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Karaj
Karaj
(Persian: کرج‎ pronounced [kæˈɾædʒ] ( listen)) is the capital of Alborz
Alborz
Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran. Although the county hosts a population around 1.97 million, as recorded in the 2016 census, most of the 1,419 sqkm county is rugged mountain, the urban area is the fourth-largest in Iran, after Tehran, Mashhad, and Isfahan.[1] The counties of Eshtehard
Eshtehard
and Fardis
Fardis
were split off from Karaj
Karaj
county since the previous census. The earliest records of Karaj
Karaj
date back to 30th century BC. The city was developed under the rule of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties, and is home to historical buildings and memorials from those eras. Until the second half of the 20th century, it used to be known mainly as a summer resort. Today, it is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography

2.1 Regions 2.2 Climate

3 Demographics 4 Transport 5 Economy 6 Education 7 Sports 8 Notable people 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Karaj
Karaj
has been hosting communities since 3000 years BC.[2][3] The Khurvin
Khurvin
region of Karaj
Karaj
has been inhabited since the Bronze Age, and the Kelāk region on the left bank of Karaj River
Karaj River
since the Iron Age. The stone built Taxt e Rostam, located on a mount in the west of Šahriār County, was built in the Parthian era as a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
fire temple.

Šāh-Abbāsi Caravansary

Until the late 20th century, the city was mainly crossed into by a stone bridge built in the Safavid era. The stone built Šāh-Abbāsi Caravansary, located at the southeast of Towhid Square, was built in the same era, under the rule of Šāh Esmāil.[3] In the 1810s, the Palace of Soleymānie, which included four towers surrounded by gardens and walls, was built as a summer resort by the order of Šāhzāde Soleymān (Soleymān Mirzā), an old prince governor of Kermānšāh.[3] Granted in the Pahlavi era
Pahlavi era
by Rezā Šāh Pahlavi, it is now housing the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Tehran.

Morvārid Palace

The Morvārid Palace was constructed in nearby Mehršahr district, during the Pahlavi era. It was designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation (Taliesin Associated Architects) on instructions from Shams Pahlavi, elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Majority of the structure is now controlled by the Basij
Basij
Organization, and some sections of it are open to public under the operation of Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. Other historical sites of the city include the Mausoleum of Šāhzāde Soleymān, Emāmzāde Rahmān, Emāmzāde Zeyd, and Palang Ābād e Eštehārd.[4] Geography[edit] Karaj
Karaj
is situated 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz
Alborz
mountains. Built on a wide plain with some gentle hills, the city is located north of the agricultural plain of Šahriār and east of the plains of Sāvoj Bolāq and Haštgerd. Regions[edit] The downtown of Karaj
Karaj
is usually referred to Karaj
Karaj
Square, located hundred of meters to the west of Karaj River
Karaj River
and the old Karaj
Karaj
Bridge. The villages Hesārak, Gowhar Dašt, and Šahrak e Azimie are located in the northern Greater Karaj. Mehršahr, an abortive residential luxury resort, and Šahrak e Fardis, a popular modern quarter close to the industrial facilities,[5] were designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in the late 1960s. Meškin Dašt, a large agricultural area between Mehršahr and Fardis, lies outside the municipal limits of Karaj. The following table includes the major districts of the city:

Gowhar Dašt Mehršahr Kiān-mehr Karaj
Karaj
e Now Hesārak Deraxti Azimie Ouj Šāhin Villā Bonyād Bāqestān Dowlat Ābād

Garm Darre Šahrak e Jahānšahr Mesbāh Mehr Villā Dehqān Villā Māhdašt Šahrak e Banafše Fardis Vahdat Kalāk o Hesār Eslām Ābād Golšahr

Golšahr Villā Zibā Dašt Zowb e Āhan Sāsāni Homāyun Villā Asārā Mohammadšahr Mehdi Ābād Šahrak e Xātam Miān Jādde Heydar Ābād Sāvoj Bolāq Bahārestān

Open space recreational areas of Karaj
Karaj
include Irānzamin Park, Pārk e Xānvāde, Tennis Park, Pārk e Mādar, Tāleqān Gardens, Kordān Gardens, Jahānšahr Gardens, Pardis e Golhā, and the Tulip Garden of Gačsār.

