Kansas /ˈkænzəs/ ( listen) is a
U.S. state in the
Midwestern United States. Its capital is
Topeka and its largest
city is Wichita.
Kansas is named after the Kansa Native American
tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name (natively
kką:ze) is often said to mean "people of the (south) wind" although
this was probably not the term's original meaning. For
thousands of years, what is now
Kansas was home to numerous and
diverse Native American tribes. Tribes in the eastern part of the
state generally lived in villages along the river valleys. Tribes in
the western part of the state were semi-nomadic and hunted large herds
Kansas was first settled by
European Americans in 1812, in what is now
Bonner Springs, but the pace of settlement accelerated in the
1850s, in the midst of political wars over the slavery issue. When it
was officially opened to settlement by the U.S. government in 1854
with the Kansas–
Nebraska Act, abolitionist Free-Staters from New
England and pro-slavery settlers from neighboring
Missouri rushed to
the territory to determine whether
Kansas would become a free state or
a slave state. Thus, the area was a hotbed of violence and chaos in
its early days as these forces collided, and was known as Bleeding
Kansas. The abolitionists prevailed, and on January 29, 1861,
Kansas entered the Union as a free state. After the Civil War, the
Kansas grew rapidly when waves of immigrants turned the
prairie into farmland.
Kansas was one of the most productive agricultural states,
producing high yields of wheat, corn, sorghum, and soybeans.
Kansas, which has an area of 82,278 square miles (213,100 km2) is
the 15th-largest state by area and is the 34th most-populous of the 50
states with a population of 2,911,641. Residents of
Kansas are called
Mount Sunflower is Kansas's highest point at 4,041 feet
2.4 National parks and historic sites
2.5 Flora and fauna
3.5 Birth data
3.6.1 Northeast Kansas
3.6.3 Around the state
3.6.4 Southeast Kansas
3.6.5 Central and North-Central Kansas
3.6.6 Northwest Kansas
3.6.7 Southwest Kansas
5.1.1 Interstate Highways
5.1.2 U.S. Routes through Kansas
5.3.1 Passenger Rail
5.3.2 Freight Rail
6 Law and government
6.1 State and local politics
6.1.1 Political culture
6.2 National politics
6.3 State laws
NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I schools
18.104.22.168 NCAA Division II schools
8.5.3 High school
9 Notable people
10 See also
13 External links
History of Kansas
History of Kansas and
Kansas in the American Civil War
Samuel Seymour's 1819 illustration of a Kansa lodge and dance is the
oldest drawing known to be done in Kansas.
For a millennium, the land that is currently
Kansas was inhabited by
Native Americans. The first European to set foot in present-day Kansas
was the Spanish conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado, who
explored the area in 1541. In 1803, most of modern
Kansas was acquired
by the United States as part of the
Louisiana Purchase. Southwest
Kansas, however, was still a part of Spain, Mexico, and the Republic
Texas until the conclusion of the
Mexican–American War in 1848,
when these lands were ceded to the United States. From 1812 to 1821,
Kansas was part of the
Missouri Territory. The Santa Fe Trail
Kansas from 1821 to 1880, transporting manufactured goods
Missouri and silver and furs from Santa Fe, New Mexico. Wagon
ruts from the trail are still visible in the prairie today.
Fort Leavenworth became the first permanent settlement of
white Americans in the future state. The
Kansas–Nebraska Act became
law on May 30, 1854, establishing
Nebraska Territory and Kansas
Territory, and opening the area to broader settlement by whites.
Kansas Territory stretched all the way to the Continental Divide and
included the sites of present-day Denver,
Colorado Springs, and
Quantrill's Raid on Lawrence
Arkansas sent settlers into
Kansas all along its eastern
border. These settlers attempted to sway votes in favor of slavery.
The secondary settlement of Americans in
Kansas Territory were
Massachusetts and other Free-Staters, who attempted
to stop the spread of slavery from neighboring Missouri. Directly
presaging the American Civil War, these forces collided, entering into
skirmishes that earned the territory the name of Bleeding Kansas.
Kansas was admitted to the Union as a free state on January 29, 1861,
making it the 34th state to join the United States. By that time the
Kansas had largely subsided, but during the Civil War, on
August 21, 1863,
William Quantrill led several hundred men on a raid
into Lawrence, destroying much of the city and killing nearly 200
people. He was roundly condemned by both the conventional Confederate
military and the partisan rangers commissioned by the Missouri
legislature. His application to that body for a commission was flatly
rejected due to his pre-war criminal record.
After the Civil War, many veterans constructed homesteads in Kansas.
African Americans also looked to
Kansas as the land of "John
Brown" and, led by freedmen like Benjamin "Pap" Singleton, began
establishing black colonies in the state. Leaving southern states in
the late 1870s because of increasing discrimination, they became known
At the same time, the
Chisholm Trail was opened and the Wild West-era
commenced in Kansas.
Wild Bill Hickok
Wild Bill Hickok was a deputy marshal at Fort
Riley and a marshal at Hays and Abilene. Dodge City was another wild
cowboy town, and both
Bat Masterson and
Wyatt Earp worked as lawmen in
the town. In one year alone, eight million head of cattle from Texas
boarded trains in Dodge City bound for the East, earning Dodge the
nickname "Queen of the Cowtowns."
In response to demands of Methodists and other evangelical
Protestants, in 1881
Kansas became the first
U.S. state to adopt a
constitutional amendment prohibiting all alcoholic beverages, which
was only repealed in 1948.
Great Plains of Kansas
Kanopolis State Park
Flint Hills in Wabaunsee County
Kansas is bordered by
Nebraska on the north;
Missouri on the east;
Oklahoma on the south; and
Colorado on the west. The state is divided
into 105 counties with 628 cities, and is located equidistant from the
Pacific and Atlantic oceans. The geographic center of the 48
contiguous states is in Smith County near Lebanon. Until 1989, the
Meades Ranch Triangulation Station
Meades Ranch Triangulation Station in Osborne County was the geodetic
center of North America: the central reference point for all maps of
North America. The geographic center of
Kansas is in Barton County.
Main article: Geology of Kansas
Kansas is underlain by a sequence of horizontal to gently westward
dipping sedimentary rocks. A sequence of Mississippian, Pennsylvanian
Permian rocks outcrop in the eastern and southern part of the
state. The state's western half has exposures of
Tertiary sediments, the latter derived from the erosion of the
Rocky Mountains to the west. These are underlain by older
Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments which correlate well with the
outcrops to the east. The state's northeastern corner was subjected to
glaciation in the
Pleistocene and is covered by glacial drift and
The western two-thirds of the state, lying in the great central plain
of the United States, has a generally flat or undulating surface,
while the eastern third has many hills and forests. The land gradually
rises from east to west; its altitude ranges from 684 ft
(208 m) along the
Verdigris River at Coffeyville in Montgomery
County, to 4,039 ft (1,231 m) at Mount Sunflower, 0.5 miles
(0.80 km) from the
Colorado border, in Wallace County. It is a
popular belief that
Kansas is the flattest state in the nation,
reinforced by a well known 2003 tongue-in-cheek study stating that
Kansas was indeed "flatter than a pancake". This has since been
called into question, with most scientists ranking
Kansas between the
20th and 30th flattest state, depending on measurement method. Its
average elevation is 2,000 feet (610 m), higher than that of 36
Spring River, Kansas
Nearly 75 mi (121 km) of the state's northeastern boundary
is defined by the
Missouri River. The
Kansas River (locally known as
the Kaw), formed by the junction of the Smoky Hill and Republican
rivers at appropriately-named Junction City, joins the
Kansas City, after a course of 170 mi (270 km) across the
northeastern part of the state.
Arkansas River (pronunciation varies), rising in Colorado, flows
with a bending course for nearly 500 mi (800 km) across the
western and southern parts of the state. With its tributaries, (the
Little Arkansas, Ninnescah, Walnut, Cow Creek, Cimarron, Verdigris,
and the Neosho), it forms the southern drainage system of the state.
