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KAIFENG (simplified Chinese : 开封; traditional Chinese : 開封), known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan , China
China
. It was once the capital of the Song dynasty , and is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China
China
.

There are currently nearly 5 million people living in its metropolitan area. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River , it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the west, Xinxiang to the northwest, Shangqiu to the east, Zhoukou to the southeast, Xuchang to the southwest, and Shandong
Shandong
to the northeast.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names * 2 Administration * 3 History * 4 Climate

* 5 Transportation

* 5.1 Air * 5.2 Rail * 5.3 Coach * 5.4 Light rail * 5.5 Road transport

* 6 Culture

* 6.1 Religion * 6.2 Cuisine * 6.3 Chrysanthemums

* 7 Sporting events

* 7.1 Zheng-Kai International Marathon

* 8 Military * 9 Gallery

* 10 International relations

* 10.1 Twin towns—Sister cities

* 11 Colleges and universities

* 11.1 Public

* 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Further reading * 15 External links

NAMES

The postal romanization for the city is "Kaifeng". Its official one-character abbreviation in Chinese is 汴 (_Biàn_). Historically it has also been known as

* _Dàliáng_ (Chinese : 大梁) * _Biànliáng_ (Chinese : 汴梁) * _Biànzhōu_ (Chinese : 汴州) * _Nánjīng_ (Chinese : 南京) * _Dōngjīng_ (Chinese : 東京) * _Biànjīng_ (Chinese : 汴京)

The name "Kaifeng" first appeared as the area's name after the Qin 's conquest of China
China
in the second century BC and literally means "expand the borders". Its name was originally Qifeng (啓封), but the syllable _qi_ was changed to the essentially synonymous _kai_ to avoid the naming taboo of Liu Qi ( Emperor Jing of Han ).

ADMINISTRATION

The prefecture-level city of Kaifeng
Kaifeng
administers five districts and four counties :

* Gulou District (鼓楼区) * Longting District (龙亭区) * Yuwangtai District (禹王台区) * Xiangfu District (祥符区) * Shunhe Hui District (顺河回族区) * Weishi County (尉氏县) * Qi County (杞县) * Tongxu County (通许县) * Lankao County (兰考县)

MAP

LONGTING SHUNHE GULOU YUWANGTAI XIANGFU Qi County Tongxu County Weishi County Lankao County

HISTORY

_ The famous painting Along the River During the Qingming Festival _ is believed by some to portray life in Kaifeng
Kaifeng
on Qingming Festival . Several versions exist – the above is an 18th-century recreation – of an original attributed to the 12th-century artist Zhang Zeduan .

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China
China
. As with Beijing, there have been many reconstructions during its history.

In 364 BC during the Warring States period , the State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁) as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed linking a local river to the Yellow River
Yellow River
. When the State of Wei was conquered by the State of Qin , Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in place.

Early in the 7th century, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal as well as through the construction of a canal running to western Shandong
Shandong
.

In 781 during the Tang dynasty , a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (汴). Bian was the capital of the Later Jin (936–946), Later Han (947–950), and Later Zhou (951–960) of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period . The Song dynasty
Song dynasty
made Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960. Shortly afterwards, the city underwent further expansion.

During the Song, when it was known as Dongjing or Bianjing, Kaifeng was the capital, with a population of over 400,000 living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhus was an acute problem in the city. The historian Jacques Gernet provides a lively picture of life in this period in his _Daily Life in China
China
on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276,_ which often draws on _ Dongjing Meng Hua Lu _, a nostalgic memoir of the city of Kaifeng.

In 1049, the Youguosi Pagoda (佑國寺塔) – or Iron Pagoda as it is called today – was constructed measuring 54.7 metres (179 ft) in height. It has survived the vicissitudes of war and floods to become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song-dynasty pagoda, Po Tower (zh), dating from 974, has been partially destroyed. _ Games in the Jinming Pool_, an early 12th-century painting depicting Kaifeng, by Zhang Zeduan .

Another well-known sight was the astronomical clock tower of the engineer, scientist, and statesman Su Song (1020–1101 AD). It was crowned with a rotating armillary sphere that was hydraulically-powered (i.e. by water wheel and a water clock ), yet it incorporated an escapement mechanism two hundred years before they were found in the clockworks of Europe
Europe
and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive .

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
reached its peak importance in the 11th century when it was a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and probably had a population of between 600,000 and 700,000. It is believed that Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127.

This period ended in 1127 when the city fell to Jurchen invaders during the Jingkang Incident
Jingkang Incident
. It subsequently came under the rule of the Jurchen Jin dynasty , which had conquered most of North China during the Jin–Song Wars . While it remained an important administrative center, only the city area inside the inner city wall of the early Song remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned.

One major problem associated with Kaifeng
Kaifeng
as the imperial capital of the Song was its location. While it was conveniently situated along the Grand Canal for logistic supply, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was militarily vulnerable due to its position on the floodplains of the Yellow River
Yellow River
.

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
served as the Jurchen "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time. The Jurchen kept their main capital further north until 1214 when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifeng
Kaifeng
in order to flee from the onslaught of the Mongols
Mongols
. In 1232 they succumbed to the combined Mongol and Song forces in the Mongol siege of Kaifeng . The Mongols captured the city, and in 1279 they conquered all of China
China
. East Market Street, Kaifeng, 1910. The synagogue of the Kaifeng Jews lay beyond the row of stores on the right

At the beginning of the Ming dynasty in 1368, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was made the capital of Henan province.

In 1642, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was flooded by the Ming army with water from the Yellow River
Yellow River
to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zicheng from taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again.

In 1662, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor in the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
, Kaifeng
Kaifeng
was rebuilt. However, further flooding occurred in 1841 followed by another reconstruction in 1843, which produced the contemporary Kaifeng
Kaifeng
as it stands today.

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
is also known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China
China
, the Kaifeng Jews .

In 1969, the former President of the People\'s Republic of China
China
, Liu Shaoqi , died from medical neglect while under house arrest in Kaifeng.

CLIMATE

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
has a monsoon -influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen _Cwa_) that borders on a humid continental climate, with four distinct seasons. Winters are cool and mostly dry while summers are hot and humid; spring is warm and sees some, but not much rainfall, while autumn weather is crisp and drier. Precipitation
Precipitation
mainly occurs from June to September.

CLIMATE DATA FOR KAIFENG (1971−2000)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 19.2 (66.6) 25.5 (77.9) 29.4 (84.9) 35.4 (95.7) 38.1 (100.6) 42.5 (108.5) 39.0 (102.2) 37.6 (99.7) 35.6 (96.1) 34.1 (93.4) 26.6 (79.9) 22.2 (72) 42.5 (108.5)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 5.1 (41.2) 8.4 (47.1) 13.7 (56.7) 21.5 (70.7) 26.9 (80.4) 31.3 (88.3) 31.7 (89.1) 30.5 (86.9) 26.7 (80.1) 21.3 (70.3) 13.7 (56.7) 7.3 (45.1) 19.8 (67.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 0.0 (32) 2.7 (36.9) 7.9 (46.2) 15.3 (59.5) 20.7 (69.3) 25.3 (77.5) 26.9 (80.4) 25.9 (78.6) 21.1 (70) 15.1 (59.2) 7.8 (46) 1.9 (35.4) 14.2 (57.6)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) −4.1 (24.6) −1.7 (28.9) 2.9 (37.2) 9.6 (49.3) 14.8 (58.6) 19.8 (67.6) 22.9 (73.2) 22.0 (71.6) 16.5 (61.7) 10.1 (50.2) 3.1 (37.6) −2.3 (27.9) 9.5 (49.0)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −15 (5) −14.2 (6.4) −7.3 (18.9) −1.6 (29.1) 5.0 (41) 11.3 (52.3) 15.2 (59.4) 13.5 (56.3) 6.0 (42.8) −0.2 (31.6) −11.7 (10.9) −16 (3) −16 (3)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 8.1 (0.319) 11.2 (0.441) 28.2 (1.11) 35.4 (1.394) 55.0 (2.165) 73.4 (2.89) 174.9 (6.886) 109.7 (4.319) 69.5 (2.736) 41.5 (1.634) 20.4 (0.803) 9.9 (0.39) 637.2 (25.087)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 0.1 MM) 2.9 3.9 5.9 6.2 6.8 7.8 11.3 9.0 7.6 6.6 4.5 3.0 75.5

Source: Weather China

TRANSPORTATION

AIR

Downtown Kaifeng
Kaifeng
is about 55 km (34 mi) away from Zhengzhou Xinzheng International Airport – which has domestic connections to more than 20 cities. China
China
Eastern and China
China
Southern Airlines also provide some international connections directly from Zhengzhou.

