HOME
The Info List - Kalpavriksha


--- Advertisement ---



Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
(Devanagari: कल्पवृक्ष), also known as kalpataru, kalpadruma or kalpapādapa, is a wish-fulfilling divine tree in Hindu mythology. It is mentioned in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
literature from the earliest sources. It is also a popular theme in Jain cosmology
Jain cosmology
and Buddhism. Sage Durvasa
Durvasa
and Adi Shankaracharya, meditated under the Kalpavriksha. The birth of Ashokasundari, the daughter of Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati, is attributed to the Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
tree. Another daughter Aranyani was also gifted to Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
for safekeeping. The Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
originated during the Samudra manthan
Samudra manthan
or "churning of the ocean of milk" along with the Kamadhenu, the divine cow providing for all needs. The king of the gods, Indra, returned with this tree to his paradise. Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is also identified with many trees such as Parijata (Erythrina variegata), Ficus benghalensis, coconut tree (Cocos nucifera), Acacia, Madhuca longifolia, Prosopis cineraria, Bassia butyracea, and mulberry tree (Morus nigra tree). The tree is also extolled in iconography and literature.

Contents

1 Religious beliefs

1.1 In Hinduism 1.2 In Jainism 1.3 In Buddhism

2 Identification with other trees 3 In iconography 4 In literature 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

Religious beliefs[edit] Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is an artistic and literary theme common to the Hindu Bhagavatas, the Jains and the Buddhists.[1] In Hinduism[edit]

Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
with Flowers in Ranchi, Jharkhand

Kalpavriksha, the tree of life, also meaning "World Tree" finds mention in the Vedic scriptures. In the earliest account of the Samudra manthan
Samudra manthan
or "churning of the ocean of milk" Kalpavriksha emerged from the primal waters during the ocean churning process along with Kamadhenu, the divine cow that bestows all needs. The tree is also said to be the Milky way
Milky way
or the birthplace of the stars Sirius. The king of the gods, Indra
Indra
returned with this Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
to his abode, the paradise and planted it there. Tree also finds mention in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text Mānāsara, part of Shilpa Shastras.[2][3]Another myth says that Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
was located on earth and was transported to Indra's abode after people started misusing it by wishing evil and wrong things.[4] In Indra's "Devaloka" it is said that there are five Kalpavrikshas, which are called Mandana, Parijata, Santana, Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
and Harichandana, all of which fulfill various wishes.[4] Kalpavriksha, in particular, is said to be planted at Mt. Meru
Mt. Meru
peak in the middle of Indra's five paradise gardens. It is on account of these wish-granting trees that the asuras waged a perpetual war with the devas as the heavenly gods who exclusively benefited freely from the "divine flowers and fruits" from the Kalpavriksha, whereas the demigods lived comparatively in penury at the lower part of its "trunk and roots". The Parijata
Parijata
is often identified with its terrestrial counterpart, the Indian coral tree
Indian coral tree
(Eyrthrina indica), but is most often depicted like a magnolia or frangipani (Sanskrit: champaka) tree. It is described as having roots made of gold, a silver midriff, lapislazuli boughs, coral leaves, pearl flower, gemstone buds, and diamond fruit.[3] It is also said that Ashokasundari was created from a Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
tree to provide relief to Parvati
Parvati
from her loneliness.[5] In Hindu mythology
Hindu mythology
Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati
Parvati
after much painful discussions while parting with their daughter Aranyani gave her away to the divine Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
for safe keeping when the demon Andhakasura
Andhakasura
waged war. Parvati
Parvati
requested Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
to bring up her daughter with "safety, wisdom, health and happiness," and to make her Vana Devi, the protector of forests.[6] In Jainism[edit] Main article: Jain Cosmology

The wall painting of Kalpavruksha in Saavira Kambada Basadi, Moodbidri, Karnataka

