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Kajkavian
Kajkavian
/kaɪˈkɑːviən, -ˈkæv-/ ( Kajkavian
Kajkavian
noun: kajkavščina; Shtokavian
Shtokavian
adjective: kajkavski [kǎjkaʋskiː],[2] noun: kajkavica or kajkavština [kajkǎːʋʃtina])[3] is a South Slavic language spoken primarily by Croats
Croats
in much of Central Croatia,[4] Gorski Kotar[5] and northern Istria.[note 1][6][7] There is an ongoing dispute whether Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is a dialect of Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
or a fully-fledged language of its own, as it is only partially mutually intelligible with other dialects and bears more similarities to Slovene (especially Prekmurje
Prekmurje
dialect) than Standard Croatian in terms of phonology and vocabulary. Notable Croatian linguists consider Kajkavian
Kajkavian
to be a language in its own right, with its own established dialects and documented literature. Croatian linguist Stjepan Ivšić
Stjepan Ivšić
has used Kajkavian
Kajkavian
vocabulary and accentuation, which significantly differs from that of Serbo-Croatian, as evidence.[8] Moreover, there is a common agreement among linguists that Kajkavian
Kajkavian
does not belong to the Shtokavian
Shtokavian
group of dialects as Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
does, but that it is more closely related to neighboring Slovene language
Slovene language
with which it shares considerable amount of vocabulary. Furthermore, there is no clear demarcation between Slovene dialects
Slovene dialects
and Kajkavian. Thus, it has low mutual intelligibility with Shtokavian, on which Croatia's standard language is based.[9][10] Linguist Josip Silić, one of the main creators of standardisation of Croatian language, also regards Kajkavian
Kajkavian
as a language of its own, having different morphology, syntax and phonology from official Croatian language.[11][1] As of 2015, historic Literary Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has a separate language ISO 639-3 code – kjv. Kajkavian literary language does not belong to Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
since it does not belong to the hbs-macrolanguage. Active attempts are being made by some organizations to widen its recognition and status, which has thus far included introduction of elective school subjects in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
in some parts of Croatia
Croatia
as well as the creation of the aforementioned ISO code.[12] The term Kajkavian
Kajkavian
stems from the interrogative pronoun kaj (what). The other main dialects of Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
also derive their name from their reflex of the interrogative pronoun.[13][14] However, the pronouns are only general pointers and do not serve as actual identifiers of the respective dialects. Certain Kajkavian
Kajkavian
dialects use the interrogative pronoun ča, the one that is usually used in Chakavian. The pronouns these dialects are named after are merely the most common one in that dialect. Outside Croatia's northernmost regions, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is also spoken in Austrian Burgenland
Burgenland
and a number of enclaves in Hungary
Hungary
along the Austrian and Croatian border and in Romania.[15] Although speakers of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
are primarily Croats, and Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is considered a dialect of Serbo-Croatian, its closest relative is the Slovene language, followed by Chakavian
Chakavian
and then Shtokavian. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is part of a dialect continuum with Slovene and Chakavian.[16]

