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KARAJ (Persian : کرج‎‎ pronunciation (help ·info ) pronounced ) is the capital of Alborz Province , Iran
Iran
. Hosting a population around 1.97 million, as recorded in the 2016 census, it is the fourth-largest city in Iran, after Tehran
Tehran
, Mashhad , and Isfahan .

The earliest records of Karaj
Karaj
date back to 30th century BC. The city was developed under the rule of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties , and is home to historical buildings and memorials from those eras. Until the second half of the 20th century, it used to be known mainly as a summer resort. Today, it is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Regions * 2.2 Climate

* 3 Demography * 4 Transport * 5 Economy * 6 Education * 7 Sports * 8 Notable people * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

Karaj
Karaj
has been hosting communities since 3000 years BC. The Xurvin region of Karaj
Karaj
has been inhabited since the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
, and the Kelāk region on the left bank of Karaj River since the Iron Age
Iron Age
.

The stone built Taxt e Rostam, located on a mount in the west of Šahriār County , was built in the Parthian era as a Zoroastrian
Zoroastrian
fire temple . Šāh-Abbāsi Caravansary

Until the late 20th century, the city was mainly crossed into by a stone bridge built in the Safavid era . The stone built Šāh-Abbāsi Caravansary , located at the southeast of Towhid Square, was built in the same era, under the rule of Šāh Esmāil .

In the 1810s, the Palace of Soleymānie, which included four towers surrounded by gardens and walls, was built as a summer resort by the order of Šāhzāde Soleymān (Soleymān Mirzā), an old prince governor of Kermānšāh . Granted in the Pahlavi era by Rezā Šāh Pahlavi , it is now housing the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Tehran
Tehran
. Morvārid Palace

The Morvārid Palace was constructed in nearby Mehršahr district, during the Pahlavi era . It was designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation ( Taliesin Associated Architects ) on instructions from Shams Pahlavi , elder sister of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
. Majority of the structure is now controlled by the Basij Organization , and some sections of it are open to public under the operation of Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran
Iran
.

Other historical sites of the city include the Mausoleum of Šāhzāde Soleymān, Emāmzāde Rahmān, Emāmzāde Zeyd, and Palang Ābād e Eštehārd .

GEOGRAPHY

Karaj
Karaj
is situated 20 kilometres (12 mi) west of Tehran
Tehran
, at the foothills of the Alborz
Alborz
mountains.

Built on a wide plain with some gentle hills, the city is located north of the agricultural plain of Šahriār and east of the plains of Sāvoj Bolāq and Haštgerd.

REGIONS

The downtown of Karaj
Karaj
is usually referred to Karaj
Karaj
Square, located hundred of meters to the west of Karaj River and the old Karaj
Karaj
Bridge. The villages Hesārak, Gowhar Dašt, and Šahrak e Azimie are located in the northern Greater Karaj. Mehršahr, an abortive residential luxury resort, and Šahrak e Fardis, a popular modern quarter close to the industrial facilities, were designed by the Frank Lloyd Wright Foundation in the late 1960s.

Meškin Dašt, a large agricultural area between Mehršahr and Fardis, lies outside the municipal limits of Karaj.

The following table includes the major districts of the city:

Gowhar Dašt Mehršahr Kiān-mehr Karaj
Karaj
e Now Hesārak Deraxti Azimie Ouj Šāhin Villā Bonyād Bāqestān Dowlat Ābād

Garm Darre Šahrak e Jahānšahr Mesbāh Mehr Villā Dehqān Villā Māhdašt Šahrak e Banafše Fardis Vahdat Kalāk o Hesār Eslām Ābād Golšahr

Golšahr Villā Zibā Dašt Zowb e Āhan Sāsāni Homāyun Villā Asārā Mohammadšahr Mehdi Ābād Šahrak e Xātam Miān Jādde Heydar Ābād Sāvoj Bolāq Bahārestān

Open space recreational areas of Karaj
Karaj
include Irānzamin Park, Pārk e Xānvāde, Tennis Park, Pārk e Mādar, Tāleqān Gardens, Kordān Gardens, Jahānšahr Gardens, Pardis e Golhā, and the Tulip Garden of Gačsār.

