBN 0-567-05159-5 (German: 1967)
* Volume V: Church Dogmatics: Contents and Indexes, hardcover: ISBN
0-567-09046-9 , softcover: ISBN 0-567-05119-6
* Church Dogmatics, 14 volume set, softcover, ISBN 0-567-05809-3
* Church Dogmatics: A Selection, with intro. by H. Gollwitzer, 1961,
Westminster John Knox Press 1994, ISBN 0-664-25550-7
* Church Dogmatics, dual language German and English, books with
CD-ROM, ISBN 0-567-08374-8
* Church Dogmatics, dual language German and English, CD-ROM only,
* On Religion. Edited and translated by Garrett Green. London: T
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* ^ Thomas Forsyth Torrance (1990). Karl Barth, Biblical and
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* ^ Woo, B. Hoon (2014). "Kierkegaard’s Influence on Karl
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* ^ Kenneth Oakes, Reading Karl Barth: A Companion to Karl Barth's
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* ^ Michael Allen (18 December 2012). Karl Barth\'s Church
Dogmatics: An Introduction and Reader. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp.
5–. ISBN 978-0-567-48994-4 .
* ^ Ian Ward (1992) Law, philosophy, and National Socialism. Bern:
Peter Lang. p 117. ISBN 3-261-04536-1 .
* ^ The T & T Clark Blog: Church Dogmatics. Tandtclark.typepad.com.
Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
* ^ Myers, Ben. (November 27, 2005)
Faith and Theology: Church
Dogmatics in a week. Faith-theology.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
* ^ Grau, H. G. (1973). "Archived copy".
Theology Today. p. 138.
doi :10.1177/004057367303000205 . Archived from the original on August
21, 2006. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
* ^ Green, Garrett. "Introduction" to On
Religion by Karl Barth,
Trans. Garrett Green. (London: T">(PDF). American Academy of Arts and
Sciences. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
* ^ Barth, Karl. "No Angels of Darkness and Light", The Christian
Century, January 20, 1960, pp. 72 ff.
* ^ Eberhard Jüngel (1986). Karl Barth, a Theological Legacy.
Westminster Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0-664-24031-8 .
* ^ TIME Magazine Cover:
Karl Barth – April 20, 1962 – Religion
– Christianity. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
* ^ "Biography Center for Barth Studies". barth.ptsem.edu.
* ^ Braatan, 80-81
* ^ Gorringe, 135-36.
* ^ Mangina, 76.
* ^ Chung, 385-86.
* ^ Webster (2000), 93-95.
* ^ Douglas Atchison Campbell (2005). The Quest For Paul\'s Gospel:
A Suggested Strategy. T & T Clark International. p. 42. ISBN
* ^ Brunner, Emil, The Christian Doctrine of God: Dogmatics: Volume
1, (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1950)
* ^ Mikkelsen, Hans Vium (2010). Reconciled Humanity:
Karl Barth in
Dialogue. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. p. 5. ISBN 0802863639 .
Retrieved 19 October 2015.
* ^ Bloesch, Donald G. (2001). Jesus is Victor!: Karl Barth\'s
Doctrine of Salvation. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 43–50. ISBN
0687202256 . Retrieved 19 October 2015.
* ^ Hasel, Frank M. (Autumn 1991). "Karl Barth\'s Church Dogmatics
on the Atonement: Some Translational Problems" (PDF). Andrews
University Seminary Studies. 29 (3): 205–211. Retrieved 19 October
* ^ Woo, B. Hoon (2014). "Karl Barth’s Doctrine of the Atonement
and Universalism". Korea
Reformed Journal. 32: 243–291.
* ^ A B Richard Bauckham, "Universalism: a historical survey",
Themelios 4.2 (September 1978): 47–54.
* ^ Louth, Andrew (1977). Mary and the Mystery of the Incarnation:
An Essay on the Mother of God in the
Theology of Karl Barth. Oxford:
Fairacres. pp. 1–24. ISBN 0728300737 .
* ^ Roger E. Olson (2004). The Westminster Handbook to Evangelical
Theology. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 43–. ISBN
* ^ This was part of Cornelius Van Til's critique of Barth's
doctrine of scripture. Barth, it seems dismissed Biblical passages
that didn't agree with his theology. Van Til was one of Barth's
earliest (American) conservative critics. See Van Til, Cornelius (May
Karl Barth Become Orthodox?". Westminster Theological
Journal. 16: 138ff. Retrieved 2012-11-17.
* ^ Kenneth Oakes,
Karl Barth on
Theology and Philosophy, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 242.
* ^ A B Parsons, Michael (1987). "Man Encountered by the Command of
Ethics of Karl Barth" (PDF). Vox Evangelica. 17: 48–65.
* ^ Daniel L. Migliore (August 15, 2010). Commanding Grace: Studies
in Karl Barth\'s Ethics. W.B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN
* ^ Matthew J. Aragon-Bruce.
Ethics in Crisis: Interpreting
Ethics (book review) Princeton Seminary Library. Retrieved on
2012-07-15. Archived June 9, 2010, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Oxford University Press: The Hastening that Waits: Nigel
Biggar. Oup.com. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
* ^ Journal – The Influence of
Karl Barth on Christian Ethics.
www.kevintaylor.me (April 7, 2011). Retrieved on 2012-07-15. Archived
October 23, 2011, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Choi Lim Ming, Andrew (2003). A Study on Jacques Ellul\'s
Dialectical Approach to the Modern and Spiritual World. wordpress.com
* ^ A B Suzanne Selinger (1998). Charlotte Von Kirschbaum and Karl
Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of Theology. Penn State
Press. pp. 1–. ISBN 978-0-271-01864-5 .
