Kajkavian /kaɪˈkɑːviən, -ˈkæv-/ (
Kajkavian noun: kajkavščina;
Shtokavian adjective: kajkavski [kǎjkaʋskiː], noun: kajkavica or
kajkavština [kajkǎːʋʃtina]) is a South Slavic language spoken
Croats in much of Central Croatia, Gorski Kotar and
northern Istria.[note 1]
There is an ongoing dispute whether
Kajkavian is a dialect of
Serbo-Croatian or a fully-fledged language of its own, as it is only
partially mutually intelligible with other dialects and bears more
similarities to Slovene (especially
Prekmurje dialect) than Standard
Croatian in terms of phonology and vocabulary. Notable Croatian
Kajkavian to be a language in its own right, with
its own established dialects and documented literature. Croatian
Stjepan Ivšić has used
Kajkavian vocabulary and
accentuation, which significantly differs from that of Serbo-Croatian,
as evidence. Moreover, there is a common agreement among linguists
Kajkavian does not belong to the
Shtokavian group of dialects as
Serbo-Croatian does, but that it is more closely related to
Slovene language with which it shares considerable amount
of vocabulary. Furthermore, there is no clear demarcation between
Slovene dialects and Kajkavian. Thus, it has low mutual
intelligibility with Shtokavian, on which Croatia's standard language
is based. Linguist Josip Silić, one of the main creators of
standardisation of Croatian language, also regards
Kajkavian as a
language of its own, having different morphology, syntax and phonology
from official Croatian language. As of 2015, historic Literary
Kajkavian has a separate language
ISO 639-3 code – kjv. Kajkavian
literary language does not belong to
Serbo-Croatian since it does not
belong to the hbs-macrolanguage. Active attempts are being made by
some organizations to widen its recognition and status, which has thus
far included introduction of elective school subjects in
some parts of
Croatia as well as the creation of the aforementioned
Kajkavian stems from the interrogative pronoun kaj (what).
The other main dialects of
Serbo-Croatian also derive their name from
their reflex of the interrogative pronoun. However, the
pronouns are only general pointers and do not serve as actual
identifiers of the respective dialects. Certain
Kajkavian dialects use
the interrogative pronoun ča, the one that is usually used in
Chakavian. The pronouns these dialects are named after are merely the
most common one in that dialect.
Outside Croatia's northernmost regions,
Kajkavian is also spoken in
Burgenland and a number of enclaves in
Hungary along the
Austrian and Croatian border and in Romania. Although speakers of
Kajkavian are primarily Croats, and
Kajkavian is considered a dialect
of Serbo-Croatian, its closest relative is the Slovene language,
Chakavian and then Shtokavian.
Kajkavian is part of a
dialect continuum with Slovene and Chakavian.
3 History of research
4 Area of use
Kajkavian literary language
7 Vocabulary comparison
14 Further reading
15 External links
Historically, the classification of
Kajkavian has been a subject of
much debate regarding both the question of whether it ought to be
considered a dialect or a language, as well as the question of what
its relation is to neighboring speeches.
Autonyms used throughout history by various
Kajkavian writers have
been manifold, ranging from Slavic (slavonski, slovenski, slovinski)
to Croatian (horvatski) or Illyrian (illirski). The naming
went through several phases, with the Slavic-based name initially
being dominant. Over time, the name Croatian started gaining ground
mainly during the 17th century, and by the beginning of the 18th
century, it had supplanted the older name Slavic. The name also
followed the same evolution in neighboring Slovene Prekmurje, although
there the name Slovene-Croatian (slovensko-horvatski) existed as
well. The actual term
Kajkavian (kajkavski) is today accepted by
its speakers in Croatia.