*

Mehršahr , Karaj
Karaj

CLIMATE

The climate of Karaj
Karaj
is a bit cooler than Tehran's, and it receives 260 mm of rain annually. The Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies the city's climate as cold semi-arid (BSk).

CLIMATE DATA FOR KARAJ (1985–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 18.2 (64.8) 19.8 (67.6) 27.4 (81.3) 33.0 (91.4) 34.6 (94.3) 39.2 (102.6) 42.0 (107.6) 40.2 (104.4) 37.2 (99) 31.8 (89.2) 25.0 (77) 20.0 (68) 42.0 (107.6)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 6.1 (43) 9.0 (48.2) 14.2 (57.6) 20.7 (69.3) 26.2 (79.2) 32.6 (90.7) 35.2 (95.4) 34.5 (94.1) 30.4 (86.7) 23.5 (74.3) 15.1 (59.2) 8.9 (48) 21.4 (70.5)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 1.8 (35.2) 4.1 (39.4) 8.7 (47.7) 14.5 (58.1) 19.2 (66.6) 24.6 (76.3) 27.1 (80.8) 26.8 (80.2) 22.9 (73.2) 17.1 (62.8) 9.9 (49.8) 4.6 (40.3) 15.1 (59.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −2.5 (27.5) −0.7 (30.7) 3.2 (37.8) 8.4 (47.1) 12.2 (54) 16.5 (61.7) 19.0 (66.2) 19.1 (66.4) 15.3 (59.5) 10.8 (51.4) 4.8 (40.6) 0.3 (32.5) 8.9 (48)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −17.0 (1.4) −15.6 (3.9) −10.5 (13.1) −3.5 (25.7) −0.4 (31.3) 7.2 (45) 10.6 (51.1) 12.0 (53.6) 7.0 (44.6) −0.5 (31.1) −6.0 (21.2) −14.6 (5.7) −17.0 (1.4)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 30.8 (1.213) 32.1 (1.264) 45.4 (1.787) 39.1 (1.539) 19.5 (0.768) 2.7 (0.106) 3.0 (0.118) 1.2 (0.047) 1.6 (0.063) 15.1 (0.594) 27.7 (1.091) 33.5 (1.319) 251.7 (9.909)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 6.3 5.7 6.7 5.8 3.7 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.3 3.2 4.8 5.8 44.3

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 5.4 3.7 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 2.7 14.3

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 67 60 53 48 43 34 35 34 36 44 56 66 48

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 166.3 169.7 197.4 218.1 280.7 335.2 341.5 340.1 304.2 250.1 187.2 156.8 2,947.3

Source: Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization (records), (temperatures), (precipitation), (humidity), (days with precipitation and snow), (sunshine)

Amir Kabir Dam and some other small lakes are based in Karaj. The city is a starting point for a drive along road forced north through the Alborz
Alborz
mountain to the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
.

*

Karaj
Karaj
Valley *

Mehršahr in spring *

Karaj Dam
Karaj Dam
*

Another view of the Karaj Dam
Karaj Dam
*

Ājin Dojin

DEMOGRAPHY

ETHNIC GROUPS OF KARAJ (PARS ADVANCED RESEARCH SCHOLARS)

ETHNIC GROUPS

PERCENT

Persians   61%

Azerbaijanis   34.2%

Kurds
Kurds
  7.2%

Gilaks and Mazanders   5%

Lur
Lur
  4.2%

The majority of the residents of Karaj
Karaj
are Persian-speaking people , with Azerbaijanis making up the second major ethno-linguistic group of the city. Kurds
Kurds
, Gilaks , Mazanders and Lurs include the other ethnicities among the population of Karaj.