Mehršahr, Karaj

Climate[edit] The climate of Karaj
Karaj
is a bit cooler than Tehran's, and it receives 260 mm of rain annually (and like Tehran, the precipation pattern is similar to those of mediterranean climates). The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies the city's climate as cold semi-arid (BSk).[6]

Climate data for Karaj
Karaj
(1985–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 18.2 (64.8) 19.8 (67.6) 27.4 (81.3) 33.0 (91.4) 34.6 (94.3) 39.2 (102.6) 42.0 (107.6) 40.2 (104.4) 37.2 (99) 31.8 (89.2) 25.0 (77) 20.0 (68) 42.0 (107.6)

Average high °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 9.0 (48.2) 14.2 (57.6) 20.7 (69.3) 26.2 (79.2) 32.6 (90.7) 35.2 (95.4) 34.5 (94.1) 30.4 (86.7) 23.5 (74.3) 15.1 (59.2) 8.9 (48) 21.4 (70.5)

Daily mean °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 4.1 (39.4) 8.7 (47.7) 14.5 (58.1) 19.2 (66.6) 24.6 (76.3) 27.1 (80.8) 26.8 (80.2) 22.9 (73.2) 17.1 (62.8) 9.9 (49.8) 4.6 (40.3) 15.1 (59.2)

Average low °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −0.7 (30.7) 3.2 (37.8) 8.4 (47.1) 12.2 (54) 16.5 (61.7) 19.0 (66.2) 19.1 (66.4) 15.3 (59.5) 10.8 (51.4) 4.8 (40.6) 0.3 (32.5) 8.9 (48)

Record low °C (°F) −17.0 (1.4) −15.6 (3.9) −10.5 (13.1) −3.5 (25.7) −0.4 (31.3) 7.2 (45) 10.6 (51.1) 12.0 (53.6) 7.0 (44.6) −0.5 (31.1) −6.0 (21.2) −14.6 (5.7) −17.0 (1.4)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 30.8 (1.213) 32.1 (1.264) 45.4 (1.787) 39.1 (1.539) 19.5 (0.768) 2.7 (0.106) 3.0 (0.118) 1.2 (0.047) 1.6 (0.063) 15.1 (0.594) 27.7 (1.091) 33.5 (1.319) 251.7 (9.909)

Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 6.3 5.7 6.7 5.8 3.7 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.3 3.2 4.8 5.8 44.3

Average snowy days 5.4 3.7 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.7 14.3

Average relative humidity (%) 67 60 53 48 43 34 35 34 36 44 56 66 48

Mean monthly sunshine hours 166.3 169.7 197.4 218.1 280.7 335.2 341.5 340.1 304.2 250.1 187.2 156.8 2,947.3

Source: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records),[7] (temperatures),[8] (precipitation),[9] (humidity),[10] (days with precipitation and snow),[11] (sunshine)[12]

Amir Kabir Dam
Amir Kabir Dam
and some other small lakes are based in Karaj. The city is a starting point for a drive along road forced north through the Alborz
Alborz
mountain to the Caspian Sea.[13]

Karaj
Karaj
Valley

Mehršahr in spring

Karaj
Karaj
Dam

Another view of the Karaj
Karaj
Dam

Ājin Dojin

Demographics[edit]

Ethnic groups of Karaj
Karaj
(Pars advanced research scholars)[14]

Ethnic groups

Percent

Persians

53%

Azerbaijanis

30%

Kurds

7.2%

Gilaks
Gilaks
and Mazanders

5%

Lur

4.1%

The majority of the residents of Karaj
Karaj
are Persian-speaking people, with Azerbaijanis making up the second major ethno-linguistic group of the city. Kurds, Gilaks, Mazanders and Lurs
Lurs
include the other ethnicities among the population of Karaj. Transport[edit] See also: Transport in Iran Karaj
Karaj
is connected by railway and highways to Tehran
Tehran
40 km east and Qazvin
Qazvin
100 km northwest, and by commuter rail to the subway system of Tehran.