RAIL

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Railway Station is on the East-West Longhai Railway mainline and provides convenient access to many cities around China, including Beijing West , Shanghai , Shanghai Hongqiao , Tianjin , Xi'an, Jinan, Hangzhou . Services to Zhengzhou , Luoyang and Qingdao are also frequent and convenient. Direct long distance services to Shenzhen , Guangzhou , Chengdu , Chongqing North , Harbin , Ürümqi , Fuzhou , Dalian and Wuhan are also available. Kaifeng North Railway Station of the Zhengzhou–Xuzhou High-Speed Railway started operation on 10 September 2016.

COACH

There are 4 main coach stations in Kaifeng:

* Kaifeng
Kaifeng
West Coach Station (开封客运西站) * Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Long-Distance Coach Station (开封长途汽车站) * Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Jinming Coach Station (开封金明汽车站) * Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Xiangguosi Coach Station (开封相国寺汽车站)

There are frequent services to many neighbouring counties, other provincial cities and longer-distance services to other provinces.

LIGHT RAIL

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The Zhengkai Intercity Railway (郑开城际铁路), also popularly known as the Zhengzhou Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Light Rail (郑开轻轨) started operating in 2014. The total length of the railway is 50.3 km (31.3 mi), connecting the provincial capital Zhengzhou and Kaifeng, with a projected future extension to a total of 57.4 km (35.7 mi). The initial phase of the project has 5 stations in total constructed along the track, of which 3 are within the city boundary of Zhengzhou and 2 within the city boundary of Kaifeng. It is double tracked, with a designed top speed capability of 200 km/h (120 mph). It is currently scheduled to provide an initial service frequency of about 4tph with projected increase according to actual demand. Total journey time is not more than 30 minutes.

ROAD TRANSPORT

* China
China
National Highway 220

CULTURE

RELIGION

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
is known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the Kaifeng Jews . One of Kaifeng's many women\'s mosques .

It also has a significant Muslim
Muslim
enclave and is notable for its many women\'s mosques (_nǚsì_), including the oldest _nǚsì_ in China: Wangjia Hutong Women's Mosque, which dates to 1820.

There are also some active christian churchs, like Sacred-Heart of Kaifang cathedral (开封耶稣圣心主教座堂).

CUISINE

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
cuisine plays a dominant part in forming Henan cuisine .

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
offers a wide range of food specialities such as steaming pie and dumplings. In the evening, Kaifeng's streets turn into restaurants while hundreds open their stands and begin selling their food in the famous night market . Often people from the nearby Zhengzhou come to Kaifeng
Kaifeng
to spend an evening with their family, as the atmosphere is very appealing. Particularly famous is Kaifeng's five-spice bread (_wǔxiāng shāobǐng_), which, like pita , can be opened and filled.

The Ma Yu Ching\'s Bucket Chicken House (Chinese: 马豫兴桶子鸡; pinyin: Mǎ Yùxīng Tǒngzi Jī), located in Kaifeng, China, is by some accounts the world's oldest restaurant.

CHRYSANTHEMUMS

The chrysanthemum is the city flower of Kaifeng. The tradition of cultivating different varieties of chrysanthemums stretches all the way back 1600 years, and the scale reached a phenomenal level during the Song dynasty
Song dynasty
until its loss to the Jürchens in 1126.

The city has held the Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Cultural Festival since 1983 (renamed China
China
Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Cultural Festival in 1994). The festival has been a yearly feature since, taking place between 18 October and 18 November every year.

The festival reached another milestone in 2012, when it celebrated the 30th birthday. The opening ceremony was broadcast live on Henan Satellite TV Channel (HNTV) at the evening prime slot on 18 October 2012, which has a coverage of all Chinese cities of or above the prefecture-level classification in the Chinese administrative division .

During the festival, chrysanthemums of hundred different types will not only be on show in all festival venues, but they become common features all around the city itself - Kaifeng
Kaifeng
truly becomes the "city of chrysanthemums".

