Kadan (also Qadan) was the son of the second Great Khan of the Mongols
Ögedei and a concubine. He was the grandson of
Genghis Khan and the
brother of Güyük Khan. During the Mongol invasion of Europe, Kadan,
Baidar (son of Chagatai Khan) and
Orda Khan (the eldest
Batu Khan and khan of the White Horde), led the Mongol
diversionary force that attacked Poland, while the main Mongol force
struck the Kingdom of Hungary.
In early 1241, Kadan's forces sacked the Polish towns of Lublin,
Zawichost and Sandomierz.
Kadan then attacked Masovia, while Baidar
burned the evacuated Polish capital,
Kraków and then Bytom, and Orda
Khan assaulted the southwestern border of Lithuania. The three leaders
were then to attack the Silesian capital Breslau.
Baidar began to
besiege the town, but marched north with
Kadan and Orda to Liegnitz to
defeat the forces of Henry II the Pious, Duke of Silesia, before the
Polish duke could join King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. After defeating
some forces of Konrad I of Masovia, Kadan's forces joined with
Baidar's and Orda's at Liegnitz. The Christian army was crushed in the
ensuing Battle of Liegnitz of April 9, 1241.
Mongol casualties were heavier than expected in the battle, however,
Kadan was reluctant to directly attack Wenceslaus' Bohemian
Baidar skirmished against the Bohemians and were
able to prevent the Bohemian king from helping King
Béla IV of
Hungary. After raiding Moravia, the Mongol diversionary force went to
Qadan's siege of Olmuc.
During the winter of 1241-1242,
Buda on the way to Győr.
While besieging Italian mercenaries defending Székesfehérvár, Kadan
was forced to withdraw his troops after an early thaw flooded the land
around the town. The Mongol prince was then sent south with one tumen
to search for Béla in Croatia.
Kadan first sought the Hungarian king
at Zagreb, which he sacked, and then pursued him into Dalmatia. While
Béla hid at Trogir, Mongols under the leadership of Kadan, in March
Klis Fortress in Croatia, experienced their first European
military failure, while in pursuit for the head of
Béla IV of
Kadan had his Hungarian prisoners executed as supplies
began to run out. To the king's surprise,
Kadan headed south past
Dubrovnik (Ragusa). While he was nearing Scutari, Kadan
heard of the death of his father, Ögedei Khan. Kadan's raids through
Bulgaria on his retreat from Central Europe induced the young Kaliman
Bulgaria to pay tribute and accept
Batu Khan as his liege.
Kadan accepted the election of
Möngke Khan as Khagan.
According to René Grousset, he probably helped the latter to capture
Eljigidei, the chief general of Güyük.
Kadan was loyal to Kublai
Khan and supported his army against
Ariq Böke in the Toluid Civil
War. He commanded Mongol army at the first engagement with Ariq Böke
and killed his general Alandar.
In many medieval sources,
Kadan was mistranslated by chroniclers as
Kaidu, leading to confusion about who participated in the European
campaign. He is also confused with another brother, Köden, who was
influential in Tibet.
^ Prošlost Klisa Archived 2010-03-23 at the Wayback Machine. (in
^ Chambers, James. The Devil's Horsemen: The Mongol Invasion of
Europe. Atheneum. New York. 1979. ISBN&