Contents

1 Classification 2 Characteristics 3 History of research 4 Area of use 5 Kajkavian
Kajkavian
phonetics 6 Kajkavian
Kajkavian
literary language 7 Vocabulary comparison 8 Kajkavian
Kajkavian
media 9 Examples 10 References 11 Notes 12 Bibliography 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Classification[edit] Historically, the classification of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has been a subject of much debate regarding both the question of whether it ought to be considered a dialect or a language, as well as the question of what its relation is to neighboring speeches. Autonyms used throughout history by various Kajkavian
Kajkavian
writers have been manifold, ranging from Slavic (slavonski, slovenski, slovinski) to Croatian (horvatski) or Illyrian (illirski).[17][18] The naming went through several phases, with the Slavic-based name initially being dominant. Over time, the name Croatian started gaining ground mainly during the 17th century, and by the beginning of the 18th century, it had supplanted the older name Slavic. The name also followed the same evolution in neighboring Slovene Prekmurje, although there the name Slovene-Croatian (slovensko-horvatski) existed as well.[19] The actual term Kajkavian
Kajkavian
(kajkavski) is today accepted by its speakers in Croatia. The problem with classifying Kajkavian
Kajkavian
within South Slavic stems in part from its structural differences from neighboring Shtokavian speeches as well as its historical closeness to Slovene speeches. Some Slavists maintain that when the separation of Western South Slavic speeches happened, they separated into four divergent groups — Shtokavian, Chakavian, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
and Slovene.[20] As a result of this, throughout history Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has often been categorized differently than today. It was considered by many to be either a separate node altogether or a node categorized together with Slovene (then under a different name, Kranjski). Furthermore, no isoglosses exist that would separate all Slovene speeches from all Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
speeches. Nor do innovations exist common to Kajkavian, Chakavian, and Shtokavian
Shtokavian
that would separate them from Slovene.[20][21] Characteristics[edit] The Kajkavian
Kajkavian
speech area is bordered in the northwest by the Slovene language and in the northeast by the Hungarian language. In the east and southeast it is bordered by Shtokavian
Shtokavian
dialects roughly along a line that used to serve as the border between Civil Croatia
Croatia
and the Habsburg
Habsburg
Military Frontier. Finally, in the southwest it borders Chakavian
Chakavian
along the Kupa and Dobra rivers.[22] It is thought that historically these borders extended further to the south and east. For example, the eastern border is thought to have extended at least well into modern-day Slavonia
Slavonia
to the area around the town of Pakrac. Some historical toponyms suggest a slightly larger extent.[23] The capital Zagreb
Zagreb
has historically been a Kajkavian-speaking area, and Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is still in use by its older and to a lesser extent younger population. Modern Zagreb
Zagreb
speech has been under considerable influence of Shtokavian.[24] The vast intermingling of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
and standard Shtokavian
Shtokavian
in Zagreb
Zagreb
and its surroundings has led to problems in defining the underlying structure of those speeches. As a result, many of the urban speeches (but not rural ones) have been called either Kajkavian
Kajkavian
koine or Kajkavian– Shtokavian
Shtokavian
rather than Kajkavian or Shtokavian.[25] Additionally, the forms of speech in use exhibit significant sociolinguistic variation. Research suggests that younger Zagreb-born speakers of the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
koine tend to consciously use more Kajkavian
Kajkavian
features when speaking to older people, showing that such features are still in their inventory even if not used at all times.[26] However, the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
koine is distinct from Kajkavian
Kajkavian
as spoken in non-urban areas, and the mixing of Shtokavian
Shtokavian
and Kajkavian outside of urban settings is much rarer and less developed. The Kajkavian
Kajkavian
koine has also been named Zagreb
Zagreb
Shtokavian
Shtokavian
by some.[25] As a result of the previously mentioned mixing of dialects, various Kajkavian
Kajkavian
features and characteristics have found their way into the standard Shtokavian
Shtokavian
(standard Croatian) spoken in those areas. For example, some of the prominent features are the fixed stress-based accentual system without distinctive lengths, the merger of /č/ and /ć/ and of /dž/ and /đ/, vocabulary differences as well as a different place of stress in words.[27] The Zagreb
Zagreb
variety of Shtokavian
Shtokavian
is considered by some to enjoy parallel prestige with the proscribed Shtokavian
Shtokavian
variety. Because of that, speakers whose native speech is closer to the standard variety often end up adopting the Zagreb
Zagreb
speech for various reasons.[28] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is closely related to Slovene and to Prekmurje Slovene
Prekmurje Slovene
in particular.[29] Higher amounts of correspondences between the two exist in inflection and vocabulary. The speakers of the Prekmurje dialect are Slovenes
Slovenes
and Hungarian Slovenes
Slovenes
who belonged to the Archdiocese of Zagreb
Zagreb
during the Habsburg
Habsburg
era. They used Kajkavian
Kajkavian
as their liturgical language, and by the 18th century, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
had become the standard language of Prekmurje.[30] Moreover, literary Kajkavian
Kajkavian
was also used in neighboring Slovene Styria during the 17th and 18th centuries, and in parts of it, education was conducted in Kajkavian.[31] As a result of various factors, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has numerous differences compared to Shtokavian:

Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has a prothetic v- generalized in front of u (cf. Kajkavian vuho, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
uho, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
vugel, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
ugao, Kajkavian vučil, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
učio. This feature has been attested in Glagolithic texts very early on, already around 15th century (Petrisov zbornik, 1468). A similar feature exists in colloquial Czech.[32] Proto-Slavic *dj resulted in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
j as opposed to Shtokavian
Shtokavian
đ (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
meja, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
međa, Slovene meja).[33] The nasal *ǫ has evolved into a closed /o/ in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
(cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
roka, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
ruka, Slovene roka).[34] Common Slavic *v and *v- were retained as v in Kajkavian, whereas in Shtokavian
Shtokavian
they resulted in u and u-, and in Chakavian
Chakavian
they gave way to va.[35] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has retained /č/ in front of /r/ (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
črn, črv, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
crn, crv, Slovene črn, črv).[36] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
/ž/ in front of a vowel turns into /r/. A similar evolution happened in Slovene, Chakavian
Chakavian
as well as Western Shtokavian, however the latter does not use it in its standard form (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
moči > morem/moreš/more, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
moći > mogu/možeš/može, Slovene moči > morem/moreš/more).[36] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
retains -jt and -jd clusters (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
pojti, pojdem, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
poći, pođem).[36] Like most Slavic speeches (but not Shtokavian), Kajkavian
Kajkavian
exhibits final-obstruent devoicing, however it is not consistently spelled out (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
vrak, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
vrag)[37] Diminutive suffixes in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
are -ek, -ec, -eko, -eco (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
pes > pesek, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
pas > psić).[38] Negative past tense construction in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
deviates syntactically from neighboring speeches in its placing of the negative particle. It is argued by some that this might be a remnant of the Pannonian Slavic system. Similar behavior is exhibited in Slovak (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
ja sem nȩ čul, Slovene jaz nisem slišal, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
ja nisam čuo).[39] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has a different first-person plural present tense suffix, -mȩ (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
-mȩ, rečemȩ, Slovene -mo, rečemo, Shtokavian -mo, kažemo, Slovak -me, povieme).[40] Relative pronouns differ from neighboring dialects and languages. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
uses kateri, tȩri (cf. Czech který, Slovak ktorý, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
koji).[39] The genitive plural in Shtokavian
Shtokavian
adds an -a to the end whereas Kajkavian
Kajkavian
retains the old form (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
vuk, vukov/vukof, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
vuk, vukova, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
žene, žen, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
žene, žena).[41] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
retains the older locative plural (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
prsti, prsteh, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
prsti, prstima).[42] The loss of the dual is considered to be significantly more recent than in Shtokavian.[42] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has no vocative case.[42] So-called s-type nouns have been retained as a separate declension class in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
contrasted from the neuter due to the formant -es- in oblique cases. The same is true for Slovene (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
čudo, čudesa, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
čudo, čuda).[43] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
has no aorist.[44] The supine has been retained as distinctive from infinitive as in Slovene. The infinitive suffixes are -ti, -či whereas their supine counterparts are -t, -č. The supine and the infinitive are often stressed differently. The supine is used with verbs of motion.[45] The future tense is formed with the auxiliary biti and the -l participle as in Slovene and similar to Czech and Slovak (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
išel bom, Shtokavian
Shtokavian
ići ću).[39] Modern urban Kajkavian
Kajkavian
speeches tend to have stress as the only significant prosodic feature as opposed to the Shtokavian
Shtokavian
four-tone system.[46] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
exhibits various syntactic influences from German.[47] The Slavic prefix u- has a vi- reflex in some dialects, similar to Czech vý- (cf. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
vigled, Czech výhled, Shtokavian izgled).[48][49]