Golshahr Metro Station

The city is served by an urban railway organization established on 21 December 2001.[15][16] It is also served by the Karaj
Karaj
Metro Station which was established on 7 March 1999, and is located in the south-eastern Karaj, near Tehran- Qazvin
Qazvin
Freeway. The highway system of Karaj
Karaj
includes Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway, Karaj Special
Special
Road, and the old road of Karaj
Karaj
(Fath Highway). Bākeri Expressway is one of the main north-to-south routes in west Tehran, which is connected to the Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway.[17] Tehran-Karaj Highway is one of the busiest sections in Iran
Iran
with AADT
AADT
of 217084.[18] Karaj- Qazvin
Qazvin
has an AADT
AADT
of 79606. The aerial transport of Karaj
Karaj
is served by the Payam International Airport, which was established in 1990, and was officially opened in 1997.

A view of the Karaj-Čālus Road and the Karaj
Karaj
River

Economy[edit]

Mahestan Shopping Center

The economic base of Karaj
Karaj
is its proximity to Tehran. It is due to the transportation of products between Tehran
Tehran
and the Caspian Sea. Chemicals, fertilizers and processed agricultural goods are also produced in the city. Karaj
Karaj
is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol. It has become a major area for middle class migrants from Tehran. This is due to the better environmental and cheaper housing conditions. Zowb Āhan, the avenue leading to an industrial plant, is located at the south of Ostandar Square. Zowb e Āhan or Zowb Āhan, literally "steel mill", was a contract between the Pahlavi government and a consortium from Nazi Germany. The establishment of the factory Zowb Āhan e Karaj
Karaj
was halted by the beginning of the Second World War, and it was never launched. Šahrak e Jahānšahr was the first modern private industrial and housing complex of Karaj, built in the 1960s. The factories Jahān Čit (textile factory), Rowqan Nabāti e Jahān (oil factory), and Čāy e Jahān (tea factory), were established at the complex. It is one of the largest industrial zones of the nation, with a 20% share of the national GDP. The special economic zone of Payam, with an area about 3600 hectares within the territory of Payam International Airport, was established in Karaj
Karaj
for development of air cargo and postal transportation, cold store, and packing services, as well as perishable and time sensitive exports. It is the only SEZ in the region with the privilege of its own airline. Education[edit]

Kharazmi University
Kharazmi University
in winter

Educational and research centers of the city include:

Islamic Azad University of Karaj Kharazmi University Alborz
Alborz
University of medical sciences Faculty of Music of the Tehran
Tehran
University of Art Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the Tehran
Tehran
University of Art Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the University of Tehran University of Environment Payam e Noor University of Karaj Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute Center for Research in Agriculture and Nuclear Medicine of Karaj Material and Energy Research Center

Sports[edit] See also: Sport in Iran

Enqelāb Stadium of Karaj

Dizin
Dizin
Ski Resort

Karaj
Karaj
was formerly home to Persian Gulf Pro League
Persian Gulf Pro League
club Saipa for a number of years. The club won their first league championship in the city, however in 2014 the team relocated to Tehran. Currently the only major football team is Oxin Alborz
Alborz
who play in the second tiered Azadegan League. Karaj
Karaj
is also known as being the birthplace of Iranian legend and former Bayern Munich
Bayern Munich
player Ali Karimi. The Enqelāb Stadium, with capacity of 15,000 people, is a multi-purpose stadium in Karaj. It is currently used mostly for football matches. There is also a tennis court in Šahrak e Jahānšahr. The ski resorts of Dizin
Dizin
and Xur are situated close to Karaj, in the Alborz
Alborz
mountains. Along with skiing facilities in Dizin, there are tennis courtyards, a slope for skiing on turf, some altitudes for mountain climbing and walking as well as riding and some routes for cycling.[19] The high altitude mountains have made it easy for people in Karaj
Karaj
to use them as mountain trail for hiking and mountain climbing. There are also several private gyms and clubs being utilized. Notable people[edit]