Kalpavrikshas are wish-granting trees which fulfill the desires of people in initial stages of worldly cycle as per Jain Cosmology. In initial times children are born in pairs (boy and girl) and don't do any karma.[7] There are 10 Kalpavrikshas which grant 10 distinct wishes such as an abode to reside, garments, utensils, nourishment including fruits and sweets, pleasant music, ornaments, fragrant flowers, shining lamps and a radiant light at night.[7] According to Jain cosmology, in the three Aras (unequal periods) of the descending arc (Avasarpini), Kalpavrikshas provided all that was needed, but towards the end of the third ara, the yield from them diminished. Eight types of these trees are described in some texts, each of which provided different objects. Thus from the "Madyanga tree" delicious and nutritious drinks could be obtained; from the "Bhojananga", delicious food; from "yotiranga", light more radiant than the sun and the moon; while from "Dopanga" came indoor light. Other trees provided homes, musical devices, table ware, fine garments, wreaths and scents.[4] The Tiloya Panatti
Tiloya Panatti
give the following list: Pananga, Turiyanga, Bhusananga, Vatthanga, Bhoyanga, Alayanga, Diviyanga, Bhayananga, Malanga, Tejanga with excellent drinks, music, ornaments, garments, edibles and ready-made dishes, mansions to live in, lamps, utensils and garlands of flowers respectively while the last type, namely Tejanga, seems to be self-luminous, serving the purpose of heavenly luminaries.[8] In Buddhism[edit] In Buddhism
Buddhism
a small wish granting tree is depicted decorating the upper part of the "long-life vase" held by "longevity deities" like Amitayus
Amitayus
and Ushnishavijaya. The goddess Shramana devi holds jeweled branch of Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
in her left hand.[3] Worship of the Nyagrodha tree as a form of non-human worship is depicted in a Buddhist sculpture at Besnagar.[9] This sculpture in Besnagar, also known as Vidisa (Bhilsa), is dated to third century BC and is exhibited in the Calcutta Museum.[10] In Myanmar, where Theravada Buddhism
Buddhism
is practiced, the significance of the Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is in the form of an annual ritual known as Kathina (presenting a robe) in which the laity present gifts to the monks in the form of money trees.[11] Identification with other trees[edit]

Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
in Mangaliyawas (near Ajmer, Rajasthan
Rajasthan
in India)

Parijata
Parijata
tree at Kintoor, Barabanki.