The problem with classifying
Kajkavian within South Slavic stems in
part from its structural differences from neighboring Shtokavian
speeches as well as its historical closeness to Slovene speeches. Some
Slavists maintain that when the separation of Western South Slavic
speeches happened, they separated into four divergent groups —
Kajkavian and Slovene. As a result of this,
Kajkavian has often been categorized differently
than today. It was considered by many to be either a separate node
altogether or a node categorized together with Slovene (then under a
different name, Kranjski). Furthermore, no isoglosses exist that would
separate all Slovene speeches from all
Serbo-Croatian speeches. Nor do
innovations exist common to Kajkavian, Chakavian, and
would separate them from Slovene.
Kajkavian speech area is bordered in the northwest by the Slovene
language and in the northeast by the Hungarian language. In the east
and southeast it is bordered by
Shtokavian dialects roughly along a
line that used to serve as the border between Civil
Croatia and the
Habsburg Military Frontier. Finally, in the southwest it borders
Chakavian along the Kupa and Dobra rivers. It is thought that
historically these borders extended further to the south and east. For
example, the eastern border is thought to have extended at least well
Slavonia to the area around the town of Pakrac. Some
historical toponyms suggest a slightly larger extent.
Zagreb has historically been a Kajkavian-speaking area,
Kajkavian is still in use by its older and to a lesser extent
younger population. Modern
Zagreb speech has been under considerable
influence of Shtokavian. The vast intermingling of
Zagreb and its surroundings has led to problems
in defining the underlying structure of those speeches. As a result,
many of the urban speeches (but not rural ones) have been called
Kajkavian koine or Kajkavian–
Shtokavian rather than Kajkavian
or Shtokavian. Additionally, the forms of speech in use exhibit
significant sociolinguistic variation. Research suggests that younger
Zagreb-born speakers of the
Kajkavian koine tend to consciously use
Kajkavian features when speaking to older people, showing that
such features are still in their inventory even if not used at all
times. However, the
Kajkavian koine is distinct from
spoken in non-urban areas, and the mixing of
Shtokavian and Kajkavian
outside of urban settings is much rarer and less developed. The
Kajkavian koine has also been named
Shtokavian by some.
As a result of the previously mentioned mixing of dialects, various
Kajkavian features and characteristics have found their way into the
Shtokavian (standard Croatian) spoken in those areas. For
example, some of the prominent features are the fixed stress-based
accentual system without distinctive lengths, the merger of /č/ and
/ć/ and of /dž/ and /đ/, vocabulary differences as well as a
different place of stress in words. The
Zagreb variety of
Shtokavian is considered by some to enjoy parallel prestige with the
Shtokavian variety. Because of that, speakers whose native
speech is closer to the standard variety often end up adopting the
Zagreb speech for various reasons.
Kajkavian is closely related to Slovene and to
Prekmurje Slovene in
particular. Higher amounts of correspondences between the two
exist in inflection and vocabulary. The speakers of the Prekmurje
Slovenes and Hungarian
Slovenes who belonged to the
Zagreb during the
Habsburg era. They used
their liturgical language, and by the 18th century,
become the standard language of Prekmurje. Moreover, literary
Kajkavian was also used in neighboring Slovene Styria during the 17th
and 18th centuries, and in parts of it, education was conducted in
As a result of various factors,
Kajkavian has numerous differences
compared to Shtokavian:
Kajkavian has a prothetic v- generalized in front of u (cf. Kajkavian
Shtokavian ugao, Kajkavian
Shtokavian učio. This feature has been attested in
Glagolithic texts very early on, already around 15th century (Petrisov
zbornik, 1468). A similar feature exists in colloquial Czech.
Proto-Slavic *dj resulted in
Kajkavian j as opposed to
Shtokavian međa, Slovene meja).
The nasal *ǫ has evolved into a closed /o/ in
Shtokavian ruka, Slovene roka).
Common Slavic *v and *v- were retained as v in Kajkavian, whereas in
Shtokavian they resulted in u and u-, and in
Chakavian they gave way
Kajkavian has retained /č/ in front of /r/ (cf.
Kajkavian črn, črv,
Shtokavian crn, crv, Slovene črn, črv).