In addition to the above list of characteristics that set Kajkavian apart from Shtokavian, research suggests possible a closer relation with Kajkavian
Kajkavian
and the Slovak language, especially with the Central Slovak dialects upon which standard Slovak is based on. As modern-day Hungary
Hungary
used to be populated by Slavic-speaking peoples prior to the arrival of Hungarians, there have been hypotheses on possible common innovations of future West and South Slavic speakers of that area. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is the most prominent of the South Slavic speeches in sharing the most features that could potentially be common Pannonian innovations.[50] Some Kajkavian
Kajkavian
words bear a closer resemblance to other Slavic languages such as Russian than they do to Shtokavian
Shtokavian
or Chakavian. For instance gda seems to be at first glance unrelated to kada, however when compared to Russian когда, Slovene kdaj, or Prekmurje Slovene gda, kda, the relationship becomes apparent. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
kak (how) and tak (so) are exactly like their Russian cognates and Prekmurje Slovene
Prekmurje Slovene
compared to Shtokavian, Chakavian, and standard Slovene kako and tako. (This vowel loss occurred in most other Slavic languages; Shtokavian
Shtokavian
is a notable exception, whereas the same feature in Macedonian is probably not due to Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
influence because the word is preserved in the same form in Bulgarian, to which Macedonian is much more closely related than to Serbo-Croatian.) [51] History of research[edit] Linguistic investigation begun during the 19th century, although the research itself often ended in non-linguistic or outdated conclusions. Since that was the age of national revivals across Europe as well as the South Slavic lands, the research was steered by national narratives. Within that framework, Slovene philologists such as Franc Miklošič and Jernej Kopitar
Jernej Kopitar
attempted to reinforce the idea of Slovene and Kajkavian
Kajkavian
unity and asserted that Kajkavian
Kajkavian
speakers are Slovenes.[52][52] On the other hand, Josef Dobrovský
Josef Dobrovský
also claimed linguistic and national unity between the two groups but under the Croatian ethnonym.[52][53] The first modern dialectal investigations of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
started at the end of the 19th century. The Ukrainian philologist A. M. Lukjanenko wrote the first comprehensive monograph on Kajkavian
Kajkavian
(titled Kajkavskoe narečie meaning The Kajkavian
Kajkavian
dialect) in Russian in 1905.[54] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
dialects have been classified along various criteria: for instance Serbian philologist Aleksandar Belić
Aleksandar Belić
divided (1927) the Kajkavian dialect
Kajkavian dialect
according to the reflexes of Proto-Slavic phonemes /tj/ and /dj/ into three subdialects: eastern, northwestern and southwestern.[55] However, later investigations did not corroborate Belić's division. Contemporary Kajkavian
Kajkavian
dialectology begins with Croatian philologist Stjepan Ivšić's work "Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca" (The Language
Language
of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Croats, 1936), which highlighted accentual characteristics. Due to the great diversity within Kajkavian
Kajkavian
primarily in phonetics, phonology, and morphology, the Kajkavian dialect
Kajkavian dialect
atlas features a large number of subdialects: from four identified by Ivšić to six proposed by Croatian linguist Brozović (formerly the accepted division) all the way up to fifteen according to a monograph by Croatian linguist Mijo Lončarić (1995). Area of use[edit]