In different states of India some trees are specifically referred to as the Kalpavriksha. These are stated below. The banyan tree (Ficus benghalensis), also called Nyagrodha tree, which grows throughout the country is referred to as Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
or Kaplaptaru because of its ability to amply provide for human needs.[12][9] The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) found in most regions of the country is called "Kalpavriksha", as every part of it is useful in one way or the other. The coconut water inside the nut is a delicious drink. In dried form it is called copra and is used to manufacture oil. The coconut husk, called coir, is used to make rope. Leaves are used to make huts, fans, mats. Palm sugar
Palm sugar
is made from budding flower. The dried midrib is used to make boats.[13] Ashwatha
Ashwatha
tree (sacred fig tree) is also known as Kalapvriksha where the deities and Brahma
Brahma
are stated to reside, and it is where sage Narada taught the rishis on the procedure for worshipping the tree and its usefulness.[14] Mahua tree (Madhuca longifolia) holds an important place in the day-to-day life of the tribal people. It is like the Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
wish tree called madhu (Madhuca indica).[15] Shami tree (Prosopis cineraria), found in desert areas of the country, called in local dialect as khejari or jaant is called Kalpavriksha. In Rajasthan
Rajasthan
desert area its roots go deep to a depth of 17–25 metres (56–82 ft). This checks the erosion of the sandy soil of the desert. For this reason the tree stays green even drought conditions of weather. People of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
hence regard this tree as Kalpavriksha, because at the time of drought when no grass or fodder is found anywhere the animals are able to sustain by eating its green leaves.[16] Chyur tree in the high altitudes of the Himalayas
Himalayas
growing at an altitude between 500 and 1000 m, known as the Indian butter tree (Diploknema butyracea), is called a Kalpavriskha, or tree of paradise by the people of the mountainous region as it yields honey, jaggery and ghee. It is in the shape of an umbrella.[17] In Joshimath
Joshimath
in Uttarakhand
Uttarakhand
a mulberry tree, which is said to be 2400 years old, is renowned and revered as the Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
as it was the location where, in the 8th century, Adi Sankaracharya
Adi Sankaracharya
did "penance" under the tree as he considered it an incarnation of Lord Shiva.[18] It is also believed that sage Durvasa
Durvasa
meditated under this tree,[5] in Urgam.[19] The mountain slopes of Kailasa
Kailasa
are stated to have a profusion of Kalpavrikshas.[19] At Mangaliyawas near Ajmer, Rajasthan, there are two revered trees (Male and Female) which are more than 800 years old, known as Kalpavrikshas. They are worshipped on an Amavasya
Amavasya
day in the Hindu month of Shraavana.[5] In Ranchi (Jharkhand, Ranchi, India) there are three Kalpavrikshas. They are at a locality called Hinoo. In Tamil Nadu's culture, tala ( Borassus
Borassus
flabellifer) a variety of Palmyra palm (Borassus), also known as toddy, is referred to as Kalpataru as all its parts have a use. This tree is also native to Asia
Asia
and South East Asia, has normally a life span of 100 years, grows up to 20 metres (66 ft) height; its leaves in the shape of a fan are rough texture. The leaves were used for writing in the ancient times.[20] In the Harivansh Puraan, the Parijata, baobab tree, is called a Kalpavriksha, or wish bearing tree, which apart from the village of Kintoor, near Barabanki, Uttar Pradesh, is only found in heaven. The tree has mythological link with prince Arjuna
Arjuna
of the Pandava
Pandava
clan who is said to have brought it from heaven. His mother Kunti
Kunti
after whom the village Kintoor
Kintoor
is named used to offer flowers from this tree to worship Lord Shiva. It is also said that Lord Krishna
Krishna
brought this tree from heaven to please his wife Satyabhama.[21] Kalpalatha is another wish fulfilling tree, a creeper, which was extolled during the later part of the Aryan period. It is said that a person standing below this tree would be blessed with beautiful ornaments, dresses and even unmarried girls.[22] In iconography[edit] In iconography, Kalpavriksha, the wish-fulfilling tree, is painted within a picture of a landscape, decorated with flowers, silks, and suspended with jewelry.[3] It is a pattern which has a prominent symbolic meaning.[1] Ornamental Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
design was a feature that was adopted on the reverse of the coins and sculptures in the Gupta period.[23] Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is also dated to the Dharmachakra
Dharmachakra
period of Buddhism. The paintings of this period depicting the tree with various branches and leaves have a female figure painted on its top part. The female figure is painted from mast upwards holding a bowl in her hand. Similar depiction of female figure with tree representing it as presiding deity was a notable feature during the Sunga period
Sunga period
as seen in the image of "Salabhanvka" in the railing pillars.[24] In most paintings of Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
Shiva
Shiva
and Parvati
Parvati
are a common feature. It forms a canopy over Shiva. In one painting Paravati is paying obeisance to Lord Shiva
Shiva
with her hands held up in adoration when she is blessed with a stream of water from the Kalpavriksha.[25] In literature[edit] A Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is mentioned in the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work Mānāsara as a royal insignia. In Hemādri's work Caturvargacīntama, the Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is said to be a tree of gold and gem stones.[26] In poetry Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
is compared to Lakshmi
Lakshmi
as its sister emerging from the sea. It is born to the Naga King Kumuda, the fifth descendant of Takshaka, along with his sister Kumudavati. It emerged from below the bed of the Sarayu River challenging Kusa considered an incarnation of Vishnu
Vishnu
just in the disguise as a son.[27] Kalidasa, in his poetry Meghadūta
Meghadūta
epitomizing wish-fulfilling trees found in the capital of the Yaksha king extols the virtues of Kalpavriksha
Kalpavriksha
as "the dainties and fineries for the fair women of Alaka, coloured clothes for the body, intoxicating drinks for exciting glances of the eyes, and flowers for decorating the hair and ornaments of various designs".[28] See also[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kalpavriksha.