Kajkavian /ž/ in front of a vowel turns into /r/. A similar evolution
happened in Slovene,
Chakavian as well as Western Shtokavian, however
the latter does not use it in its standard form (cf.
Shtokavian moći > mogu/možeš/može,
Slovene moči > morem/moreš/more).
Kajkavian retains -jt and -jd clusters (cf.
Kajkavian pojti, pojdem,
Shtokavian poći, pođem).
Like most Slavic speeches (but not Shtokavian),
final-obstruent devoicing, however it is not consistently spelled out
Diminutive suffixes in
Kajkavian are -ek, -ec, -eko, -eco (cf.
Kajkavian pes > pesek,
Shtokavian pas > psić).
Negative past tense construction in
Kajkavian deviates syntactically
from neighboring speeches in its placing of the negative particle. It
is argued by some that this might be a remnant of the Pannonian Slavic
system. Similar behavior is exhibited in Slovak (cf.
Kajkavian ja sem
nȩ čul, Slovene jaz nisem slišal,
Shtokavian ja nisam čuo).
Kajkavian has a different first-person plural present tense suffix,
Kajkavian -mȩ, rečemȩ, Slovene -mo, rečemo, Shtokavian
-mo, kažemo, Slovak -me, povieme).
Relative pronouns differ from neighboring dialects and languages.
Kajkavian uses kateri, tȩri (cf. Czech který, Slovak ktorý,
The genitive plural in
Shtokavian adds an -a to the end whereas
Kajkavian retains the old form (cf.
Kajkavian vuk, vukov/vukof,
Shtokavian vuk, vukova,
Kajkavian žene, žen,
Kajkavian retains the older locative plural (cf.
Shtokavian prsti, prstima).
The loss of the dual is considered to be significantly more recent
than in Shtokavian.
Kajkavian has no vocative case.
So-called s-type nouns have been retained as a separate declension
Kajkavian contrasted from the neuter due to the formant -es-
in oblique cases. The same is true for Slovene (cf.
Shtokavian čudo, čuda).
Kajkavian has no aorist.
The supine has been retained as distinctive from infinitive as in
Slovene. The infinitive suffixes are -ti, -či whereas their supine
counterparts are -t, -č. The supine and the infinitive are often
stressed differently. The supine is used with verbs of motion.
The future tense is formed with the auxiliary biti and the -l
participle as in Slovene and similar to Czech and Slovak (cf.
Kajkavian išel bom,
Shtokavian ići ću).
Kajkavian speeches tend to have stress as the only
significant prosodic feature as opposed to the
Kajkavian exhibits various syntactic influences from German.
The Slavic prefix u- has a vi- reflex in some dialects, similar to
Czech vý- (cf.
Kajkavian vigled, Czech výhled, Shtokavian
In addition to the above list of characteristics that set Kajkavian
apart from Shtokavian, research suggests possible a closer relation
Kajkavian and the Slovak language, especially with the Central
Slovak dialects upon which standard Slovak is based on. As modern-day
Hungary used to be populated by Slavic-speaking peoples prior to the
arrival of Hungarians, there have been hypotheses on possible common
innovations of future West and South Slavic speakers of that area.
Kajkavian is the most prominent of the South Slavic speeches in
sharing the most features that could potentially be common Pannonian
Kajkavian words bear a closer resemblance to other Slavic
languages such as Russian than they do to
Shtokavian or Chakavian. For
instance gda seems to be at first glance unrelated to kada, however
when compared to Russian когда, Slovene kdaj, or Prekmurje
Slovene gda, kda, the relationship becomes apparent.
(how) and tak (so) are exactly like their Russian cognates and
Prekmurje Slovene compared to Shtokavian, Chakavian, and standard
Slovene kako and tako. (This vowel loss occurred in most other Slavic
Shtokavian is a notable exception, whereas the same feature
in Macedonian is probably not due to
Serbo-Croatian influence because
the word is preserved in the same form in Bulgarian, to which
Macedonian is much more closely related than to Serbo-Croatian.) 