Kansas's other rivers are the Saline and Solomon Rivers, tributaries
of the Smoky Hill River; the Big Blue, Delaware, and Wakarusa, which
flow into the
Kansas River; and the Marais des Cygnes, a tributary of
Missouri River. Spring River is located between Riverton and
National parks and historic sites
Areas under the protection of the
National Park Service
National Park Service include:
Brown v. Board Of Education National Historic Site
Brown v. Board Of Education National Historic Site in Topeka
California National Historic Trail
Fort Larned National Historic Site
Fort Larned National Historic Site in Larned
Fort Scott National Historic Site
Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail
Nicodemus National Historic Site
Nicodemus National Historic Site at Nicodemus
Oregon National Historic Trail
Pony Express National Historic Trail
Santa Fe National Historic Trail
Prairie National Preserve near Strong City
Flora and fauna
Further information: List of taxa described from Kansas
Köppen climate types in Kansas
Clouds in northeastern Kansas
Wheat and Storm Panorama
According to the Köppen climate classification, Kansas's climate can
be characterized in terms of three types: it has humid continental,
semi-arid steppe, and humid subtropical. The state's eastern
two-thirds (especially the northeastern portion) has a humid
continental climate, with cool to cold winters and hot, often humid
summers. Most of the precipitation falls in the summer and spring.
The western third of the state – from roughly the U.S. Route 83
corridor westward – has a semiarid steppe climate. Summers are hot,
often very hot, and generally less humid. Winters are highly
changeable between warm and very cold. The western region receives an
average of about 16 inches (410 mm) of precipitation per year.
Chinook winds in the winter can warm western
Kansas all the way into
the 80 °F (27 °C) range.
The far south-central and southeastern reaches of the state, including
Wichita, have a humid subtropical climate with hot, humid summers,
milder winters and more precipitation than elsewhere in Kansas. Some
features of all three climates can be found in most of the state, with
droughts and changeable weather between dry and humid not uncommon,
and both warm and cold spells in the winter.
Temperatures in areas between US 83 and U.S. Route 81, as well as the
southwestern portion of the state along and south of U.S. Route 50,
reach 100 °F (38 °C) or above on most days of June, July
and August. High humidity added to the high temperatures sends the
heat index into life-threatening territory, especially in Wichita,
Hutchinson, Salina, Russell, Hays and Great Bend. Temperatures are
often higher in Dodge City, Garden City and Liberal, but the heat
index in those locations is usually lower than the actual air
Although temperatures of 100 °F (38 °C) or higher are not
as common in areas east of US 81, higher humidity and the urban heat
island effect lead most summer days to heat indices between
107 °F (42 °C) and 114 °F (46 °C) in Topeka,
Lawrence and the
Kansas City metropolitan area. During the summer,
nightly low temperatures in the northeastern part of the state,
especially in the aforementioned large cities, struggle to fall below
80 °F (27 °C), and combined with humidity between 85 and
95 percent, dangerous heat indices can be experienced at every hour of
Precipitation ranges from about 47 inches (1,200 mm) annually in
the state's southeast corner to about 16 inches (410 mm) in the
southwest. Snowfall ranges from around 5 inches (130 mm) in the
fringes of the south, to 35 inches (890 mm) in the far northwest.
Frost-free days range from more than 200 days in the south, to 130
days in the northwest. Thus,
Kansas is the country's ninth or tenth
sunniest state, depending on the source. Western
Kansas is as sunny as
California and Arizona.
Kansas is prone to severe weather, especially in the spring and early
summer. Despite the frequent sunshine throughout much of the state,
due to its location at a climatic boundary prone to intrusions of
multiple air masses, the state is vulnerable to strong and severe
thunderstorms. Some of these storms become supercell thunderstorms;
these can spawn tornadoes, occasionally of EF3 strength or higher.
Kansas averages over 50 tornadoes annually. Severe thunderstorms
sometimes drop very large hail over
Kansas as well as bringing flash
flooding and damaging straight line winds.
According to NOAA, the all-time highest temperature recorded in Kansas
is (121 °F or 49.4 °C) on July 24, 1936, near Alton in
Osborne County, and the all-time low is −40 °F
(−40 °C) on February 13, 1905, near Lebanon in Smith County.
Alton and Lebanon are approximately 50 miles (80 km) apart.
Kansas's record high of 121 °F (49.4 °C) ties with North
Dakota for the fifth-highest record high in an American state, behind
California (134 °F or 56.7 °C),
Arizona (128 °F or
Nevada (125 °F or 51.7 °C), and New Mexico
(122 °F or 50 °C).
Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various
United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of
Kansas was 2,907,289 on July 1, 2016, a 1.9% increase since the 2010
United States Census and an increase of 58,523, or 2.05%, since
the year 2010. This includes a natural increase since the last
census of 93,899 people (that is 246,484 births minus 152,585 deaths)
and a decrease due to net migration of 20,742 people out of the state.
Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase
of 44,847 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss
of 65,589 people.
The population density of
Kansas is 52.9 people per square mile.
The center of population of
Kansas is located in Chase County, at
38°27′N 96°32′W / 38.450°N 96.533°W / 38.450;
-96.533, approximately 3 miles (4.8 km) north of the community of
According to the 2010 Census, the racial makeup of the population was:
83.8% of the population was
White American (77.5% non-Hispanic white)
5.9% was Black or African American
1.0% American Indian and
2.4% Asian American
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander
3.0% from two or more races.
Ethnically 10.5% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino
origin (they may be of any race).
Kansas ethnic breakdown of population
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
Two or more races
As of 2004, the population included 149,800 foreign-born (5.5% of the
state population). The ten largest reported ancestry groups, which
account for over 85% of the population, in the state are: German
(33.75%), Irish (14.4%), English (14.1%), American (7.5%), French
(4.4%), Scottish (4.2%), Dutch (2.5%), Swedish (2.4%), Italian (1.8%),
and Polish (1.5%). German descendants are especially present in
the northwest, while those of descendants of English and of white
Americans from other states are especially present in the southeast.
Mexicans are present in the southwest and make up nearly half the
population in certain counties. Many
African Americans in
descended from the Exodusters, newly freed blacks who fled the South
for land in
Kansas following the Civil War.
As of 2011, 35.0% of Kansas's population younger than one year of age
belonged to minority groups (i.e., did not have two parents of
non-Hispanic white ancestry).
A population density map of Kansas
Spanish is the second-most-spoken language in Kansas, after English
The 2014 Pew Religious Landscape Survey showed the religious makeup of
Kansas was as follows:
31% Evangelical Protestant
24% Mainline Protestant
2% Black Protestant
1% Jehovah's Witness
Non-Christian faiths 4%
Jewish < 1%
Hindu < 1%
Other World Religions < 1%
Other Faiths 2%
Nothing in particular 14%
Don't know < 1%
Reverend Charles Sheldon,
Topeka resident and coiner of the phrase
"what would Jesus do?"
As of 2010, the
Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA) reported
Catholic Church has the highest number of adherents in Kansas
(at 426,611), followed by the
United Methodist Church
United Methodist Church with 202,989
members, and the Southern Baptist Convention, reporting 99,329
Topeka is sometimes cited as the home of
Pentecostalism as it was the site of Charles Fox Parham's Bethel Bible
College, where glossolalia was first claimed as the evidence of a
spiritual experience referred to as the baptism of the Holy Spirit in
1901. It is also the home of Reverend Charles Sheldon, author of In
His Steps, and was the site where the question "What would Jesus do?"
originated in a sermon of Sheldon's at Central Congregational Church.
Topeka is also home of the Westboro Baptist Church, a hate group
according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. The church has
garnered worldwide media attention for picketing the funerals of U.S.
servicemen and women for what church members claim as "necessary to
combat the fight for equality for gays and lesbians." They have
sometimes successfully raised lawsuits against the city of Topeka.
Main article: Rural flight
Urban and rural populations
Known as rural flight, the last few decades have been marked by a
migratory pattern out of the countryside into cities. Out of all the
cities in these Midwestern states, 89% have fewer than 3,000 people,
and hundreds of those have fewer than 1,000. In
Kansas alone, there
are more than 6,000 ghost towns and dwindling communities,
according to one
Kansas historian, Daniel C. Fitzgerald. At the same
time, some of the communities in Johnson County (metropolitan Kansas
City) are among the fastest-growing in the country.
See also: List of cities in Kansas
Cities with population of at least 15,000
Kansas City, MO-KS
**Growth rate 2010–2014
‡Defined as a micropolitan area
Kansas has 627 incorporated cities. By state statute, cities are
divided into three classes as determined by the population obtained
"by any census of enumeration." A city of the third class has a
population of less than 5,000, but cities reaching a population of
more than 2,000 may be certified as a city of the second class. The
second class is limited to cities with a population of less than
25,000, and upon reaching a population of more than 15,000, they may
be certified as a city of the first class. First and second class
cities are independent of any township and are not included within the
Note: Births in table don't add up, because Hispanics are counted both
by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.