Bilingual Kajkavian/German street sign in Zagreb: Kamenita Vulicza / Stein Gasse

Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is mainly spoken in northern and northwestern Croatia. The mixed half- Kajkavian
Kajkavian
towns along the eastern and southern edge of the Kajkavian-speaking area are Pitomača, Čazma, Kutina, Popovača, Sunja, Petrinja, Martinska Ves, Ozalj, Ogulin, Fužine, and Čabar, including newer Štokavian enclaves of Bjelovar, Sisak, Glina, Dubrava, Zagreb
Zagreb
and Novi Zagreb. The southernmost Kajkavian
Kajkavian
villages are Krapje at Jasenovac; and Pavušek, Dvorišče and Hrvatsko selo in Zrinska Gora (R. Fureš & A. Jembrih: Kajkavski u povijesnom i sadašnjem obzorju p. 548, Zabok 2006). The major cities in northern Croatia
Croatia
are located in what was historically a Kajkavian-speaking area, mainly Zagreb, Koprivnica, Krapina, Križevci, Varaždin, Čakovec. The typical archaic Kajkavian is today spoken mainly in Hrvatsko Zagorje
Hrvatsko Zagorje
hills and Međimurje
Međimurje
plain, and in adjacent areas of northwestern Croatia
Croatia
where immigrants and the Štokavian standard had much less influence. The most peculiar Kajkavian dialect
Kajkavian dialect
(Baegnunski) is spoken in Bednja
Bednja
in northernmost Croatia. Many of northern Croatian urban areas today are partly Štokavianized due to the influence of the standard language and immigration of Štokavian speakers. Other southeastern people who immigrate to Zagreb
Zagreb
from Štokavian territories often pick up rare elements of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
in order to assimilate, notably the pronoun "kaj" instead of "što" and the extended use of future anterior (futur drugi), but they never adapt well because of alien eastern accents and ignoring Kajkavian-Čakavian archaisms and syntax. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
phonetics[edit]

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Vowels: /a/, /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /e/, /ə/, /i/, /ɔ/, /o/, /u/ consonants: /b/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /d/, /dz/, /dʒ/, /f/, /ɡ/, /ɦ/, /x/, /j/, /k/, /l/, /ʎ/, /m/, /n/, /ɲ/, /p/, /r/, /r̝/, /s/, /ʃ/, /t/, /v/, /z/, /ʒ/

Letter or digraph IPA Example Translation

a /a/ Kaj bum? What should I do?

a /ɑ/ Ja grem v Varaždin. I'm going to Varaždin.

b /b/ Kaj buš ti, bum i ja. Whatever you'll do, I'll do it too.

c /ts/ Čuda cukora 'ma v otem kolaču. There's a lot of sugar in this cake.

č /tʃ/ Hočeš kaj ti povedam? Would you like me to tell you?

d /d/ Da l' me ljubiš? Do you love me?

dz /dz/ Pogledni dzaj za hižom! Look behind the house!

dž /dʒ/ Kda nam pak dojde to vreme, kda pemo mi v Medžimurje? When will we go to Medjimurje again?

e /ɛ/ Moje srčeko ne m're bez tebe! My heart cannot go on without you!

e /e/ Moj Zagreb
Zagreb
tak imam te rad! My Zagreb, I love you so much!

e /ə/ Ja sem Varaždinec! I'm a Varaždinian!

f /f/ Cveti! Cveti, fijolica lepa! Blossom! Blossom, beautiful violet!

g /ɡ/ Smrt po vse nas dojde! Na koncu, v grabi smo vsi. Death comes for us all, in the end we are all in our graves!

h /ɦ/ Ljubim tve čobice mehke. I love your tender lips.

h /x/ Naj se hurmati, kak nekšni hrmak. Quit fooling around like a buffoon.

i /i/ Kdo te ima? Who has you?

ie /jɛ/ Liepa moja, daj mi se osmiehni, ker ti imaš najliepši osmieh na svietu. My beauty, give me a smile because you have the most beautiful smile in the world. (this is the influence of Ijekavian
Ijekavian
Štokavian; Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is originally exclusively Ekavian)

j /j/ Hej, haj, prišel je kraj, nikdar več ne bu dišal nam maj. Hey, hey, the end has come, to us may, never again would it smell.

k /k/ Kaj bum? What should I do?

l /l/ Ja sem včera v Zagrebu bil, kda sem dimo išel, solzicu sem pustil. Yesterday I was in Zagreb, and when I went home I had tears in my eyes.

lj /ʎ/ Tak malo dobroga, v življenju tu se najde. There is so little good to find in life.

m /m/ Prosim te kaj mi oprostiš. Please forgive me.

n /n/ Znaš kaj? – Nikaj! You know what? – Nothing!

nj /ɲ/ Ja samo nju ljubim. I love only her.

o /ɔ/ Idemo na morje? Are we going to the sea?

o /o/ Ja sem samo TVoj. I'm only for you.

p /p/ Upam se, da me još imaš rada. I hope you still love me.

r /r/ Vjutro se ja rano 'stanem, malo pred zorju. I woke up early in the morning, a little before dawn.

r /r̝/ Prešlo je prešlo, puno ljet. Many years have passed.

s /s/ Popevke sem slagal, i rožice bral. Songs I composed, and roses I picked.

š /ʃ/ Ja bi ti štel kušlec dati. I would like to give you a kiss.

t /t/ Kajti: kak bi bilo da nebi nekak bilo, nebi bilo nikak, ni tak kak je bilo. Because: how would it be if it wouldn't be like this, it would be nohow, and not like this as it is.

u /u/ Nikdar ni tak bilo da ni nekak bilo, pak ni vesda ne bu da nam nekak ne bu. Never had been that has not been nothing and nohow, so it will never be that somehow would it not be.

v /v/ Vrag te 'zel! The Devil has taken you away!

z /z/ Zakaj? – Morti zato? Why? – Maybe because?