History of research
Linguistic investigation begun during the 19th century, although the
research itself often ended in non-linguistic or outdated conclusions.
Since that was the age of national revivals across Europe as well as
the South Slavic lands, the research was steered by national
narratives. Within that framework, Slovene philologists such as Franc
Jernej Kopitar attempted to reinforce the idea of
Kajkavian unity and asserted that
Kajkavian speakers are
Slovenes. On the other hand,
Josef Dobrovský also claimed
linguistic and national unity between the two groups but under the
The first modern dialectal investigations of
Kajkavian started at the
end of the 19th century. The Ukrainian philologist A. M. Lukjanenko
wrote the first comprehensive monograph on
Kajkavskoe narečie meaning The
Kajkavian dialect) in Russian in
Kajkavian dialects have been classified along various
criteria: for instance Serbian philologist
Aleksandar Belić divided
Kajkavian dialect according to the reflexes of Proto-Slavic
phonemes /tj/ and /dj/ into three subdialects: eastern, northwestern
However, later investigations did not corroborate Belić's division.
Kajkavian dialectology begins with Croatian philologist
Stjepan Ivšić's work "Jezik Hrvata kajkavaca" (The
Kajkavian Croats, 1936), which highlighted accentual characteristics.
Due to the great diversity within
Kajkavian primarily in phonetics,
phonology, and morphology, the
Kajkavian dialect atlas features a
large number of subdialects: from four identified by Ivšić to six
proposed by Croatian linguist Brozović (formerly the accepted
division) all the way up to fifteen according to a monograph by
Mijo Lončarić (1995).
Area of use
Bilingual Kajkavian/German street sign in Zagreb:
Kamenita Vulicza / Stein Gasse
Kajkavian is mainly spoken in northern and northwestern Croatia. The
Kajkavian towns along the eastern and southern edge of the
Kajkavian-speaking area are Pitomača, Čazma, Kutina, Popovača,
Sunja, Petrinja, Martinska Ves, Ozalj, Ogulin, Fužine, and Čabar,
including newer Štokavian enclaves of Bjelovar, Sisak, Glina,
Zagreb and Novi Zagreb. The southernmost
are Krapje at Jasenovac; and Pavušek, Dvorišče and Hrvatsko selo in
Zrinska Gora (R. Fureš & A. Jembrih: Kajkavski u povijesnom i
sadašnjem obzorju p. 548, Zabok 2006).
The major cities in northern
Croatia are located in what was
historically a Kajkavian-speaking area, mainly Zagreb, Koprivnica,
Krapina, Križevci, Varaždin, Čakovec. The typical archaic Kajkavian
is today spoken mainly in
Hrvatsko Zagorje hills and
and in adjacent areas of northwestern
Croatia where immigrants and the
Štokavian standard had much less influence. The most peculiar
Kajkavian dialect (Baegnunski) is spoken in
Bednja in northernmost
Croatia. Many of northern Croatian urban areas today are partly
Štokavianized due to the influence of the standard language and
immigration of Štokavian speakers.
Other southeastern people who immigrate to
Zagreb from Štokavian
territories often pick up rare elements of
Kajkavian in order to
assimilate, notably the pronoun "kaj" instead of "što" and the
extended use of future anterior (futur drugi), but they never adapt
well because of alien eastern accents and ignoring Kajkavian-Čakavian
archaisms and syntax.
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Vowels: /a/, /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /e/, /ə/, /i/, /ɔ/, /o/, /u/
consonants: /b/, /ts/, /tʃ/, /d/, /dz/, /dʒ/, /f/, /ɡ/, /ɦ/, /x/,
/j/, /k/, /l/, /ʎ/, /m/, /n/, /ɲ/, /p/, /r/, /r̝/, /s/, /ʃ/, /t/,
/v/, /z/, /ʒ/
Letter or digraph
What should I do?