Kalpataru Day Cassia fistula, the Golden Shower Tree which is special in Thai culture. Dictionary of Hindu Lore and Legend

Notes[edit]

^ a b Agrawala 2003, p. 87. ^ Toole 2015, p. 73. ^ a b c d Beer 2003, p. 19. ^ a b c Dalal 2014, p. 620. ^ a b c "Background Context and Observation Recording" (pdf). Sacred Plants. National Informatics Center Rajasthan
Rajasthan
Forest Department. pp. 23–24.  ^ Sivkishen 2015, p. 578. ^ a b "Kalchakra". Jainism
Jainism
simplified. University of Michigan.  ^ Umakant P. Shah 1987, p. 71. ^ a b Gupta 1991, p. 48. ^ Randhawa 1964, p. 10. ^ Padma 2013, p. 83. ^ Jha 2013, p. 83. ^ Allied S Environmental Education For Class 6. Allied Publishers. p. 18. ISBN 978-81-8424-065-8.  ^ Samarth & Kendra 2008, p. 173. ^ Rastogī 2008, p. 46. ^ Rastogī 2008, p. 53. ^ Rastogī 2008, p. 25. ^ Limaye, Anita (1 June 2006). "Visit the 2,400 year old Kalpavriksh". The Economic Times. Archived from the original on 3 October 2015.  ^ a b Nair 2007, p. 65. ^ Jha 2013, p. 111. ^ Wickens 2008, p. 61. ^ Randhawa & Mukhopadhyay 1986, p. 2. ^ Bajpai 2004, p. 152. ^ The Journal of the Bihar Purāvid Parishad. Bihar Puravid Parishad. 1992. p. 302.  ^ Dehejia 1999, p. 96. ^ Roger Blench; Matthew Spriggs (2 September 2003). Archaeology and Language IV: Language Change and Cultural Transformation. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-81623-1.  ^ Sivaramamurti 1980, p. 74. ^ Cunningham 1962, p. viii.

References[edit]

Agrawala, Vasudeva Sharana (2003). Studies in Indian Art. Vishwavidyalaya Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7124-335-8.  Bajpai, K. D. (1 October 2004). Indian Numismatic Studies. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 978-81-7017-035-8.  Beer, Robert (2003). The Handbook of Tibetan Buddhist Symbols. Serindia Publications, Inc. ISBN 978-1-932476-03-3.  Cunningham, Sir Alexander (1962). The Stūpa of Bharhut: A Buddhist Monument Ornamented with Numerous Sculptures Illustrated [sic] of Buddhist Legend and History in the Third Century B.C. Indological Book House.  Dalal, Roshen (18 April 2014). Hinduism: An Alphabetical Guide. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-81-8475-277-9.  Dehejia, Harsha V. (1 January 1999). Parvati: Goddess of Love. Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-81-85822-59-4.  Gupta, Shakti
Shakti
M. (1991). Plant Myths and Traditions in India. Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers.  Jha, Ashok Kumar (July 2013). Meghadutam: Translated Into English in Vers Libre. Trafford Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4669-9158-3.  Nair, Shantha N. (1 January 2007). The Holy Himalayas: An Abode of Hindu Gods : a Journey Through the Mighty Himalayas. Pustak Mahal. ISBN 978-81-223-0967-6.  Padma, Sree (17 September 2013). Vicissitudes of the Goddess: Reconstructions of the Gramadevata in India's Religious Traditions. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-932504-7.  Randhawa, Mohinder Singh (1964). The cult of trees and tree-worship in Buddhist-Hindu sculpture. All India Fine Arts & Crafts Society.  Rastogī, Rekhā (2008). Let Us Identify The Useful Trees(New). Children's Book Trust. ISBN 978-81-7011-919-7.  Samarth, Shree Swami; Kendra, Vishwa Kalyan (1 August 2008). Guru Charitra. Sterling Publishers Pvt. Ltd. ISBN 978-81-207-3348-0.  Sivaramamurti, C. (1980). Approach to Nature in Indian Art and Thought. Kanak Publications.  Sivkishen (23 January 2015). Kingdom of Shiva. Diamond
Diamond
Pocket Books Pvt Ltd. ISBN 978-81-288-3028-0.  Toole, S. J. (23 June 2015). Origin Myth of Me: Reflections of Our Origins Creation of the Lulu. Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-329-22607-4.  Wickens, G.E. (2 March 2008). The Baobabs: Pachycauls of Africa, Madagascar and Australia. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 978-1-4020-6431-9.  Shah, Umakant P. (1987), Jaina-rūpa-maṇḍana: Jaina iconography, Abhinav Publications, ISBN 81-7017-208-X 