TRANSPORT

See also: Transport in Iran
Iran

Karaj
Karaj
is connected by railway and highways to Tehran
Tehran
40 km east and Qazvin
Qazvin
100 km northwest, and by commuter rail to the subway system of Tehran
Tehran
. Golshahr Metro Station

The city is served by an urban railway organization established on 21 December 2001. It is also served by the Karaj Metro Station which was established on 7 March 1999, and is located in the south-eastern Karaj, near Tehran- Qazvin
Qazvin
Freeway .

The highway system of Karaj
Karaj
includes Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway, Karaj Special
Special
Road, and the old road of Karaj
Karaj
(Fath Highway). Bākeri Expressway is one of the main north-to-south routes in west Tehran, which is connected to the Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway. Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway is one of the busiest sections in Iran
Iran
with AADT of 217084. Karaj- Qazvin
Qazvin
has an AADT of 79606.

The aerial transport of Karaj
Karaj
is served by the Payam International Airport , which was established in 1990, and was officially opened in 1997. A view of the Karaj-Čālus Road and the Karaj River

ECONOMY

The economic base of Karaj
Karaj
is its proximity to Tehran
Tehran
. It is due to the transportation of products between Tehran
Tehran
and the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
. Chemicals, fertilizers and processed agricultural goods are also produced in the city.

Karaj
Karaj
is a major industrial city, with factories producing sugar, textiles, wire, and alcohol. It has become a major area for middle class migrants from Tehran. This is due to the better environmental and cheaper housing conditions.

Zowb Āhan, the avenue leading to an industrial plant, is located at the south of Ostandar Square. Zowb e Āhan or Zowb Āhan, literally "steel mill", was a contract between the Pahlavi government and a consortium from Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
. The establishment of the factory Zowb Āhan e Karaj
Karaj
was halted by the beginning of the Second World War
Second World War
, and it was never launched.

Šahrak e Jahānšahr was the first modern private industrial and housing complex of Karaj, built in the 1960s. The factories Jahān Čit (textile factory), Rowqan Nabāti e Jahān (oil factory), and Čāy e Jahān (tea factory), were established at the complex. It is one of the largest industrial zones of the nation, with a 20% share of the national GDP.

The special economic zone of Payam, with an area about 3600 hectares within the territory of Payam International Airport , was established in Karaj
Karaj
for development of air cargo and postal transportation, cold store, and packing services, as well as perishable and time sensitive exports. It is the only SEZ in the region with the privilege of its own airline .

EDUCATION

Kharazmi University in winter

Educational and research centers of the city include:

* Islamic Azad University of Karaj * Kharazmi University * Alborz
Alborz
University of medical sciences * Faculty of Music of the Tehran
Tehran
University of Art * Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism of the Tehran
Tehran
University of Art * Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources of the University of Tehran
Tehran
* University of Environment * Payam e Noor University of Karaj
Karaj
* Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute * Center for Research in Agriculture and Nuclear Medicine of Karaj * Material and Energy Research Center

SPORTS

See also: Sport in Iran
Iran
Enqelāb Stadium of Karaj
Karaj
Dizin Ski Resort

Karaj
Karaj
was formerly home to Persian Gulf Pro League club Saipa for a number of years. The club won their first league championship in the city, however in 2014 the team relocated to Tehran. Currently the only major football team is Oxin Alborz
Alborz
who play in the second tiered Azadegan League .

The Enqelāb Stadium , with capacity of 15,000 people, is a multi-purpose stadium in Karaj. It is currently used mostly for football matches. There is also a tennis court in Šahrak e Jahānšahr.

The ski resorts of Dizin and Xur are situated close to Karaj, in the Alborz
Alborz
mountains.

Along with skiing facilities in Dizin, there are tennis courtyards, a slope for skiing on turf, some altitudes for mountain climbing and walking as well as riding and some routes for cycling.

The high altitude mountains have made it easy for people in Karaj
Karaj
to use them as mountain trail for hiking and mountain climbing.