ž /ʒ/ Kde delaš? – Ja delam na železnici. Zakaj pitaš? Where are you working? – I'm working on the railroad. Why do you ask?

Kajkavian
Kajkavian
literary language[edit]

A picture of the 1850 edition of the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
periodical Danica zagrebečka

Writings that are judged by some as being distinctly Kajkavian
Kajkavian
can be dated to around the 12th century.[56] The first comprehensive works in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
started to appear during the 16th century at a time when Central Croatia
Croatia
gained prominence due to the geopolitical environment since it was free from Ottoman occupation. The most notable work of that era was Ivanuš Pergošić's Decretum, released in 1574. Decretum was a translation of István Werbőczy's Tripartitum. At the same time, many Protestant writers of the Slovene lands also released their works in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
in order to reach a wider audience, while also using some Kajkavian
Kajkavian
features in their native writings. During that time, the autonym used by the writers was usually slovinski (Slavic), horvatski (Croatian) or ilirski (Illyrian).[57] After that, numerous works appeared in the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
literary language: chronicles by Vramec, liturgical works by Ratkaj, Habdelić, Mulih; poetry by Ana Katarina Zrinska, and a dramatic opus by Tituš Brezovački. Kajkavian-based are important lexicographic works like Jambrešić's "Dictionar", 1670, and the monumental (2,000 pages and 50,000 words) Latin-Kajkavian-Latin dictionary "Gazophylacium" (including also some Chakavian
Chakavian
and Shtokavian
Shtokavian
words marked as such) by Ivan Belostenec
Ivan Belostenec
(posthumously, 1740). Miroslav Krleža's poetic work "Balade Petrice Kerempuha" drew heavily on Belostenec's dictionary. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
grammars include Kornig's, 1795, Matijević's, 1810 and Đurkovečki's, 1837. During that time, the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
literary language was the dominant written form in its spoken area along with Latin and German.[58] Until Ljudevit Gaj's attempts to modernize the spelling, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
was written using Hungarian spelling conventions.[59] Kajkavian
Kajkavian
began to lose its status during the Croatian National Revival
Croatian National Revival
in mid-19th Century when the leaders of the Illyrian movement
Illyrian movement
opted to use the Shtokavian
Shtokavian
dialect as the basis for the future South Slavic standard language, the reason being that it had the highest number of speakers. Initially, the choice of Shtokavian
Shtokavian
was accepted even among Slovene intellectuals, but later it fell out of favor.[60] The Zagreb linguistic school was opposed to the course that the standardization process took. Namely, it had almost completely ignored Kajkavian
Kajkavian
(and Chakavian) dialects which was contrary to the original vision of Zagreb
Zagreb
school. With the notable exception of vocabulary influence of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
on the standard Croatian register (but not the Serbian one), there was very little to no input from other non-Shtokavian dialects.[61] Instead, the opposite was done, with some modern-day linguists calling the process of 19th-century standardization an event of "neo- Shtokavian
Shtokavian
purism" and a "purge of non-Shtokavian elements".[28] Early 20th century witnessed a drastic increase in released Kajkavian literature, although by then it had become part of what was considered Croatian dialectal poetry with no pretense of serving as a standard written form. The most notable writers of this period were among others, Antun Gustav Matoš, Miroslav Krleža, Ivan Goran Kovačić, Dragutin Domjanić
Dragutin Domjanić
and Nikola Pavić. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
lexical treasure is being published by the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts in "Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskoga književnoga jezika"/Dictionary of the Croatian Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Literary Language, 8 volumes (1999). Later, Dario Vid Balog, actor, linguist and writer translated the New Testament in Kajkavian.[62] Below are examples of the Lord's Prayer
Lord's Prayer
in the Croatian variant of Shtokavian, literary Kajkavian
Kajkavian
and a Međimurje
Međimurje
variant of the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
dialect.

Standard Croatian Literary Kajkavian Međimurje-Kajkavian Standard Slovene

Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima, sveti se ime tvoje, dođi kraljevstvo tvoje, budi volja tvoja, kako na nebu tako i na zemlji. Kruh naš svagdanji daj nam danas i otpusti nam duge naše, kako i mi otpuštamo dužnicima našim, i ne uvedi nas u napast, nego izbavi nas od zla. Amen.

Otec naš, koj si na nebesi, sveti se ime tvoje, dojdi kralestvo tvoje, budi vola tvoja, kak na nebu tak i na zemli. Kruha našega vsagdašnega dej nam denes. I otpusti nam duge naše, kak i mi otpuščamo dužnikom našim, i ne vpelaj nas vu skušavanje, nego oslobodi nas od zla. Amen.[63]

Japek naš ki si v nebesaj, nek se sveti ime Tvoje, nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje, nek bo volja Tvoja, kakti na nebi tak pa na zemlji. Kruhek naš vsakdaneši daj nam denes ter odpuščaj nam duge naše, kakti i mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim, ter naj nas vpelati v skušnje, nek zbavi nas od vsakih hudobah. Amen.

Oče naš, ki si v nebesih, posvečeno bodi tvoje ime, pridi k nam tvoje kraljestvo, zgodi se tvoja volja kakor v nebesih tako na zemlji. Daj nam danes naš vsakdanji kruh in odpusti nam naše dolge, kakor tudi mi odpuščamo svojim dolžnikom, in ne vpelji nas v skušnjavo, temveč reši nas hudega. Amen.