v t e

Hindu deities
Hindu deities
and texts

Gods

Trimurti

Brahma Vishnu

Rama Krishna

Shiva

Ganesha Kartikeya Hanuman Indra Surya more

Goddesses

Tridevi

Saraswati Lakshmi

Sita Radha

Parvati

Sati Kali Adi Parashakti Mahavidya

Durga Shakti Navadurga Matrikas more

Texts

Vedas

Rig Sama Yajur Atharva

Upanishads Puranas Ramayana Mahabharata

Bhagavad Gita

Yoga Sutras of Patanjali more

Hinduism Hindu mythology

v t e

Jainism
Jainism
topics

Gods

Tirthankara Ganadhara Arihant

Philosophy

Ethics

Ahimsa

Epistemology

Kevala Jñāna

Jaina logic

Anekāntavāda

Jain cosmology

Siddhashila Naraka Heavenly beings

Karma

Types Causes

Gunasthana Dravya

Jīva Ajiva

Pudgala Dharma

Tattva

Asrava Bandha Samvara Nirjara Mokṣa

Death Saṃsāra Ratnatraya Kashaya

Branches

Digambara

Mula Sangha

Balatkara Gana Kashtha Sangha

Taran Panth Bispanthi Terapanth Yapaniya Kanji Panth

Śvētāmbara

Murtipujaka

Gaccha

Kharatara Tapa Tristutik

Sthānakavāsī Terapanth

Practices

Sallekhana Meditation

Sāmāyika

Monasticism Vegetarianism Fasting Rituals Festivals

Paryushana Kshamavani Mahamastakabhisheka

Upadhan Tapas Pratikramana

Literature

Agama

Shatkhandagama Kasayapahuda

Mantra

Namokar Mantra Bhaktamara Stotra

Tattvartha Sutra Samayasāra Aptamimamsa Kalpa Sūtra

Symbols

Jain flag Siddhachakra Ashtamangala

Shrivatsa Nandavarta

Auspicious dreams Swastika

Ascetics

Digambara
Digambara
monk Aryika Kshullak Pattavali Acharya

Scholars

Nalini Balbir Colette Caillat Chandabai John E. Cort Paul Dundas Virchand Gandhi Hermann Jacobi Champat Rai Jain Padmanabh Jaini Jeffery D. Long Hampa Nagarajaiah Claudia Pastorino Bal Patil Jinendra Varni

Community

Śrāvaka Sarak Tamil Organisations

Digambar Jain Mahasabha Vishwa Jain Sangathan JAINA

Jainism
Jainism
in

India

Bundelkhand Delhi Goa Gujarat Haryana Karnataka

North

Kerala Maharashtra

Mumbai

Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh

Overseas

Canada Europe United States Japan Singapore Hong Kong Pakistan Belgium Africa Southeast Asia Australia

Jainism
Jainism
and

Buddhism Hinduism Islam Sikhism Non-creationism

Dynasties and empires

Ikshvaku Maurya Kalinga Kadamba Ganga Chalukya Rashtrakuta Hoysala Pandayan

Related

History

Timeline

Pañca-Parameṣṭhi Pratima Śalākāpuruṣa Tirtha Samavasarana Jain calendar

Samvatsari

Panch Kalyanaka Statue of Ahimsa Temple Sculpture Art Law Nigoda Jain terms and concepts Sexual differences

Lists

List of Jains List of Jain temples List of Jain ascetics List of Digambar Jain ascetics Topics List (index)

Navboxes

Gods Literature Monks & nuns Scholars Temples

America Bengal

  Portal   Commons   Wikiquote

.