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The _KANGXI DICTIONARY_ (Chinese : 康熙字典; pinyin : _Kāngxī Zìdiǎn_) was the standard Chinese dictionary during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
of the Manchu Qing Dynasty
Qing Dynasty
ordered its compilation in 1710. It used the earlier Zihui system of 214 radicals, today known as 214 Kangxi radicals , and was published in 1716. The dictionary is named after the Emperor's era name .

The dictionary contains more than 47,000 characters, though some 40% of them are graphic variants. In addition, there are rare or archaic characters, some which had been attested only once. Less than a quarter of these characters are now in common use.

CONTENTS

* 1 Compilation * 2 Structure of the Kangxi dictionary * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 Notes * 6 External links

COMPILATION

The _Kangxi Dictionary_ editors, including Zhang Yushu (張玉書) and Chen Tingjing (陳廷敬), based it partly on two Ming Dynasty dictionaries: the 1615 _ Zihui _ (字彙 "Character Collection") by Mei Yingzuo (梅膺祚), and the 1627 _ Zhengzitong _ (正字通 "Correct Character Mastery") by Zhang Zilie (張自烈). Since the imperial edict required that the _Kangxi Dictionary_ be compiled within five years, a number of errors were inevitable. The Daoguang Emperor established a review board and their 1831 _Zidian kaozheng_ (字典考證 "Character Dictionary Textual Research") corrected 2,588 mistakes, mostly in quotations and citations.

The supplemented dictionary contains 47,035 character entries, plus 1,995 graphic variants , giving a total of 49,030 different characters. They are grouped under the 214 radicals and arranged by the number of additional strokes in the character. Although these 214 radicals were first used in the _ Zihui _, due to the popularity of the _Kangxi Dictionary_ they are known as Kangxi radicals and remain in modern usage as a method to categorize traditional Chinese characters .

The character entries give variants (if any), pronunciations in traditional fanqie spelling and in modern reading of a homophone , different meanings, and quotations from Chinese books and lexicons. The dictionary also contains rime tables with characters ordered under syllable rime classes, tones , and initial syllable onsets .

The _Kangxi Dictionary_ is available in many forms, from old Qing Dynasty editions in block printing , to reprints in traditional Chinese bookbinding , to modern revised editions with essays in Western-style hardcover , to the digitized Internet
Internet
version.

The _Kangxi Dictionary_ is one of the Chinese dictionaries used by the Ideographic Rapporteur Group for the Unicode
Unicode
standard.

STRUCTURE OF THE KANGXI DICTIONARY

_ Kangxi Dictionary_, 1827 reprint

* Preface by Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
: pp. 1–6 (御製序) * Notes on the use of the dictionary: pp. 7–12 (凡例) * Indication of pronunciation of characters: pp. 13–40 (等韻) * Comprehensive table of contents by radicals: pp. 41–49 (總目) * Facilitated consulting contents: pp. 50–71 (檢字)

* The dictionary proper: pp. 75–1631

* Main text: pp. 75–1538 * Addendum contents: pp. 1539–1544 (補遺) * Addendum text: pp. 1545–1576 * Appendix contents (No–source–characters): pp. 1577–1583 (備考) * Appendix text: pp. 1585–1631

* Postscript: pp. 1633–1635 (後記) * Textual research: pp. 1637–1683 (考證)

SEE ALSO

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to KANGXI DICTIONARY _.

* _ Dai Kan-Wa jiten _ * Han-Han Dae Sajeon
Han-Han Dae Sajeon
* _ Hanyu Da Zidian
Hanyu Da Zidian
_ * List of Kangxi radicals * _ Peiwen Yunfu _ * _ Zhonghua Da Zidian _

REFERENCES

* Teng, Ssu-yü and Biggerstaff, Knight. 1971. _An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Chinese Reference Works_, 3rd ed. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-03851-7 * Kangxi (Emperor of China) (1842). _Chinese and English dictionary: containing all the words in the Chinese imperial dictionary; arranged according to the radicals, Volume 1_. Printed at Parapattan. Retrieved 2011-05-15.

NOTES

* ^ Endymion Wilkinson. _Chinese History: A New Manual ._ (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, Harvard-Yenching Institute Monograph Series, 2012. ISBN 9780674067158 ), pp. 80-81. * ^ Teng and Biggerstaff 1971:130

EXTERNAL LINKS

* _Kangxi Zidian_ (Tongwen Shuju edition), with dictionary lookup – Chinese Text Project * Kangxi

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