Live Births by Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Hispanic (of any race)
The northeastern portion of the state, extending from the eastern
border to Junction City and from the
Nebraska border to south of
Johnson County is home to more than 1.5 million people in the
Kansas City (
Kansas portion), Manhattan, Lawrence, and Topeka
metropolitan areas. Overland Park, a young city incorporated in 1960,
has the largest population and the largest land area in the county. It
is home to
Johnson County Community College
Johnson County Community College and the corporate campus
of Sprint Nextel, the largest private employer in the metro area. In
2006, the city was ranked as the sixth best place to live in America;
the neighboring city of Olathe was 13th.
Olathe is the county seat and home to Johnson County Executive
Airport. The cities of Olathe, Shawnee, and Gardner have some of the
state's fastest growing populations. The cities of Overland Park,
Lenexa, Olathe, and Gardner are also notable because they lie along
the former route of the Santa Fe Trail. Among cities with at least one
thousand residents, Mission Hills has the highest median income in the
Several institutions of higher education are located in Northeast
Baker University (the oldest university in the state,
founded in 1858 and affiliated with the United Methodist Church) in
Benedictine College (sponsored by St. Benedict's Abbey
and Mount St. Scholastica Monastery and formed from the merger of St.
Benedict's College (1858) and Mount St. Scholastica College (1923)) in
MidAmerica Nazarene University
MidAmerica Nazarene University in Olathe, Ottawa University
in Ottawa and
Overland Park, Kansas
Overland Park, Kansas City
Kansas Community College and
KU Medical Center in
Kansas City, and KU Edwards Campus in Overland
Park. Less than an hour's drive to the west, Lawrence is home to the
University of Kansas, the largest public university in the state, and
Haskell Indian Nations University.
To the north,
Kansas City, with the second largest land area in the
state, contains a number of diverse ethnic neighborhoods. Its
attractions include the
Kansas Speedway, Sporting
Kansas City, Kansas
City T-Bones, Schlitterbahn, and
The Legends at Village West
The Legends at Village West retail
and entertainment center. Nearby, Kansas's first settlement Bonner
Springs  is home to several national and regional attractions
including the Providence Medical Center Amphitheather, the National
Agricultural Center and Hall of Fame, and the annual
Renaissance Festival. Further up the
Missouri River, the city of
Lansing is the home of the state's first maximum-security prison.
Historic Leavenworth, founded in 1854, was the first incorporated city
in Kansas. North of the city,
Fort Leavenworth is the oldest active
Army post west of the
Mississippi River. The city of Atchison was an
early commercial center in the state and is well known as the
birthplace of Amelia Earhart.
To the west, nearly a quarter million people reside in the Topeka
Topeka is the state capital and home to Washburn
University and Washburn Institute of Technology. Built at a Kansas
River crossing along the old
Oregon Trail, this historic city has
several nationally registered historic places. Further westward along
Interstate 70 and the
Kansas River is Junction City with its historic
limestone and brick buildings and nearby Fort Riley, well known as the
home to the U.S. Army's 1st Infantry Division (nicknamed "the Big Red
One"). A short distance away, the city of Manhattan is home to Kansas
State University, the second-largest public university in the state
and the nation's oldest land-grant university, dating back to 1863.
South of the campus,
Aggieville dates back to 1889 and is the state's
oldest shopping district of its kind.
Wichita, the largest city in the state of Kansas
In south-central Kansas, the Wichita metropolitan area is home to over
600,000 people. Wichita is the largest city in the state in terms
of both land area and population. 'The Air Capital' is a major
manufacturing center for the aircraft industry and the home of Wichita
State University. Before Wichita was 'The Air Capital' it was a
Cowtown. With a number of nationally registered historic places,
museums, and other entertainment destinations, it has a desire to
become a cultural mecca in the Midwest. Wichita's population growth
has grown by double digits and the surrounding suburbs are among the
fastest growing cities in the state. The population of Goddard has
grown by more than 11% per year since 2000. Other fast-growing
cities include Andover, Maize, Park City, Derby, and Haysville.
Wichita was one of the first cities to add the city commissioner and
city manager in their form of government. Wichita is also home of
the nationally recognized Sedgwick County Zoo.
Up river (the
Arkansas River) from Wichita is the city of Hutchinson.
The city was built on one of the world's largest salt deposits, and it
has the world's largest and longest wheat elevator. It is also the
Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center,
Prairie Dunes Country
Club and the
Kansas State Fair. North of Wichita along Interstate 135
is the city of Newton, the former western terminal of the Santa Fe
Railroad and trailhead for the famed Chisholm Trail. To the southeast
of Wichita are the cities of Winfield and
Arkansas City with historic
architecture and the Cherokee Strip Museum (in Ark City). The city of
Udall was the site of the deadliest tornado in
Kansas on May 25, 1955;
it killed 80 people in and near the city. To the southwest of
Wichita is Freeport, the state's smallest incorporated city
Around the state
Kansas farmer feeds his cattle
Located midway between
Kansas City, Topeka, and Wichita in the heart
of the Bluestem Region of the Flint Hills, the city of Emporia has
several nationally registered historic places and is the home of
Emporia State University, well known for its Teachers College. It was
also the home of newspaper man William Allen White.
Southeast Kansas has a unique history with a number of nationally
registered historic places in this coal-mining region. Located in
Crawford County (dubbed the Fried Chicken Capital of Kansas),
Pittsburg is the largest city in the region and the home of Pittsburg
State University. The neighboring city of Frontenac in 1888 was the
site of the worst mine disaster in the state in which an underground
explosion killed 47 miners. "Big Brutus" is located 1.5 miles
(2.4 km) outside the city of West Mineral. Along with the
restored fort, historic Fort Scott has a national cemetery designated
by President Lincoln in 1862.
Central and North-Central Kansas
Salina is the largest city in central and north-central Kansas. South
of Salina is the small city of Lindsborg with its numerous Dala
horses. Much of the architecture and decor of this town has a
distinctly Swedish style. To the east along Interstate 70, the
historic city of Abilene was formerly a trailhead for the Chisholm
Trail and was the boyhood home of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, and
is the site of his Presidential Library and the tombs of the former
President, First Lady and son who died in infancy. To the west is
Lucas, the Grassroots Art Capital of Kansas.
Westward along the Interstate, the city of Russell, traditionally the
beginning of sparsely-populated northwest Kansas, was the base of
former U.S. Senator
Bob Dole and the boyhood home of U.S. Senator
Arlen Specter. The city of Hays is home to Fort Hays State University
and the Sternberg Museum of Natural History, and is the largest city
in the northwest with a population of around 20,001.
Two other landmarks are located in smaller towns in Ellis County: the
"Cathedral of the Plains" is located 10 miles (16 km) east of
Hays in Victoria, and the boyhood home of
Walter Chrysler is 15 miles
(24 km) west of Hays in Ellis. West of Hays, population drops
dramatically, even in areas along I-70, and only two towns containing
populations of more than 4,000: Colby and Goodland, which are located
35 miles (56 km) apart along I-70.
Dodge City, famously known for the cattle drive days of the late 19th
century, was built along the old
Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail route. The city of
Liberal is located along the southern
Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail route. The first
wind farm in the state was built east of Montezuma. Garden City has
the Lee Richardson Zoo. In 1992, a short-lived secessionist movement
advocated the secession of several counties in southwest Kansas.
Kansas locations by per capita income
The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Kansas's total GDP in
2014 was $140,964 billion. In 2015, the job growth rate in was .8
percent, among the lowest rate in America with only "10,900 total
nonfarm jobs" added that year. According to the Kansas
Department of Labor 2016 report, the average annual wage in 2015 was
$42,930. As of April 2016, the state's unemployment rate was
Kansas had a $350 million budget shortfall in February 2017. In
February 2017, S&P downgraded Kansas's credit rating to AA-.