Kimia Alizade
Kimia Alizade
(b. 1998), Iranian first female and youngest Olympic medalist sportswoman Mahmoud Bahmani
Mahmoud Bahmani
(b. 1947), politician Shadi Amin, political activist Hossein Sanapour
Hossein Sanapour
(b. 1960), writer Ahmad Sanjari (b. 1960), football coach Saied Reza Ameli
Saied Reza Ameli
(b. 1961), scholar of communication Mehran Rajabi
Mehran Rajabi
(b. 1962), actor Fatemeh Ajorlou (b. 1966), politician Farshad Falahatzadeh
Farshad Falahatzadeh
(b. 1967), football player Mojtaba Taghavi (b. 1968), football player Naeim Saadavi
Naeim Saadavi
(b. 1969), football player Leila Esfandyari (1970-2011), mountain climber Alireza Heidari (b. 1976), wrestler Ali Karimi
Ali Karimi
(b. 1978), football player Ebrahim Sadeghi
Ebrahim Sadeghi
(b. 1979), football player Mohammad Nosrati
Mohammad Nosrati
(b. 1981), football player Rouhollah Dadashi (1982-2011), powerlifter Ebrahim Masoudi (b. 1982), futsal player Mehdi Mahdavi
Mehdi Mahdavi
(b. 1984), volleyball player Ali Mohammadi (b. 1984), wrestler Saeed Kamali Dehghan
Saeed Kamali Dehghan
(b. 1985), journalist Afshin Kazemi (b. 1986), futsal player Amin Manouchehri
Amin Manouchehri
(b. 1986), football player Reza Mohammadi
Reza Mohammadi
(b. 1986), football player Ali Kiaei (b. 1987), futsal player Mehrdad Pooladi
Mehrdad Pooladi
(b. 1987), football player Milad Farahani (b. 1988), football player Fateme Ekhtesari(b. 1986), poet

See also[edit]

Iran
Iran
portal

Morvārid Palace Mehršahr Amir Kabir Dam

References[edit]

^ CITY POPULATION: IRAN: Major Cities ^ L. van den Berghe, La nécropole de Khūrvīn, Istanbul, Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut in het Nabije Oosten, 1964. ^ a b c KARAJ i. Modern City ^ ITTO: Karaj ^ Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Foundation's deteriorating masterpiece in Iran, Nima Kasraie - June 4, 2004 ^ "Climate: Karaj
Karaj
- Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 9 September 2013.  ^

"Highest record temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.  "Lowest record temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 

^

"Average Maximum temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.  "Average Mean Daily temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.  "Average Minimum temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 

^

"Monthly Total Precipitation
Precipitation
in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 

^

"Average relative humidity in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 

^

"No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Karaj by Month 1985–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.  "No. of days with snow or sleet in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 

^

"Monthly total sunshine hours in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 

^ Iran. Ediz. Inglese by Andrew Burke, Mark Elliott, and Kamin Mohammadi, 2004 ^ "Pars". Pars.  ^ Karaj
Karaj
Urban Railway History ^ Iran
Iran
Railways Map ^ Main Bridges on Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway Commissioned ^ تردد بیش از یک میلیون خودرو از آزادراه تهران -کرج Archived 2013-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. ^ ITTO: Dizin
Dizin
Ski Slope

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Karaj.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Karaj.