Location map of Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
dialects in Croatia
Croatia
and areas in BiH with Croat majority. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
in purple.

Distribution of Chakavian, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
and Western Shtokavian
Shtokavian
before migrations. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
in yellow.

Vocabulary comparison[edit] What follows is a comparison of some words in Kajkavian, Shtokavian/Croatian and Slovene along with their English translations. Kajkavian
Kajkavian
is lexically much closer to Slovene than to official Shtokavian
Shtokavian
Croatian, which is another argument that Kajkavian
Kajkavian
can not be a dialect of Serbo-Croatian. The Kajkavian
Kajkavian
words are given in their most common orthographic form. Shtokavian
Shtokavian
words are given in their standard Croatian form. In cases where the place of accent or stress differs, the syllable with the stress or accent is indicated in bold. Words that are the same in all three are not listed. Loanwords are also not listed.

Kajkavian Slovene Shtokavian English

kaj kaj što what

k/teri kateri koji which

reč beseda riječ word

več več više more

povedati povedati kazati to say, to tell

gda kdaj/ko kada when, ever

nigda nikoli nikada never

vse vse sve all

iti iti ići to go

tu tukaj tu here

gde kje gdje where

negde nekje negdje somewhere

vleči vleči vući to tug, to drag

obleči obleči odjenuti to dress

otiti oditi otići to leave, to go

dete otrok dijete child

deska deska ploča board

leto leto godina year

imeti imeti imati to have

vekši večji veći bigger, larger

bolši boljši bolji better

razmeti razumeti razumjeti to understand

zdiči dvigniti dignuti to lift, to raise

črlen rdeč crven red

črn črn crni black

bel bel bijeli white

gorši slabši gori worse

pes pes pas dog

narediti narediti uraditi to do

pisec pisec pisac writer

iskati iskati tražiti to search

boleti boleti boljeti to hurt

broj število broj number

igrati igrati igrati to play

vrnuti vrniti vratiti to return

hiža hiša kuća house

včera včeraj jučer yesterday

zaprti zapreti zatvoriti to close, to shut

delati delati raditi to work

vre že već already

komaj komaj jedva barely

veha veja grana branch

pozoj zmaj zmaj dragon

jajce jajce jaje egg

človek človek čovjek hu/man

megla megla magla fog

dešč dež kiša rain

žganica žganje rakija brandy

Kajkavian
Kajkavian
media[edit] During Yugoslavia in the 20th century, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
was mostly restricted to private communication, poetry and folklore. With the recent regional democratizing and cultural revival beginning in the 1990s, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
partly regained its former half-public position chiefly in Zagorje and Varaždin Counties and local towns, where there is now some public media e.g.:

A quarterly periodical "Kaj", with 35 annual volumes in nearly a hundred fascicles published since 1967 by the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Association ('Kajkavsko Spravišče') in Zagreb. An autumnal week of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
culture in Krapina since 1997, with professional symposia on Kajkavian
Kajkavian
resulting in five published proceedings. An annual periodical, Hrvatski sjever ('Croatian North'), with a dozen volumes partly in Kajkavian
Kajkavian
published by Matica Hrvatska in Čakovec. A new internet portal: Kaykavian Zohowiki, a minor wiki-lexicon on the Kajkavian
Kajkavian
culture and dialect in northwestern Croatia
Croatia
starting in Autumn 2009. A permanent radio program in Kajkavian, Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Radio in Krapina. Other minor half- Kajkavian
Kajkavian
media with temporary Kajkavian
Kajkavian
contents include local television in Varaždin, the local radio program Sljeme in Zagreb, and some local newspapers in northwestern Croatia
Croatia
in Varaždin, Čakovec, Samobor, etc.

Examples[edit]

Kaj bum? – in Kajkavian: What should I do? Kak je, tak je; tak je navek bilo, kak bu tak bu, a bu vre nekak kak bu! "Nigdar ni tak bilo da ni nekak bilo, pak ni vezda ne bu da nam nekak ne bu." – Miroslav Krleža
Miroslav Krleža
(quotation from poem "Khevenhiller") Kaj buš ti, bum i ja! (Whatever you do, I'll do it too!) Ne bu išlo! (standard Croatian: Ne može tako, Neće ići, Slovene: Ne bo šlo, "It won't work!") "Bumo vidli!" (štokavski: "Vidjet ćemo!", Slovene: Bomo videli, English: "We will see!") "Dej muči!" or "Muči daj!" (štokavski: "Daj šuti!", Slovene: Daj molči, English: "Shut up!") "Buš pukel?" – "Bum!" (jokingly: "Will you explode?" – "I will!") Numerous supplementary examples see also by A. Negro: "Agramerski štikleci" Another major example – traditional Kajkavian
Kajkavian
"Paternoster" (bold = site of stress): Japa naš kteri si f 'nebesih nek sesvete ime Tvoje, nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje, nek bu volya Tvoja kakti na nebe tak pa na zemle. Kruhek naš sakdajni nam daj denes ter odpuščaj nam dugi naše, kakti mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim ter naj nas fpelati vu skušnje, nek nas zbavi od sekih hudobah. F'se veke vekof, Amen.