The agricultural outputs of the state are cattle, sheep, wheat,
sorghum, soybeans, cotton, hogs, corn, and salt. Eastern
part of the Grain Belt, an area of major grain production in the
central United States. The industrial outputs are transportation
equipment, commercial and private aircraft, food processing,
publishing, chemical products, machinery, apparel, petroleum and
Largest private employers (as of 2016)
Black & Veatch
Roofing & siding
Kansas ranks eighth in U.S. petroleum production. Production has
experienced a steady, natural decline as it becomes increasingly
difficult to extract oil over time. Since oil prices bottomed in 1999,
oil production in
Kansas has remained fairly constant, with an average
monthly rate of about 2.8 million barrels (450,000 m3) in 2004.
The recent higher prices have made carbon dioxide sequestration and
other oil recovery techniques more economical.
Kansas ranks eighth in U.S. natural gas production. Production has
steadily declined since the mid-1990s with the gradual depletion of
the Hugoton Natural Gas Field—the state's largest field which
Oklahoma and Texas. In 2004, slower declines in the
Hugoton gas fields and increased coalbed methane production
contributed to a smaller overall decline. Average monthly production
was over 32 billion cubic feet (0.9 km3).
Kansas economy is also heavily influenced by the aerospace
industry. Several large aircraft corporations have manufacturing
facilities in Wichita and
Kansas City, including Spirit AeroSystems,
Bombardier Aerospace (LearJet), and
Textron Aviation (a merger of the
former Cessna, Hawker, and
Boeing ended a
decades-long history of manufacturing in
Kansas in 2012–13.
Major company headquarters in
Kansas include the Sprint Corporation
(with world headquarters in Overland Park),
YRC Worldwide (Overland
Payless Shoes (national headquarters and major
distribution facilities in Topeka), and
Koch Industries (with national
headquarters in Wichita), and Coleman (headquarters in Wichita) .
Embarq formerly had national headquarters in
Overland Park prior to its acquisition by
CenturyTel in 2009, and
still employs several hundred people in its Gardner.
Kansas is also home to three major military installations: Fort
Fort Riley (Army), and McConnell Air Force Base
(Air Force). Approximately 25,000 active duty soldiers and airmen are
stationed at these bases which also employ approximately 8,000
civilian DoD employees. The US Army Reserve also has the 451st
Expeditionary Sustainment Command headquartered in Wichita that serves
reservists and their units from around the region. The
Guard has units at
Forbes Field in
Topeka and operates the Great
Plains Joint Training Center (formerly the Smoky Hill Bomb Range)
which is one of the largest and busiest bombing ranges in the nation.
Kansas was home to numerous Army Air Corps training
fields for training new pilots and aircrew. Many of those airfields
live on today as municipal airports.
Revenue shortfalls resulting from lower than expected tax collections
and slower growth in personal income following a 1998 permanent tax
reduction have contributed to the substantial growth in the state's
debt level as bonded debt increased from $1.16 billion in 1998 to
$3.83 billion in 2006. Some increase in debt was expected as the
state continues with its 10-year Comprehensive Transportation Program
enacted in 1999.
Kansas had three income brackets for income tax calculation,
ranging from 3.5% to 6.45%.
The state sales tax in
Kansas is 6.15%. Various cities and counties in
Kansas have an additional local sales tax. Except during the 2001
recession (March–November 2001) when monthly sales tax collections
were flat, collections have trended higher as the economy has grown
and two rate increases have been enacted. If there had been no change
in sales tax rates, and no change in the economy, the total sales tax
collections for 2003 should have been $1,797 million, compared to
$805.3 million in 1990, but instead they amounted to
$1,630 million an inflation adjusted reduction of 10%. The state
sales tax is a combined destination-based tax, meaning that a single
tax is applied that includes state, county, and local taxes, and the
rate is based on where the consumer takes possession of the goods or
services. As a result of the destination structure and the numerous
local special taxing districts,
Kansas has 920 separate sales tax
rates ranging from 6.5% to 11.5%. This taxing scheme, known as
"Streamlined Sales Tax" was adopted on October 1, 2005 under the
governorship of Kathleen Sebelius. Groceries are subject to sales
tax in the state. All sales tax collected is remitted to the state
department of revenue, and local taxes are then distributed to the
various taxing agencies.
As of June 2004,
Moody's Investors Service ranked the state 14th for
net tax-supported debt per capita. As a percentage of personal income,
it was at 3.8%—above the median value of 2.5% for all rated states
and having risen from a value of less than 1% in 1992. The state has a
statutory requirement to maintain cash reserves of at least 7.5% of
expenses at the end of each fiscal year, however, lawmakers can vote
to override the rule, and did so during the most recent budget
Kansas Senate Bill Substitute HB 2117
During his campaign for the 2010 election,
Sam Brownback called for a
complete "phase out of Kansas's income tax". In May 2012, Governor
Brownback signed into law the
Kansas Senate Bill Substitute HB
2117. Starting in 2013, the "ambitious tax overhaul" trimmed
income tax, eliminated some corporate taxes, and created pass-through
income tax exemptions, he raised the sales tax by one percent to
offset the loss to state revenues but that was inadequate. He made
cuts to education and some state services to offset lost revenue.
The tax cut led to years of budget shortfalls, culminating in a $350
million budget shortfall in February 2017. From 2013 to 2017, 300,000
businesses were considered to be pass-through income entities and
benefited from the tax exemption. The tax reform "encouraged tens of
thousands of Kansans to claim their wages and salaries as income from
a business rather than from employment."
The economic growth that Brownback anticipated never materialized. He
argued that it was because of "low wheat and oil prices and a downturn
in aircraft sales." In the summer of 2016 S&P Global Ratings
downgraded Kansas's credit rating. In February 2017, S&P
lowered it to AA-.
In February 2017, a bi-partisan coalition presented a bill that would
repeal the pass-through income exemption, the "most important
provisions of Brownback's overhaul", and raise taxes to make up for
the budget shortfall. Brownback vetoed the bill but "45 GOP
legislators had voted in favor of the increase, while 40 voted to
uphold the governor's veto." On June 6, 2017 a "coalition of
Democrats and newly-elected Republicans overrode [Brownback's] veto
and implemented tax increases to a level that is close to what it was
before 2013. Brownback's tax overhaul was described in a June 2017
The Atlantic as the United States' "most aggressive
experiment in conservative economic policy". The drastic tax cuts
had "threatened the viability of schools and infrastructure" in
"The Brownback experiment didn’t work. We saw that loud and clear."
— Heidi Holliday, executive director of the
Kansas Center for
Economic Growth 2017
Interstate 35 as it enters
Kansas in Rosedale.
Kansas is served by two Interstate highways with one beltway, two spur
routes, and three bypasses, with over 874 miles (1,407 km) in
all. The first section of Interstate in the nation was opened on
Interstate 70 (I-70) just west of
Topeka on November 14,
I-70 is a major east–west route connecting to Denver,
Kansas City, Missouri. Cities along this route (from west to east)
include Colby, Hays, Salina, Junction City, Topeka, Lawrence, Bonner
I-35 is a major north–south route connecting to
Oklahoma and Des Moines, Iowa. Cities along this route (from south to
north) include Wichita, El Dorado, Emporia, Ottawa, and
Spur routes serve as connections between the two major routes. I-135,
a north–south route, connects I-35 at Wichita to I-70 at Salina.
I-335, a southwest–northeast route, connects I-35 at Emporia to I-70
at Topeka. I-335 and portions of I-35 and I-70 make up the Kansas
Turnpike. Bypasses include I-470 around Topeka, I-235 around Wichita,
and I-670 in downtown
Kansas City. I-435 is a beltway around the
Kansas City metropolitan area
Kansas City metropolitan area while I-635 bypasses through Kansas
U.S. Route 69 (US-69) travels south to north, from
Missouri. The highway passes through the eastern section of Kansas,
traveling through Baxter Springs, Pittsburg, Frontenac, Fort Scott,
Louisburg, and the
Kansas City area.
Map of the
Kansas road system.
Kansas also has the country's third largest state highway system after
Texas and California. This is because of the high number of counties
and county seats (105) and their intertwining.
In January 2004, the
Kansas Department of Transportation
Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT)
announced the new
Kansas 511 traveler information service. By
dialing 511, callers will get access to information about road
conditions, construction, closures, detours and weather conditions for
the state highway system. Weather and road condition information is
updated every 15 minutes.
I-135 (formerly known as I-35W)
U.S. Routes through Kansas
The state's only major commercial (Class C) airport is Wichita Dwight
D. Eisenhower National Airport, located along US-54 on the western
edge of the city.