There are also several private gyms and clubs being utilized.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

Ahmad Šāmlu is buried in Emāmzāde Tāher of Karaj
Karaj

* Kimia Alizade
Kimia Alizade
(b. 1998), Iranian first female and youngest Olympic medalist sportswoman * Mahmoud Bahmani (b. 1947), politician * Shadi Amin , political activist * Hossein Sanapour (b. 1960), writer * Ahmad Sanjari (b. 1960), football coach * Saied Reza Ameli (b. 1961), scholar of communication * Mehran Rajabi (b. 1962), actor * Fatemeh Ajorlou (b. 1966), politician * Farshad Falahatzadeh (b. 1967), football player * Mojtaba Taghavi (b. 1968), football player * Naeim Saadavi (b. 1969), football player * Leila Esfandyari (1970-2011), mountain climber * Alireza Heidari (b. 1976), wrestler * Ali Karimi (b. 1978), football player * Ebrahim Sadeghi (b. 1979), football player * Mohammad Nosrati (b. 1981), football player * Rouhollah Dadashi (1982-2011), powerlifter * Ebrahim Masoudi (b. 1982), futsal player * Mehdi Mahdavi (b. 1984), volleyball player * Ali Mohammadi (b. 1984), wrestler * Saeed Kamali Dehghan (b. 1985), journalist * Afshin Kazemi (b. 1986), futsal player * Amin Manouchehri (b. 1986), football player * Reza Mohammadi (b. 1986), football player * Ali Kiaei (b. 1987), futsal player * Mehrdad Pooladi (b. 1987), football player * Milad Farahani (b. 1988), football player * Reza Rezaei (b. 1991), Accountant * Fateme Ekhtesari (b. 1986), poet * Mazyar Fallahi ,(b. 1974), Singer, songwriter * Farzin Javadi (b. 1997), Singer, songwriter * Arsham mirzaei (b. 1995), swimmer

SEE ALSO

* Iran
Iran
portal

* Morvārid Palace * Mehršahr * Amir Kabir Dam

REFERENCES

* ^ CITY POPULATION: IRAN: Major Cities * ^ L. van den Berghe, La nécropole de Khūrvīn, Istanbul, Nederlands Historisch-Archaeologisch Instituut in het Nabije Oosten, 1964. * ^ A B C KARAJ i. Modern City * ^ ITTO: Karaj * ^ Frank Lloyd Wright
Frank Lloyd Wright
Foundation\'s deteriorating masterpiece in Iran, Nima Kasraie - June 4, 2004 * ^ "Climate: Karaj
Karaj
- Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 9 September 2013.

* ^

* "Highest record temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. * "Lowest record temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

* ^

* "Average Maximum temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. * "Average Mean Daily temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. * "Average Minimum temperature in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

* ^

* "Monthly Total Precipitation
Precipitation
in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

* ^

* "Average relative humidity in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

* ^

* "No. Of days with precipitation equal to or greater than 1 mm in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015. * "No. of days with snow or sleet in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran
Iran
Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

* ^

* "Monthly total sunshine hours in Karaj
Karaj
by Month 1985–2010". Iran Meteorological Organization. Retrieved April 7, 2015.

* ^ Iran. Ediz. Inglese by Andrew Burke, Mark Elliott, and Kamin Mohammadi, 2004 * ^ "Pars". Pars. * ^ Karaj
Karaj
Urban Railway History * ^ Iran
Iran
Railways Map * ^ Main Bridges on Tehran- Karaj
Karaj
Highway Commissioned * ^ تردد بیش از یک میلیون خودرو از آزادراه تهران -کرج * ^ ITTO: Dizin Ski Slope

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KARAJ .

Wikimedia Commons has media related to KARAJ .

* Karaj
Karaj
city portal (in Persian) * About Karaj
Karaj
city (in Persian) * Karaj
Karaj
News & Information (in Persian) * The city of Karaj * Iran
Iran
Tourism

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