Karaj
Karaj
city portal (in Persian) About Karaj
Karaj
city (in Persian) Karaj
Karaj
News & Information (in Persian) The city of Karaj Iran
Iran
Tourism
Tourism
& Touring Organization Karaj
Karaj
Magazine (in Persian) Karaj
Karaj
Background History (in Persian)

v t e

Alborz
Alborz
Province

Capital

Karaj

Counties and cities

Eshtehard
Eshtehard
County

Eshtehard

Karaj
Karaj
County

Karaj Asara Garmdarreh Kamal Shahr Mahdasht Meshkin Dasht Mohammadshahr

Nazarabad
Nazarabad
County

Nazarabad

Savojbolagh County

Hashtgerd Chaharbagh Golsar Kuhsar Shahr-e Jadid-e Hashtgerd

Taleqan
Taleqan
County

Taleqan

Sights

Ahmadabad-e Mosaddeq Shahabbasi caravansary Pearl Palace

populated places

List of cities, towns and villages in Alborz
Alborz
Province

v t e

Karaj
Karaj
County

Capital

Karaj

Districts

Central

Cities

Karaj Mahdasht Kamal Shahr Mohammadshahr Garmdarreh Meshkin Dasht

Rural Districts and villages

Garmdarreh

Bagh-e Pir Combat Engineering Centre Mazraeh-ye Kazemabad Shahrak-e Taleqani

Kamalabad

Atashgah Darvan Haljerd Khvares Mahmudabad Siah Kalan

Mohammadabad

Alborz
Alborz
Research Centre Aliabad-e Guneh Damdari-ye Baradaran Jomali Department of Water and Agriculture Farrokhabad Golestanak Karaj
Karaj
Nursery Nazhadubahbudshir Correction Centre Qaleh-ye Rustai Qezel Hesar Sepiddasht Shahrak-e Mohandesi-ye Zerai Soil Fertility Centre Vabzar Veterinary Polyclinic

Asara

Cities

Asara

Rural Districts and villages

Adaran

Abharak Adaran Arangeh Avizar Ayegan Charan Jey Jurab Kalha Kalvan Khur Khuzankola Kondor Kushk-e Bala Leylestan Malekabad Nasht-e Rud Nosratabad-e Khadayar Nowjan Purkan Sar Ziarat Sarv Dar Sijan Tasisat Sadamirkebir Vanesh Varian Varzan Vineh

Asara

Dardeh Do Khanvari Hameh Ja Kiasar Kiasarlat Laniz Murud Sarak Shahrestanak Shelnak Tekyeh-e Sepahsalar

Nesa

Asiab Dargah Azadbar Emam Cheshmeh Gach Sar Garmab Gashnadar Gasil Hasanak Dar Kohneh Deh Kushkak Malek Faliz Meydanak Nesa Sorkheh Darreh Valeh Varangeh Rud Velayat Rud

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Iran 2016 census

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Tehran

Mashhad 1 Tehran Tehran 8,693,706 11 Rasht Gilan 679,995

Isfahan

Karaj

2 Mashhad Razavi Khorasan 3,001,184 12 Zahedan Sistan and Baluchestan 587,730

3 Isfahan Isfahan 1,961,260 13 Hamadan Hamadan 554,406

4 Karaj Alborz 1,592,492 14 Kerman Kerman 537,718

5 Shiraz Fars 1,565,572 15 Yazd Yazd 529,673

6 Tabriz East Azarbaijan 1,558,693 16 Ardabil Ardabil 529,374

7 Qom Qom 1,201,158 17 Bandar Abbas Hormozgan 526,648

8 Ahwaz Khuzestan 1,184,788 18 Arak Markazi 520,944

9 Kermanshah Kermanshah 946,651 19 Eslamshahr Tehran 448,129

10 Urmia West Azarbaijan 736,224 20 Zanjan Zanjan 430,871

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 234123

.