Manhattan Regional Airport
Manhattan Regional Airport in Manhattan offers daily
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport
Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport and Chicago's
O'Hare International Airport, making it the second-largest commercial
airport in the state. Most air travelers in northeastern Kansas
fly out of
Kansas City International Airport, located in Platte
In the state's southeastern part, people often use Tulsa International
Airport in Tulsa,
Joplin Regional Airport
Joplin Regional Airport in Joplin,
Missouri. For those in the far western part of the state, Denver
International Airport is a popular option. Connecting flights are also
available from smaller
Kansas airports in Dodge City, Garden City,
Hays, Hutchinson, Liberal, or Salina.
Amtrak route runs through the state on its route
Chicago to Los Angeles. Stops in
Kansas include Lawrence, Topeka,
Newton, Hutchinson, Dodge City, and Garden City. An
Motorcoach connects Newton and Wichita to the
Heartland Flyer in
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.
Kansas is served by four Class I railroads, Amtrak, BNSF,
Southern, and Union Pacific, as well as many shortline railroads.
Law and government
State and local politics
Government of Kansas
Government of Kansas and Political party strength in Kansas
Executive branch: The executive branch consists of one officer and
five elected officers. The governor and lieutenant governor are
elected on the same ticket. The attorney general, secretary of state,
state treasurer, and state insurance commissioner are each elected
separately. Five of six top executive offices of
Jeff Colyer took office on January 31, 2018 to
fill the unexpired term of governor
Sam Brownback who resigned to
become a U.S. Ambassador. Elected in 2010 were the Attorney General
Derek Schmidt of Independence; the Secretary of State Kris Kobach, of
Kansas City; the State Treasurer Jacob LaTurner, of Galena; and the
Insurance Commissioner Ken Selzer, of Topeka.
Legislative branch: The bicameral
Legislature consists of the
Kansas House of Representatives, with 125 members serving two-year
terms, and the
Kansas Senate, with 40 members serving four-year terms.
Currently, 31 of the 40 Senators are Republican and 85 of the 125
Representatives are Republican.
Judicial branch: The judicial branch of the state government is headed
Kansas Supreme Court. The court has seven judges. A vacancy is
filled by the Governor picking one of three nominees selected by the
Kansas Supreme Court
Kansas Supreme Court Nominating Commission. The board
consists of five
Kansas lawyers elected by other
Kansas lawyers and
four members selected by the governor.
Amphibian: barred tiger salamander
Animal: American bison
Bird: western meadowlark
Insect: European honey bee
Motto: Ad astra per aspera, or "To the stars through difficulties"
Reptile: ornate box turtle
Soil: Harney silt loam
Song: "Home on the Range"
Seal: symbols of commerce (river, steamboat) and agriculture (farmer
plowing) adopted 1861
FEMA – 33068 – Greensburg fire chief holding up flags in rural
Kansas after a tornado destroys town
Since the mid-20th century,
Kansas has remained one of the most
socially conservative states in the nation. The 1990s brought the
defeat of prominent Democrats, including Dan Glickman, and the Kansas
State Board of Education's 1999 decision to eliminate evolution from
the state teaching standards, a decision that was later reversed.
In 2005, voters accepted a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex
marriage. The next year, the state passed a law setting a minimum age
for marriage at 15 years. Kansas's path to a solid Republican
state has been examined by historian
Thomas Frank in his 2004 book
What's the Matter with Kansas?.
Kansas has a history of many firsts in legislative initiatives—it
was the first state to institute a system of workers' compensation
(1910) and to regulate the securities industry (1911).
permitted women's suffrage in 1912, almost a decade before the federal
constitution was amended to require it. Suffrage in all states would
not be guaranteed until ratification of the 19th Amendment to the U.S.
Constitution in 1920.
The council–manager government model was adopted by many larger
Kansas cities in the years following World War I while many American
cities were being run by political machines or organized crime,
notably the Pendergast Machine in neighboring
Kansas City, Missouri.
Kansas was also at the center of
Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education of
Topeka, a 1954 Supreme Court decision that banned racially segregated
schools throughout the U.S.
The state backed Republicans
Wendell Willkie and
Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey in
1940 and 1944, respectively.
Kansas also supported Dewey in 1948
despite the presence of incumbent president Harry S. Truman, who
hailed from Independence, Missouri, approximately 15 miles
(24 km) east of the Kansas–
Missouri state line. Since Roosevelt
Kansas in 1932 and 1936, only one Democrat has won Kansas's
Lyndon B. Johnson
Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964.
In 2008, Governor
Kathleen Sebelius vetoed permits for the
construction of new coal-fired energy plants in Kansas, saying: "We
know that greenhouse gases contribute to climate change. As an
Kansas is particularly vulnerable. Therefore,
reducing pollutants benefits our state not only in the short term –
but also for generations of Kansans to come." However, shortly
after Mark Parkinson became governor in 2009 upon Sebelius's
resignation to become Secretary of U.S. Department of Health &
Human Services, Parkinson announced a compromise plan to allow
construction of a coal-fired plant.
Sam Brownback was elected governor with 63 percent of the
state vote. He was sworn in as governor in 2011, Kansas's first
Republican governor in eight years. Brownback had established himself
as a conservative member of the U.S. Senate in years prior, but since
becoming governor has made several controversial decisions, leading to
a 23% approval rating among registered voters, the lowest of any
governor in the United States. In May 2011, much to the opposition
of art leaders and enthusiasts in the state, Brownback eliminated the
Kansas Arts Commission, making
Kansas the first state without an arts
agency. In July 2011, Brownback announced plans to close the
Lawrence branch of the
Kansas Department of Social and Rehabilitation
Services as a cost-saving measure. Hundreds rallied against the
decision. Lawrence City Commission later voted to provide the
funding needed to keep the branch open.
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election.
See also: U.S. Congressional Delegations from Kansas
The state's current delegation to the Congress of the United States
includes Republican Senators
Pat Roberts of Dodge City and Jerry Moran
of Manhattan; and Republican Representatives Roger Marshall of Great
Bend (District 1),
Lynn Jenkins of
Topeka (District 2),
Kevin Yoder of
Overland Park (District 3), and
Ron Estes of Wichita (District 4).
Kansas has been strongly Republican, dating from the
Antebellum age when the Republican Party was created out of the
movement opposing the extension of slavery into
Kansas has not elected a Democrat to the U.S. Senate since the 1932
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Franklin D. Roosevelt won his first term as President
in the wake of the Great Depression. This is the longest Senate losing
streak for either party in a single state. Senator
Sam Brownback was a
candidate for the Republican party nomination for President in 2008.
Brownback was not a candidate for re-election to a third full term in
2010, but he was elected Governor in that year's general election.
Moran defeated Tiahrt for the Republican nomination for Brownback's
seat in the August 2010 primary, then won a landslide general election
victory over Democrat Lisa Johnston.
The only non-Republican presidential candidates
Kansas has given its
electoral vote to are Populist James Weaver and Democrats Woodrow
Wilson, Franklin Roosevelt (twice), and Lyndon Johnson. In 2004,
George W. Bush
George W. Bush won the state's six electoral votes by an overwhelming
margin of 25 percentage points with 62% of the vote. The only two
counties to support Democrat
John Kerry in that election were
Wyandotte, which contains
Kansas City, and Douglas, home to the
University of Kansas, located in Lawrence. The 2008 election brought
similar results as
John McCain won the state with 57% of the votes.
Douglas, Wyandotte, and Crawford County were the only counties in
support of President Barack Obama.
Abilene was the boyhood home to Republican president Dwight D.
Eisenhower, and he maintained lifelong ties to family and friends
Kansas was the adult home of two losing Republican candidates
Alf Landon in 1936 and Senator
Bob Dole in 1996).
The New York Times reported in September 2014 that as the Democratic
candidate for Senator has tried to drop out of the race, independent
Greg Orman has attracted enough bipartisan support to seriously
challenge the reelection bid of Republican Pat Roberts:
Kansas politics have been roiled in recent years. The rise of the Tea
Party and the election of President Obama have prompted Republicans to
embrace a purer brand of conservatism and purge what had long been a
robust moderate wing from its ranks. Mr. Roberts has sought to adapt
to this new era, voting against spending bills that included projects
for the state that he had sought.