SPORTING EVENTS

ZHENG-KAI INTERNATIONAL MARATHON

The China
China
Zheng-Kai International Marathon (中国郑开国际马拉松赛, _Zheng-Kai_ stands for "Zhengzhou -Kaifeng", also abbreviated "ZK") is a sporting event hosted jointly by the Chinese Athletic Association , the general sport administration of Henan province, Zhengzhou municipal government, and the Kaifeng municipal government. It is the premier international sports competition in Henan province and one of the biggest sports competitions in the Central-West of China. ZK International Marathon is held at the end of March or beginning of April each year. The main part of the event occurs along the famous Zhengkai Express Way (郑开大道). At its launch in 2007, 5600 athletes competed. By 2012, almost 25000 athletes from 28 countries and regions have participated in the ZK International Marathon.

MILITARY

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
is headquarters of the 20th Group Army of the People\'s Liberation Army , one of the three group armies that comprise the Jinan Military Region responsible for defence of the Yellow River Plain .

Kaifeng Air Base is a military airfield in the southern suburb of Kaifeng
Kaifeng
City. It does not provide civilian aviation service.

GALLERY

The Iron Pagoda

Qingming Riverside Landscape Garden

Entrance to the Dragon Pavilion

Reconstructed city gate (inner) of Bianjing

Daxiangguo Temple's drum tower

Henan University

Daliang City Gate

Imperial Street of the Song Dynasty

Imperial Street of the Song Dynasty

Imperial Street of the Song Dynasty

INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in China
China

TWIN TOWNS—SISTER CITIES

Kaifeng
Kaifeng
is twinned with:

CITY REGION COUNTRY

Wichita Kansas
Kansas
United States
United States

Kiryat Motzkin Haifa Israel
Israel

Toda Saitama Japan
Japan

Omsk Omsk Oblast Russia
Russia

COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES

PUBLIC

* Henan University (河南大学) (founded 1912) * Kaifeng
Kaifeng
University (开封大学) (founded 1980) * Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Institute of Education (开封教育学院) * Yellow River
Yellow River
Conservancy Technical Institute (黄河水利职业技术学院) (founded 1929)

SEE ALSO

* Historical capitals of China
China
* 1642 Yellow River
Yellow River
flood

REFERENCES

* ^ _Zhongguo Gujin Diming Dacidian_ 中国古今地名大词典, 2005. (Shanghai: _Shanghai Cishu Chubanshe_), 348. (in Chinese) * ^ Jacques Gernet. _Daily Life in China
China
on the Eve of the Mongol Invasion, 1250-1276._ (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1962). Translated by H. M. Wright. ISBN 0804707200 . * ^ "Largest Cities Through History". Retrieved November 6, 2010. * ^ Lorge, Peter (2005). _War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900–1795_. Routledge. pp. 52–54. ISBN 978-0-203-96929-8 . * ^ "The Eastern Manchurian Woodsmen Replacing the Western Manchurian Nomads" (PDF). Retrieved November 6, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ NPR * ^ "豫菜成大器 任重而道远". Retrieved October 28, 2012. * ^ " China
China
Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Chrysanthemum
Chrysanthemum
Cultural Festival". Retrieved October 28, 2012.

FURTHER READING

* Cotterell, Arthur. (2007). _The Imperial Capitals of China: An Inside View of the Celestial Empire_. London: Pimlico. pp. 304 pages. ISBN 978-1-84595-009-5 . * _The Origin of the Kaifeng
Kaifeng
Jews_, in S. Shaked, ed., _Irano-Judaica_, Jerusalem, 1982, pp. 101–11

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ Wikimedia Commons has media related to KAIFENG _.

_ Wikivoyage has a travel guide for KAIFENG _.

* Government website of Kaifeng
Kaifeng
(in Simplified Chinese) * Kaifeng
Kaifeng
City Portal
Portal
(in Simplified Chinese) * Notes on the Jewish colony at Kaifeng
Kaifeng
from the Papers of Charles Daniel Tenney

Preceded by Chang\'an CAPITAL OF CHINA (AS KAIFENG) 960−1127 Succeeded by Lin\'an

* v * t * e

.