References[edit]

^ a b Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kajkavian". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ "Hrvatski jezični portal (1)". Retrieved 21 March 2015.  ^ "Hrvatski jezični portal (2)". Retrieved 21 March 2015.  ^ Klaus J. Mattheier (1991). Sociolinguistica. M. Niemeyer. ISBN 978-3-484-60368-4.  ^ Stig Eliasson; Ernst Håkon Jahr (1 January 1997). Language
Language
and Its Ecology: Essays in Memory of Einar Haugen. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 29–. ISBN 978-3-11-014688-2.  ^ Matej Šekli. "Zemljepisnojezikoslovna členitev kajkavščine ter slovensko-kajkavska jezikovna meja" [Geographically-linguistic breakdown of Kajkavian
Kajkavian
and the Slovene- Kajkavian
Kajkavian
linguistic border] (PDF) (in Slovenian). University of Ljubljana. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  ^ Janneke Kalsbeek (1998). The Čakavian Dialect of Orbanići Near Žminj in Istria. Rodopi. pp. 4–. ISBN 90-420-0712-5.  ^ Ivšić, Stjepan (1996). Lisac, Josip, ed. Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca (New ed.). Zaprešić: Matica hrvatska.  ^ Ronelle Alexander (15 August 2006). Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, a Grammar: With Sociolinguistic Commentary. Univ of Wisconsin Press. pp. 388–. ISBN 978-0-299-21193-6.  ^ Robert Lindsay. "Mutual Intelligibility of Languages in the Slavic Family". academia.edu. Retrieved 25 February 2015.  ^ Silić, Josip (1998), Hrvatski standardni jezik i hrvatska narječja, Kolo. 8, 4, p. 425-430. ^ "Kajkavski proglašen jezikom, čakavica pred nestajanjem" (in Serbo-Croatian). Retrieved 2015-03-09.  ^ Bernard Comrie (13 January 2009). The World's Major Languages. Routledge. pp. 331–. ISBN 978-1-134-26156-7.  ^ "HJP - kaj". Novi Liber. Retrieved 6 May 2014.  ^ Dicky Gilbers; John A. Nerbonne; J. Schaeken (1 January 2000). Languages in Contact. Rodopi. pp. 160–. ISBN 90-420-1322-2.  ^ Marc L. Greenberg (2008). A Short Reference Grammar of Slovene. Lincom Europa. ISBN 978-3-89586-965-5.  ^ Journal of Croatian Studies. Croatian Academy of America. 2000.  ^ Svet med Muro in Dravo: Ob stoletnici 1. slovenskega tabora v Ljutomeru 1868-1968. Skupščina občine. 1968.  ^ Boris Golec. Hrvaški etnonim in lingvonim na Slovenskem v 17. in 18. stoletju s posebnim ozirom na Prekmurje
Prekmurje
[The Croatian ethnonym and linguonym in Slovene lands during 17th and 18th century with special focus on Prekmurje] (PDF) (in Slovenian). p. 259. Retrieved 13 March 2015.  ^ a b Matasović 2008, p. 65 ^ Henrik Birnbaum; Jaan Puhvel (1966). Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings of the Conference on Indo-European Linguistics Held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25-27, 1963. University of California Press. pp. 188–. GGKEY:JUG4225Y4H2.  ^ Predrag Stepanović (1986). A Taxonomic Description of the Dialects of Serbs and Croats
Croats
in Hungary: The Štokavian Dialect. Akad. K. ISBN 978-3-412-07484-5.  ^ Matasović 2008, p. 35 ^ Kapović, Mate (2006). "Najnovije jezične promjene u zagrebačkom govoru". Kolo (in Serbo-Croatian).  ^ a b Martin Pütz; René Dirven (1 January 1996). The Construal of Space in Language
Language
and Thought. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 50–. ISBN 978-3-11-015243-2.  ^ Ursula Stephany; Maria D. Voeikova (14 July 2009). Development of Nominal Inflection in First Language
Language
Acquisition: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 158–. ISBN 978-3-11-021711-7.  ^ Kapović, Mate (2004), "Jezični utjecaj velikih gradova" (PDF), Rasprave Instituta za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje (in Serbo-Croatian), 30  ^ a b Kapović, Mate (2010), Čiji je jezik? [Who does language belong to?] (PDF) (in Serbo-Croatian), pp. 67–  ^ Časopis za zgodovino in narodopisje: Review for history and ethnography. Univerza v Mariboru in Zgodovinsko društvo Maribor. 1988.  ^ Boris Golec (2012). Nedokončana kroatizacija delov vzhodne Slovenije med 16. in 19. stoletjem: po sledeh hrvaškega lingvonima in etnonima v Beli krajini, Kostelu, Prekmurju in Prlekiji. Založba ZRC. pp. 170–. ISBN 978-961-254-383-9.  ^ Ivana Vekjet Frančeškin. "Slovenski jezik v šolstvu: Slovenščina kot učni jezik v času razsvetljenstva" [Slovene language in education: Slovene as a language of instruction during the Enlightenment] (PDF) (in Slovenian). University of Nova Gorica. pp. 64–65. Retrieved 12 March 2015.  ^ Matasović 2008, p. 140 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 148 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 152 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 157 ^ a b c Matasović 2008, p. 161 ^ International Review of Slavic Linguistics. Linguistic Research. 1982.  ^ Ineta Savickien?; Wolfgang U. Dressler (1 January 2007). The Acquisition of Diminutives: A Cross-linguistic Perspective. John Benjamins Publishing. pp. 76–. ISBN 90-272-5303-X.  ^ a b c Nuorluoto 2010, p. 42 ^ Nuorluoto 2010, p. 41 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 186 ^ a b c Matasović 2008, p. 187 ^ Matasović 2008, pp. 205–206 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 269 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 301 ^ Thomas F. Magner (1966). A Zagreb
Zagreb
Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Dialect. Pennsylvania State University.  ^ Donald F. Reindl (2008). Language
Language
Contact, German and Slovenian. Brockmeyer Verlag. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-3-8196-0715-8.  ^ Matasović 2008, p. 37 ^ Bjeletić, Marta (1998). "Praslovenska leksika u etimološkom rečniku srpskohrvatskog jezika" (PDF). Praslowianszczyzna i jej rozpad. Retrieved 10 March 2015.  ^ Nuorluoto 2010, pp. 37 ^ Levinson & O'Leary (1992:239) ^ a b c Lončarić 1985, p. 284 ^ Balázs Trencsényi; Michal Kopeček (2006). Late Enlightenment: Emergence of Modern National Ideas. Central European University Press. pp. 226–. ISBN 978-963-7326-52-3.  ^ Lončarić 1985, p. 281 ^ Lončarić 1985, p. 288 ^ Matasović 2008, p. 36 ^ Lončarić 1985, p. 282 ^ Lončarić 1985, p. 285 ^ Joshua Fishman; Ofelia Garcia (16 March 2011). Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language
Language
and Ethnic Identity Efforts. Oxford University Press. pp. 367–. ISBN 978-0-19-983799-1.  ^ Joshua Fishman; Ofelia Garcia (16 March 2011). Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language
Language
and Ethnic Identity Efforts. Oxford University Press. pp. 372–. ISBN 978-0-19-983799-1.  ^ Robert D. Greenberg (25 March 2004). Language
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Notes[edit]