See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas
The legal drinking age in
Kansas is 21. In lieu of the state retail
sales tax, a 10% Liquor Drink Tax is collected for liquor consumed on
the licensed premises and an 8% Liquor Enforcement Tax is collected on
retail purchases. Although the sale of cereal malt beverage (also
known as 3.2 beer) was legalized in 1937, the first post-Prohibition
legalization of alcoholic liquor did not occur until the state's
constitution was amended in 1948. The following year the Legislature
enacted the Liquor Control Act which created a system of regulating,
licensing, and taxing, and the Division of Alcoholic Beverage Control
(ABC) was created to enforce the act. The power to regulate cereal
malt beverage remains with the cities and counties.
Liquor-by-the-drink did not become legal until passage of an amendment
to the state's constitution in 1986 and additional legislation the
following year. As of November 2006,
Kansas still has 29 dry counties
and only 17 counties have passed liquor-by-the-drink with no food
sales requirement. Today there are more than 2,600 liquor and
4,000 cereal malt beverage licensees in the state.
Main article: Education in Kansas
Education in Kansas
Education in Kansas is governed at the primary and secondary school
level by the
Kansas State Board of Education. The state's public
colleges and universities are supervised by the
Kansas Board of
Twice since 1999 the Board of Education has approved changes in the
state science curriculum standards that encouraged the teaching of
intelligent design. Both times, the standards were reversed after
changes in the composition of the board in the next election.
The Famous Rio Theatre in Overland Park
Main article: Music of Kansas
The rock band
Kansas was formed in the state capital of Topeka, the
hometown of several of the band's members.
Joe Walsh, guitarist for the famous rock band the Eagles, was born in
Kansas include Leavenworth native Melissa Etheridge,
Sharon native Martina McBride, Chanute native
Jennifer Knapp (whose
first album was titled Kansas),
Kansas City native Janelle Monáe, and
Liberal native Jerrod Niemann.
Kansas Notable Book Awards
The state's most famous appearance in literature was as the home of
Dorothy Gale, the main character in the novel The Wonderful Wizard of
Oz (1900). Laura Ingalls Wilder's Little House on the Prairie,
published in 1935, is another well-known tale about Kansas.
Kansas was also the setting of the 1965 best-seller In Cold Blood,
described by its author
Truman Capote as a "nonfiction novel." Mixing
fact and fiction, the book chronicles the events and aftermath of the
1959 murder of a wealthy farmer and his family who lived in the small
West Kansas town of Holcomb in Finney County.
The winner of the 2011
Newbery Medal for excellence in children's
literature, Moon Over Manifest, tells the story of a young and
adventurous girl named Abilene who is sent to the fictional town of
Manifest, Kansas, by her father in the summer of 1936. It was written
by Kansan Clare Vanderpool.
Lawrence is the setting for a number of science fiction writer James
Fox Theater, Hutchinson
See also: List of films set in Kansas
As was the case with the novel, the main character in the 1939 fantasy
film The Wizard of Oz was a young girl who lived in
Kansas with her
aunt and uncle. The line, "We're not in
Kansas anymore", has entered
into the English lexicon as a phrase describing a wholly new and/or
The 1967 feature film In Cold Blood, like the book on which it was
based, was set in various locations across Kansas. Many of the scenes
in the film were filmed at the exact locations where the events
profiled in the book took place. A 1996 TV miniseries was also based
on the book.
The 1988 film
Andrew McCarthy as a traveler who met up
with a dangerous wanted drifter played by Matt Dillon.
The 2005 film Capote, for which
Philip Seymour Hoffman
Philip Seymour Hoffman was awarded the
Academy Award for Best Actor
Academy Award for Best Actor for his portrayal of the title character,
profiled the author as he traveled across
Kansas while writing In Cold
Blood (although most of the film itself was shot in the Canadian
province of Manitoba).
The setting of The Day After, a 1983 made-for-television movie about a
fictional nuclear attack, was the city of Lawrence.
The 2013 film Man of Steel is set primarily in
Kansas (as Superman is
Kansas – a fictitious town).
The 2012 film Looper is set in Kansas.
The 1973 film Paper Moon in which
Tatum O'Neal won an Academy Award
for Best Supporting Actress (The youngest to win an Academy Award) was
based in and filmed in Kansas. The film was shot in the small towns of
Hays; McCracken; Wilson; and St. Joseph, Missouri. Various shooting
locations include the Midland Hotel at Wilson; the railway depot at
Gorham; storefronts and buildings on Main Street in White Cloud; Hays;
sites on both sides of the
Missouri River; Rulo Bridge; and Saint
Scenes of the 1996 film
Mars Attacks! took place in the fictional town
of Perkinsville. Scenes taking place in
Kansas were filmed in Burns,
Lawrence, and Wichita.
The 2007 film The Lookout is set mostly in
Kansas (although filmed in
Canada). Specifically two locations;
Kansas City and the fictional
town of Noel, Kansas.
The 2017 film Thank You For Your Service is primarily set in Kansas,
including the cities of
Topeka and Junction City.
The protagonist brothers of the 2005 TV show Supernatural hail from
Lawrence, with the city referenced numerous times on the show.
2006 TV series Jericho was based in the fictitious town of Jericho,
Kansas, surviving post-nuclear America.
Early seasons of Smallville, about Superman as a teenager, were based
in a fictional town in Kansas.
Gunsmoke, a radio series western, ran from 1952 to 1961, took place in
Dodge City, Kansas.
Gunsmoke, television series, the longest running prime time show of
the 20th century, ran from September 10, 1955 to March 31, 1975 for a
total of 635 episodes.
The 2009 Showtime series
United States of Tara
United States of Tara is set in Overland
Park, a suburb of
Children's Mercy Park
Children's Mercy Park in
Major League Soccer
Swope Park Rangers
United Soccer League
Kansas City T-Bones
Garden City Wind
Champions Indoor Football
Champions Indoor Football
Kansas City, who have played their home games at Village West
Kansas City, since 2008, are the first top-tier professional sports
league and first
Major League Soccer
Major League Soccer team to be located within Kansas.
In 2011 the team moved to their new home, a $165m soccer specific
stadium now known as Children's Mercy Park.
Historically, many Kansans have supported the major league sports
Kansas City, Missouri, including the
Kansas City Royals
Kansas City Chiefs
Kansas City Chiefs (NFL) and the
Kansas City Brigade
Kansas City Brigade (AFL)
– in part because the home stadiums for these teams are just miles
Kansas border. The Chiefs and the Royals play at the Truman
Sports Complex, located about 10 miles (16 km) from the
Missouri state line. The
Kansas City Brigade
Kansas City Brigade play in the
newly opened Sprint Center, which is even closer to the state line. FC
Kansas City, a charter member of the National Women's Soccer League,
played the 2013 season, the first for both the team and the league, on
Kansas side of the metropolitan area, but played on the Missouri
side until folding after the 2017 season. From 1973 to 1997 the
flagship radio station for the Royals was WIBW in Topeka.
Some Kansans, mostly from the westernmost parts of the state, support
the professional sports teams of Denver, particularly the Denver
Broncos of the NFL.
Two major auto racing facilities are located in Kansas. The Kansas
Speedway located in
Kansas City hosts races of the NASCAR, IndyCar,
and ARCA circuits. Also, the
National Hot Rod Association
National Hot Rod Association (NHRA) holds
drag racing events at Heartland Park Topeka. The Sports Car Club of
America has its national headquarters in Topeka.
The history of professional sports in
Kansas probably dates from the
establishment of the minor league baseball
Topeka Capitals and
Leavenworth Soldiers in 1886 in the Western League. The
Bud Fowler played on the
Topeka team that season, one
year before the "color line" descended on professional baseball.
In 1887, the Western League was dominated by a reorganized
called the Golden Giants – a high-priced collection of major leaguer
players, including Bug Holliday, Jim Conway, Dan Stearns, Perry Werden
and Jimmy Macullar, which won the league by 15½ games. On April
10, 1887, the Golden Giants also won an exhibition game from the
defending World Series champions, the
St. Louis Browns (the
present-day Cardinals), by a score of 12–9. However,
unable to support the team, and it disbanded after one year.