* ^ George Hunsinger's review of S. Seliger, Charlotte von
Kirschbaum and Karl Barth: A Study in Biography and the History of
Theology. Archived September 27, 2007, at the
Wayback Machine .
* ^ Eberhard Busch (2005). Karl Barths Lebenslauf: Nach seinen
Briefen und autobiografischen Texten. Theologischer Verlag Zürich.
pp. 177 ff. ISBN 978-3-290-17304-3 .
* ^ Eberhard Busch; John Bowden, John (June 21, 2005). Karl Barth:
His Life from Letters and Autobiographical Texts. Wipf & Stock. pp.
185–186. ISBN 978-1-59752-169-7 .
* ^ S. Seliger,
Charlotte von Kirschbaum and Karl Barth; quoted in
K. Sonderegger's review.
Karl Barth (May 8, 2004).
Church Dogmatics The Doctrine of
Creation, Volume 3, Part 3: The Creator and His Creature. Continuum
International Publishing Group. pp. 12–. ISBN 978-0-567-05099-1 .
* ^ . Princeton Seminary Library. Retrieved on 2012-07-15.
* "Witness to an Ancient Truth". Time. April 20, 1962. Retrieved
* Bradshaw, Timothy . 1988.
Trinity and Ontology: A Comparative
Study of the Theologies of
Karl Barth and
Wolfhart Pannenberg .
Rutherford House Books, reprint, Lewiston; Lampeter: Edwin Mellen
Press for Rutherford House, Edinburgh, 1992.
* Braaten, Carl E. (2008). That All May Believe: A
Theology of the
Gospel and the Mission of the Church. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. ISBN
080286239X . Retrieved 19 October 2015.
* Bromiley, Geoffrey William. An introduction to the theology of
Karl Barth. Grand Rapids, Mich. : William B. Eerdmans, 1979.
* Buclin, Hadrien, Entre culture du consensus et critique sociale.
Les intellectuels de gauche dans la Suisse de l'après-guerre, Thèse
de doctorat, Université de Lausanne, 2015.
* Busch, Eberhard. Karl Barth: His Life from Letters and
Autobiographical Texts. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1976.
* ——— (2004), The Great Passion: An Introduction to Karl
Barth's Theology, Grand Rapids, MI: William B Eerdmans .
* Chung, Paul S. Karl Barth: God\'s Word in Action. James Clarke &
Co, Cambridge (2008), ISBN 978-0-227-17266-7 .
* Clark, Gordon . Karl Barth's Theological Method. Trinity
Foundation (1997, 2nd ed.), 1963. ISBN 0-940931-51-6 .
* Fiddes, Paul . 'The status of women in the thought of Karl Barth',
in Janet Martin Soskice, ed., After Eve , 1990, pp. 138–55. Marshall
* Fink, Heinrich. "
Karl Barth und die Bewegung Freies Deutschland in
der Schweiz." "
Karl Barth und die Bewegung Freies Deutschland in der
Schweiz : Dissertation zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades doctor
scientiae theologiae (Dr.sc.theol.), vorgelegt dem Senat des
Wissenschaftlichen Rates der Humboldt-Universitaaet zu Berlin."
Berlin, H. Fink , 1978.
* Galli, Mark (2000). "Neo-Orthodoxy: Karl Barth". Christianity
* Gherardini, Brunero. "A domanda risponde. In dialogo con Karl
Barth sulle sue \'Domande a Roma\' (A Question Answered. In Dialogue
Karl Barth on His \'Questions in Rome\')". Frigento (Italy): Casa
Mariana Editrice, 2011. ISBN 978-88-9056-111-5 .
* Gignilliat, Mark S (2009).
Karl Barth and the Fifth Gospel:
Exegesis of Isaiah. Farnham: Ashgate. ISBN
0754658562 . Retrieved 19 October 2015.
* Gorringe, Timothy . Karl Barth: Against Hegemony. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 1999.
* Hunsinger, George . How to Read Karl Barth: The Shape of His
Theology. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993.
* Jae Jin Kim. Die Universalitaet der Versoehnung im Gottesbund. Zur
biblischen Begruendung der Bundestheologie in der kirchlichen Dogmatik
Karl Barths, Lit Verlag, 1992.
* Mangina, Joseph L. Karl Barth:
Theologian of Christian Witness.
Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2004.
* McCormack, Bruce. Karl Barth’s Critically Realistic Dialectical
Theology: Its Genesis and Development, 1909–1936. Oxford University
Press, USA (March 27, 1997), ISBN 978-0-19-826956-4
* McKenny, Gerald. "The Analogy of Grace: Karl Barth\'s Moral
Theology." Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN 0-19-958267-X .
* Oakes, Kenneth.
Karl Barth on
Theology and Philosophy. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 2012.
* Oakes, Kenneth. Reading Karl Barth: A Companion to Karl Barth's
Epistle to the Romans. Eugene: Cascade, 2011.
* Webster, John. Barth. 2nd ed., London: Continuum, 2004.
* Webster, John, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Karl Barth.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
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