Ja grem v Varaždin.
I'm going to Varaždin.
Kaj buš ti, bum i ja.
Whatever you'll do, I'll do it too.
Čuda cukora 'ma v otem kolaču.
There's a lot of sugar in this cake.
Hočeš kaj ti povedam?
Would you like me to tell you?
Da l' me ljubiš?
Do you love me?
Pogledni dzaj za hižom!
Look behind the house!
Kda nam pak dojde to vreme, kda pemo mi v Medžimurje?
When will we go to Medjimurje again?
Moje srčeko ne m're bez tebe!
My heart cannot go on without you!
Zagreb tak imam te rad!
My Zagreb, I love you so much!
Ja sem Varaždinec!
I'm a Varaždinian!
Cveti! Cveti, fijolica lepa!
Blossom! Blossom, beautiful violet!
Smrt po vse nas dojde! Na koncu, v grabi smo vsi.
Death comes for us all, in the end we are all in our graves!
Ljubim tve čobice mehke.
I love your tender lips.
Naj se hurmati, kak nekšni hrmak.
Quit fooling around like a buffoon.
Kdo te ima?
Who has you?
Liepa moja, daj mi se osmiehni, ker ti imaš najliepši osmieh na
My beauty, give me a smile because you have the most beautiful smile
in the world. (this is the influence of
Kajkavian is originally exclusively Ekavian)
Hej, haj, prišel je kraj, nikdar več ne bu dišal nam maj.
Hey, hey, the end has come, to us may, never again would it smell.
What should I do?
Ja sem včera v Zagrebu bil, kda sem dimo išel, solzicu sem pustil.
Yesterday I was in Zagreb, and when I went home I had tears in my
Tak malo dobroga, v življenju tu se najde.
There is so little good to find in life.
Prosim te kaj mi oprostiš.
Please forgive me.
Znaš kaj? – Nikaj!
You know what? – Nothing!
Ja samo nju ljubim.
I love only her.
Idemo na morje?
Are we going to the sea?
Ja sem samo TVoj.
I'm only for you.
Upam se, da me još imaš rada.
I hope you still love me.
Vjutro se ja rano 'stanem, malo pred zorju.
I woke up early in the morning, a little before dawn.
Prešlo je prešlo, puno ljet.
Many years have passed.
Popevke sem slagal, i rožice bral.
Songs I composed, and roses I picked.
Ja bi ti štel kušlec dati.
I would like to give you a kiss.
Kajti: kak bi bilo da nebi nekak bilo, nebi bilo nikak, ni tak kak je
Because: how would it be if it wouldn't be like this, it would be
nohow, and not like this as it is.
Nikdar ni tak bilo da ni nekak bilo, pak ni vesda ne bu da nam nekak
Never had been that has not been nothing and nohow, so it will never
be that somehow would it not be.
Vrag te 'zel!
The Devil has taken you away!
Zakaj? – Morti zato?
Why? – Maybe because?
Kde delaš? – Ja delam na železnici. Zakaj pitaš?
Where are you working? – I'm working on the railroad. Why do you
Kajkavian literary language
A picture of the 1850 edition of the
Kajkavian periodical Danica
Writings that are judged by some as being distinctly
Kajkavian can be
dated to around the 12th century. The first comprehensive works in
Kajkavian started to appear during the 16th century at a time when
Croatia gained prominence due to the geopolitical environment
since it was free from Ottoman occupation. The most notable work of
that era was Ivanuš Pergošić's Decretum, released in 1574. Decretum
was a translation of István Werbőczy's Tripartitum.
At the same time, many Protestant writers of the Slovene lands also
released their works in
Kajkavian in order to reach a wider audience,
while also using some
Kajkavian features in their native writings.
During that time, the autonym used by the writers was usually
slovinski (Slavic), horvatski (Croatian) or ilirski (Illyrian).