The first night game in the history of professional baseball was
played in Independence on April 28, 1930 when the Muscogee (Oklahoma)
Indians beat the Independence Producers 13 to 3 in a minor league game
sanctioned by the Western League of the Western
with 1,500 fans attending the game. The permanent lighting system was
first used for an exhibition game on April 17, 1930 between the
Independence Producers and House of David semi-professional baseball
team of Benton Harbor,
Michigan with the Independence team winning
with a score of 9 to 1 before a crowd of 1,700 spectators.
See also: List of college athletic programs in Kansas
The governing body for intercollegiate sports in the United States,
National Collegiate Athletic Association
National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), was headquartered
Johnson County, Kansas
Johnson County, Kansas from 1952 until moving to
NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I schools
Allen Fieldhouse in Lawrence, home of the
While there are no franchises of the four major professional sports
within the state, many Kansans are fans of the state's major college
sports teams, especially the Jayhawks of the University of Kansas
(KU), and the Wildcats of
Kansas State University
Kansas State University (KSU or "K-State").
Both teams are rivals in the Big 12 Conference.
Both KU and K-State have tradition-rich programs in men's basketball.
The Jayhawks are a perennial national power, ranking second in
all-time victories among NCAA programs, behind Kentucky. The Jayhawks
have won five national titles, including NCAA tournament championships
in 1952, 1988, and 2008. They also were retroactively awarded national
championships by the
Helms Foundation for 1922 and 1923. K-State also
had a long stretch of success on the hardwood, lasting from the 1940s
to the 1980s, making four Final Fours during that stretch. In 1988, KU
and K-State met in the Elite Eight, KU taking the game 71–58. After
a 12-year absence, the Wildcats returned to the NCAA tournament in
2008 and advanced to the
Elite Eight in 2010. KU is fifth all-time
Final Four appearances, while K-State's four appearances are
tied for 17th.
Conversely, success on the gridiron has been less frequent for both
KSU and KU. However, there have been recent breakthroughs for both
schools' football teams. The Jayhawks won the Orange Bowl for the
first time in three tries in 2008, capping a 12–1 season, the best
in school history. And when
Bill Snyder arrived to coach at K-State in
1989, he turned the Wildcats from one of the worst college football
programs in America into a national force for most of the 1990s and
early 2000s. The team won the
Fiesta Bowl in 1997, achieved an
undefeated (11–0) regular season and No. 1 ranking in 1998, and took
Big 12 Conference
Big 12 Conference championship in 2003. After three seasons in
which K-State football languished, Snyder came out of retirement in
2009 and guided them to the top of the college football ranks again,
finishing second in the Big 12 in 2011 and earning a berth in the
Cotton Bowl, and winning the Big 12 again in 2012.
Wichita State University, which also fields teams (called the
Shockers) in Division I of the NCAA, is best known for its baseball
and basketball programs. In baseball, the Shockers won the College
World Series in 1989. In men's basketball, they appeared in the Final
Four in 1965 and 2013, and entered the 2014 NCAA tournament unbeaten.
The school also fielded a football team from 1897 to 1986. The Shocker
football team is tragically known for a plane crash in 1970 that
killed 31 people, including 14 of the team's players.
NCAA Division II schools
Notable success has also been achieved by the state's smaller schools
in football. Pittsburg State University, a NCAA Division II
participant, has claimed four national titles in football, two in the
NAIA and most recently the 2011 NCAA Division II national title.
Pittsburg State became the winningest NCAA Division II football
program in 1995. PSU passed Hillsdale College at the top of the
all-time victories list in the 1995 season on its march to the
national runner-up finish. The Gorillas, in 96 seasons of
intercollegiate competition, have accumulated 579 victories –
posting a 579–301–48 overall mark.
Washburn University, in Topeka, won the NAIA Men's Basketball
Championship in 1987. The
Fort Hays State University
Fort Hays State University men won the 1996
NCAA Division II title with a 34–0 record, and the Washburn women
won the 2005 NCAA Division II crown. St. Benedict's College (now
Benedictine College), in Atchison, won the 1954 and 1967 Men's NAIA
Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference
Kansas Collegiate Athletic Conference has its roots as one of the
oldest college sport conferences in existence and participates in the
NAIA and all ten member schools are in the state of Kansas. Other
smaller school conference that have some members in
Kansas are the
Heartland Conference, the Midlands Collegiate Athletic Conference, the
Midwest Christian College Conference, and the Heart of America
Athletic Conference. Many junior colleges also have active athletic
Kansas State High School Activities Association
Kansas State High School Activities Association (KSHSAA) is the
organization which oversees interscholastic competition in the state
Kansas at the high school level. It oversees both athletic and
non-athletic competition, and sponsors championships in several sports
and activities. The association is perhaps best known for devising the
overtime system now used for almost all football games below the
professional level (which has also been adopted at all levels of
Main article: List of people from Kansas
Main article: List of
See also: National Register of Historic Places listings in Kansas
Outline of Kansas
Outline of Kansas – organized list of topics about Kansas
Index of Kansas-related articles
^ "Free-Staters of Kansas". legendsofkansas.com.
^ "Governor's Signature Makes English the Official Language of
Kansas". US English. May 11, 2007. Archived from the original on July
10, 2007. Retrieved August 6, 2008.
^ Geography, US Census Bureau. "State Area Measurements and Internal
^ a b "
Kansas Geography from NETSTATE".
^ USGS, Howard Perlman,. "Area of each state that is water".
^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". U.S. Census Bureau. June
21, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
^ "Median Annual Household Income". The Henry J. Kaiser Family
Foundation. Retrieved December 9, 2016.
^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". United States
Geological Survey. 2001. Archived from the original on October 15,
2011. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
^ a b Elevation adjusted to North American Vertical Datum of 1988.
^ "Current Lists of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas
and Delineations". Archived from the original on January 27,
^ John Koontz, p.c.
^ Rankin, Robert. 2005. "Quapaw". In Native Languages of the
Southeastern United States, eds. Heather K. Hardy and Janine
Scancarelli. Lincoln: University of
Nebraska Press, p. 492.
^ Connelley, William E. 1918. "Indians Archived February 11, 2007, at
the Wayback Machine.". A Standard
History of Kansas
History of Kansas and Kansans, ch.
10, vol. 1.
^ a b Miller, Rober B. (2013). Bonner Springs (Images of America).
USA: Arcadia Publishing Publishing. p. 7.
^ "Today in History: January 29". Memory.loc.gov. Retrieved July 31,
Kansas Quick Facts". governor.ks.gov. Archived from the original on
May 11, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2010.
Kansas Department of Agriculture. Retrieved
September 14, 2015.
^ Jones, Gray Ghosts and Rebel Riders Holt & Co. 1956, p. 76
Kansas Is Flatter Than a Pancake". Improbable.com. Retrieved July
^ Bert Nash Community Mental Health Center 785-843-9192 (July 27,
2003). "Study finds
Kansas Flatter Than Pancake". ljworld.com.
Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "Fracas over
Kansas pancake flap". Geotimes.org. Archived from the
original on January 24, 2004. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "Kansas". National Park Service. Retrieved July 15, 2008.
^ "Annual Average Number of Tornadoes, 1953–2004". National Climatic
Data Center. Retrieved October 25, 2006.
^ "Goodland Weather –
Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall".
countrystudies.us. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
^ "Concordia Weather –
Kansas – Average Temperatures and
Rainfall". countrystudies.us. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
^ "Dodge City Weather –
Kansas – Average Temperatures and
Rainfall". countrystudies.us. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
Topeka Weather –
Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall".
countrystudies.us. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
^ "Wichita Weather –
Kansas – Average Temperatures and Rainfall".
countrystudies.us. Retrieved April 9, 2016.
^ a b c "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the
United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July
1, 2016". U.S. Census Bureau. December 20, 2016. Archived from the
original (CSV) on December 23, 2015. Retrieved December 26,
^ "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the
United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006",
Population Estimates, US: Census Bureau, Population Division, December
22, 2006, NST-EST2006-04, archived from the original on September 16,
Kansas population has increased at a decreasing rate, reducing
the number of congressmen from 5 to 4 in 1992 (Congressional
Redistricting Act, eff. 1992).
^ Wright, John W, ed. (2007). Almanac. The New York Times.
^ "Population and Population Centers by State". US: Census Bureau.
2000. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved
December 5, 2008.