^ The Kajkavian
Kajkavian
speech of northern Istria
Istria
is conventionally called Kajkavian
Kajkavian
but the features that differentiate it from neighboring Chakavian
Chakavian
are not strictly or distinctly Kajkavian
Kajkavian
nor are those speech forms located in continuum with any other Kajkavian
Kajkavian
speech in Croatia. They have features common to both Slovene across the border as well as Kajkavian
Kajkavian
elsewhere.

Bibliography[edit]

Feletar D., Ledić G., Šir A.: Kajkaviana Croatica (Hrvatska kajkavska riječ). Muzej Međimurja, 37 str., Čakovec 1997. Fureš R., Jembrih A. (ured.): Kajkavski u povijesnom i sadašnjem obzorju (zbornik skupova Krapina 2002-2006). Hrvatska udruga Muži zagorskog srca, 587 str. Zabok 2006. JAZU / HAZU: Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskog književnog jezika (A – P), I – X. Zavod za hrvatski jezik i jezikoslovlje 2500 str, Zagreb
Zagreb
1984-2005. Lipljin, T. 2002: Rječnik varaždinskoga kajkavskog govora. Garestin, Varaždin, 1284 str. (2. prošireno izdanje u tisku 2008.) Lončarić, M. 1996: Kajkavsko narječje. Školska knjiga, Zagreb, 198 str. Magner, F. 1971: Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Koiné. Symbolae in Honorem Georgii Y. Shevelov, München. Moguš, M.: A History of the Croatian Language, NZ Globus, Zagreb
Zagreb
1995 Šojat, A. 1969-1971: Kratki navuk jezičnice horvatske (Jezik stare kajkavske književnosti). Kaj 1969: 3-4, 5, 7-8, 10, 12; Kaj 1970: 2, 3-4, 10; Kaj 1971: 10, 11. Kajkavsko spravišče, Zagreb. Okuka, M. 2008: Srpski dijalekti. SKD Prosvjeta, Zagreb, 7. str Levinson, David; O'Leary, Timothy (1992), Encyclopedia of World Cultures, G.K. Hall, p. 239, ISBN 0-8161-1808-6 

References[edit]

Matasović, Ranko (2008). Poredbenopovijesna gramatika hrvatskoga jezika. Zagreb: Matica hrvatska. ISBN 978-953-150-840-7.  Nuorluoto, Juhani (2010). "Central Slovak and Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Structural Convergences: A Tentative Survey" (PDF). Retrieved 10 March 2015.  Lončarić, Mijo (1985). "Kajkavsko narječje u svjetlu dosadašnjih pručavanja". Zavod za jezik IFF, Zagreb. Retrieved 10 March 2015. 

Further reading[edit]

Jedvaj, Josip 1956: Bednjanski govor, Hrvatski dijalektološki zbornik, Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts

External links[edit]

Look up Category: Kajkavian
Kajkavian
Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

"Agramerski štikleci": Kajkavian
Kajkavian
phrases and proverbs Kajkavska Renesansa – Kajkavski jezik

Authority control

LCCN: sh85071309 BNF:

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