After that, numerous works appeared in the
language: chronicles by Vramec, liturgical works by Ratkaj, Habdelić,
Mulih; poetry by Ana Katarina Zrinska, and a dramatic opus by Tituš
Brezovački. Kajkavian-based are important lexicographic works like
Jambrešić's "Dictionar", 1670, and the monumental (2,000 pages and
50,000 words) Latin-Kajkavian-Latin dictionary "Gazophylacium"
(including also some
Shtokavian words marked as such) by
Ivan Belostenec (posthumously, 1740). Miroslav Krleža's poetic work
"Balade Petrice Kerempuha" drew heavily on Belostenec's dictionary.
Kajkavian grammars include Kornig's, 1795, Matijević's, 1810 and
During that time, the
Kajkavian literary language was the dominant
written form in its spoken area along with Latin and German. Until
Ljudevit Gaj's attempts to modernize the spelling,
written using Hungarian spelling conventions.
Kajkavian began to
lose its status during the
Croatian National Revival
Croatian National Revival in mid-19th
Century when the leaders of the
Illyrian movement opted to use the
Shtokavian dialect as the basis for the future South Slavic standard
language, the reason being that it had the highest number of speakers.
Initially, the choice of
Shtokavian was accepted even among Slovene
intellectuals, but later it fell out of favor. The Zagreb
linguistic school was opposed to the course that the standardization
process took. Namely, it had almost completely ignored
Chakavian) dialects which was contrary to the original vision of
Zagreb school. With the notable exception of vocabulary influence of
Kajkavian on the standard Croatian register (but not the Serbian one),
there was very little to no input from other non-Shtokavian
dialects. Instead, the opposite was done, with some modern-day
linguists calling the process of 19th-century standardization an event
Shtokavian purism" and a "purge of non-Shtokavian
Early 20th century witnessed a drastic increase in released Kajkavian
literature, although by then it had become part of what was considered
Croatian dialectal poetry with no pretense of serving as a standard
written form. The most notable writers of this period were among
others, Antun Gustav Matoš, Miroslav Krleža, Ivan Goran Kovačić,
Dragutin Domjanić and Nikola Pavić.
Kajkavian lexical treasure is being published by the Croatian Academy
of Sciences and Arts in "Rječnik hrvatskoga kajkavskoga književnoga
jezika"/Dictionary of the Croatian
Kajkavian Literary Language, 8
Later, Dario Vid Balog, actor, linguist and writer translated the New
Testament in Kajkavian.
Below are examples of the
Lord's Prayer in the Croatian variant of
Kajkavian and a
Međimurje variant of the
Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dođi kraljevstvo tvoje,
budi volja tvoja,
kako na nebu tako i na zemlji.
Kruh naš svagdanji daj
i otpusti nam duge naše,
kako i mi otpuštamo dužnicima našim,
i ne uvedi nas u napast,
nego izbavi nas od zla.
Otec naš, koj si na nebesi,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dojdi kralestvo tvoje,
budi vola tvoja,
kak na nebu tak i na zemli.
Kruha našega vsagdašnega dej
I otpusti nam duge naše,
kak i mi otpuščamo dužnikom našim,
i ne vpelaj nas vu skušavanje,
nego oslobodi nas od zla.
Japek naš ki si v nebesaj,
nek se sveti ime Tvoje,
nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje,
nek bo volja Tvoja,
kakti na nebi tak pa na zemlji.
Kruhek naš vsakdaneši daj
ter odpuščaj nam duge naše,
kakti i mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim,
ter naj nas vpelati v skušnje,
nek zbavi nas od vsakih hudobah.
Oče naš, ki si v nebesih,
posvečeno bodi tvoje ime,
pridi k nam tvoje kraljestvo,
zgodi se tvoja volja
kakor v nebesih tako na zemlji.
Daj nam danes naš vsakdanji kruh
in odpusti nam naše dolge,
kakor tudi mi odpuščamo svojim dolžnikom,
in ne vpelji nas v skušnjavo,
temveč reši nas hudega.