^ "Resident Population Data". Census. US: Government. 2010. Archived
from the original on November 18, 2011. Retrieved October 12,
^ "States", Quick facts, Census, archived from the original on May 3,
^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to
1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States,
Regions, Divisions, and States". July 25, 2008. Archived from the
original on July 25, 2008. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status
^ "http://censusviewer.com/city/KS". January 7, 2014. Archived from
the original on January 7, 2014. External link in title= (help)
^ Center for New Media and Promotions(C2PO). "2010 Census Data".
Kansas – Social demographics". American Community Survey Office.
2006. Archived from the original on September 10, 2004. Retrieved July
^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly
minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain
^ Pew Research Center, Religious Landscape Study: Religious
composition of adults in
Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership
Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved November 12, 2013.
^ "Westboro Baptist Church". Southern Poverty Law Center.
^ Fitzgerald, Daniel C, KS extinct locations, archived from the
original on December 9, 2009
^ "Population Estimates". Fact finder. US: Census. 2014. Archived from
the original on May 22, 2015. Retrieved January 25, 2016.
^ "Births: Final Data for 2013" (PDF). National Vital Statistics
Reports. CDC. January 15, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
^ "Births: Final Data for 2014" (PDF). National Vital Statistics
Reports. CDC. December 23, 2015. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
^ "Births: Final Data for 2015" (PDF). National Vital Statistics
Reports. CDC. January 5, 2017. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
^ "Best places to live 2006". MONEY Magazine. Archived from the
original on December 3, 2006. Retrieved December 9, 2006.
^ N/A. "Wichita (city), Kansas". Census.gov. Missing or empty
url= (help); access-date= requires url= (help)
^ a b c "Go Wichita Convention and Visitors Bureau". Gowichita.com.
Retrieved September 28, 2013.
^ "Annual estimates of the population through July 1, 2006".
Population Estimates. US: Census Bureau, Population Division. June 28,
2007. Archived from the original on December 6, 2006.
^ "The Blackwell
Tornado of 25 May 1955". NWS Norman, Oklahoma. June
13, 2006. Archived from the original on October 8, 2006. Retrieved
January 28, 2007.
^ "U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)". Bea.gov. 2016. Archived
from the original on July 7, 2010. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
^ "Change in total nonfarm employment by state, over-the-month and
over-the-year, seasonally adjusted". Bls.gov. Retrieved February 26,
^ Yael T. Abouhalkah (November 30, 2015),
Kansas has low but
misleading unemployment rate under Gov. Sam Brownback, retrieved
February 26, 2017
^ Occupational Employment Statistics (OES) OES Home 2016
Survey (PDF), 2016, retrieved February 26, 2017
^ "Local Area Unemployment Statistics". Bls.gov. Retrieved February
^ a b c Max Ehrenfreund (February 22, 2017), "Republicans' 'real-live
experiment' with Kansas's economy survives a revolt from their own
party", The Washington Post, retrieved February 25, 2017
^ a b c Alan Blinder (February 22, 2017), "
Kansas Lawmakers Uphold
Governor's Veto of Tax Increases", The New York Times, retrieved
February 25, 2017
Kansas Department of Commerce – Official Website – Economic
Overview Charts". Kansascommerce.com. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
^ "Publication 1700".
Kansas Department of Revenue. Retrieved 4 April
Streamlined Sales Tax
Streamlined Sales Tax - Kansas". Streamlined Sales Tax. Retrieved 4
^ a b c d e f Berman, Russell (June 7, 2017). "The Death of Kansas's
Conservative Experiment". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 7, 2017.
^ "Senate Substitute for HB 2117 by Committee on Taxation -- Reduction
of income tax rates for individuals and determination of income tax
credits; severance tax exemptions; homestead property tax refunds;
food sales tax refunds". Retrieved October 29, 2014.
^ Editorial Board (April 13, 2013). "Editorial: Louisiana's lawmakers
realize what Missouri's don't: Income tax cuts are suicidal".
Retrieved February 25, 2017.
^ I-70 – the First Open Interstate,
Kansas Department of
Transportation, retrieved October 7, 2016
^ "KDOT Launches New Traveler Information Service" (Press release).
Kansas Department of Transportation. January 22, 2004. Retrieved July
^ "Manhattan Airport Official Site". Retrieved July 14, 2010.
Amtrak Southwest Chief". Amtrak. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
^ "Wichita Returns to the
Amtrak Map". Amtrak. Retrieved August 13,
Kansas State Railroad Map 2017" (PDF).
Kansas Department of
Transportation. Retrieved August 14, 2017.
^ Los Angeles Times. Vote by
Kansas School Board Favors Evolution's
Kansas Lawmakers Set Minimum Marriage Age to 15". Fox News. May 5,
2006. Retrieved September 28, 2013.
^ staff (March 21, 2008). "
Kansas Governor Rejects Two Coal-Fired
Power Plants". Ens-newswire.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.
^ "Here Are America's Least (and Most) Popular Governors".
Kansas governor eliminates state's art funding". Los Angeles Times.
May 31, 2011. p. m. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
^ Hittle, Shaun (July 16, 2011). "Hundreds rally against closing SRS
office". ljworld.com. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
^ "Lawrence City Commission approves funding for SRS office".
ljworld.com. August 9, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
^ "2008 Election Results – Kansas". CNN. Retrieved July 31,
^ Jonathan Martin, "National G.O.P. Moves to Take Over Campaign of
Kansas Senator", New York Times September 4, 2014
^ "Liquor Licensee and Supplier Information". Alcoholic Beverage
Kansas Department of Revenue. Archived from the original on
December 8, 2006. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
^ "History of Alcoholic Beverages in Kansas". Alcoholic Beverage
Kansas Department of Revenue. 2000. Archived from the
original on January 17, 2007. Retrieved January 18, 2007.
^ "PBR: Toto – we're not in
Kansas anymore..." BBC Newsnight.
December 9, 2009.
^ "The Lookout" (PDF). dailyscript.com.
^ "Making Airwaves Through History". Findarticles.com. December 2,
2002. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved July 31,
^ Evans, Harold (1940). "
Baseball in Kansas, 1867–1940". Kansas
Historical Quarterly. Retrieved February 18, 2008.
^ a b c Madden, W.C.; Stewart, Patrick (2002). The Western League: A
Baseball History, 1885 through 1999. ISBN 0-7864-1003-5.
^ Bowman, Larry G. "I Think It Is Pretty Ritzy Myself:
League Teams and Night Baseball".
Kansas History, Winter 1995/1996, pp
Kansas Historical Society. Retrieved May 25, 2013.
^ Jim Davis, Loss of NCAA headquarters not related to incentives,
Kansas City Business Journal (June 8, 1997).
^ Sam Epstein, Sports Law (Cengage Learning, 2013), p. 19.
Wishart, David J, ed. (2004), Encyclopedia of the Great Plains,
Nebraska Press, ISBN 0-8032-4787-7 ; 900 pages
of scholarly articles
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State of Kansas
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Kansas State Agency Databases – Annotated list of searchable
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Kansas state agencies
USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Kansas
Kansas Department of Transportation
Kansas Department of Transportation maps
Cutler's History of Kansas
Kansas State Facts from USDA
Highway Map (PDF), KS: KSDOT, 2015 .
Railroad Map (PDF), KS: KSDOT, 2015 .
"Access state, county, city, railroad, and other maps",
(digital portal), the
Kansas State Historical Society .
Geographic data related to
Kansas at OpenStreetMap
Kansas Maps", Perry-Castañeda Library (map collection), The
University of Texas .
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 29, 1861 (34th)
Topics related to Kansas
State of Kansas
Seal of Kansas
Dissected Till Plains
Four State Area
Santa Fe Trail
Santa Fe Trail Region
(2) Overland Park
(14) Dodge City
(15) Garden City
(16) Junction City
(25) Great Bend
(27) El Dorado
(43) Fort Scott
(44) Park City
(45) Bonner Springs
(46) Valley Center
(48) Bel Aire
(49) Roeland Park
List of counties in Kansas
List of townships in Kansas
List of cities in Kansas
List of unincorporated communities in Kansas
List of ghost towns in Kansas
Lists of people from Kansas
Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Kansas
Carl R. Gerlach
Protected areas of Kansas
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Brown v. Board of Education
National Wildlife Refuges:
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Coordinates: 38°30′N 98°00′W / 38.5°N 98°W / 38.5;
ISNI: 0000 0004 0393 0633
BNF: cb13934270f (d