Location map of
Serbo-Croatian dialects in
Croatia and areas in BiH
with Croat majority.
Kajkavian in purple.
Distribution of Chakavian,
Kajkavian and Western
Kajkavian in yellow.
What follows is a comparison of some words in Kajkavian,
Shtokavian/Croatian and Slovene along with their English translations.
Kajkavian is lexically much closer to Slovene than to official
Shtokavian Croatian, which is another argument that
Kajkavian can not
be a dialect of Serbo-Croatian. The
Kajkavian words are given in their
most common orthographic form.
Shtokavian words are given in their
standard Croatian form. In cases where the place of accent or stress
differs, the syllable with the stress or accent is indicated in bold.
Words that are the same in all three are not listed. Loanwords are
also not listed.
to say, to tell
to tug, to drag
to leave, to go
to lift, to raise
to close, to shut
During Yugoslavia in the 20th century,
Kajkavian was mostly restricted
to private communication, poetry and folklore. With the recent
regional democratizing and cultural revival beginning in the 1990s,
Kajkavian partly regained its former half-public position chiefly in
Zagorje and Varaždin Counties and local towns, where there is now
some public media e.g.:
A quarterly periodical "Kaj", with 35 annual volumes in nearly a
hundred fascicles published since 1967 by the
('Kajkavsko Spravišče') in Zagreb.
An autumnal week of
Kajkavian culture in Krapina since 1997, with
professional symposia on
Kajkavian resulting in five published
An annual periodical, Hrvatski sjever ('Croatian North'), with a dozen
volumes partly in
Kajkavian published by Matica Hrvatska in Čakovec.
A new internet portal: Kaykavian Zohowiki, a minor wiki-lexicon on the
Kajkavian culture and dialect in northwestern
Croatia starting in
A permanent radio program in Kajkavian,
Kajkavian Radio in Krapina.
Other minor half-
Kajkavian media with temporary
include local television in Varaždin, the local radio program Sljeme
in Zagreb, and some local newspapers in northwestern
Varaždin, Čakovec, Samobor, etc.
Kaj bum? – in Kajkavian: What should I do?
Kak je, tak je; tak je navek bilo, kak bu tak bu, a bu vre nekak kak
"Nigdar ni tak bilo da ni nekak bilo, pak ni vezda ne bu da nam nekak
ne bu." –
Miroslav Krleža (quotation from poem "Khevenhiller")
Kaj buš ti, bum i ja! (Whatever you do, I'll do it too!)
Ne bu išlo! (standard Croatian: Ne može tako, Neće ići, Slovene:
Ne bo šlo, "It won't work!")
"Bumo vidli!" (štokavski: "Vidjet ćemo!", Slovene: Bomo videli,
English: "We will see!")
"Dej muči!" or "Muči daj!" (štokavski: "Daj šuti!", Slovene: Daj
molči, English: "Shut up!")
"Buš pukel?" – "Bum!" (jokingly: "Will you explode?" – "I will!")
Numerous supplementary examples see also by A. Negro: "Agramerski
Another major example – traditional
(bold = site of stress): Japa naš kteri si f 'nebesih nek sesvete ime
Tvoje, nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje, nek bu volya Tvoja kakti na nebe
tak pa na zemle. Kruhek naš sakdajni nam daj denes ter odpuščaj nam
dugi naše, kakti mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim ter naj nas fpelati
vu skušnje, nek nas zbavi od sekih hudobah. F'se veke vekof, Amen.
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Kajkavian speech of northern
Istria is conventionally called
Kajkavian but the features that differentiate it from neighboring
Chakavian are not strictly or distinctly
Kajkavian nor are those
speech forms located in continuum with any other
Kajkavian speech in
Croatia. They have features common to both Slovene across the border
as well as
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Look up Category:
Serbo-Croatian in Wiktionary, the free
Kajkavian phrases and proverbs
Kajkavska Renesansa – Kajkavski jezik