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The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Russian: Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ, Ķêbêrdej-Baĺķêr Respublikê; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика, Qabartı-Malqar Respublika), or Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
(Russian: Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia
Russia
(a republic) located in the North Caucasus. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 859,939[10] on 12,500 square km. Its capital is Nalchik.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Rivers 1.2 Lakes 1.3 Mountains 1.4 Natural resources 1.5 Climate

2 History 3 Administrative divisions 4 Demographics

4.1 Population 4.2 Vital statistics 4.3 Ethnic groups 4.4 Religion

5 Politics 6 See also 7 References

7.1 Notes 7.2 Sources

8 External links

Geography[edit] The republic is situated in the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
mountains, with plains in the northern part.

Area: 12,500 square kilometers (4,800 sq mi) Borders:

internal: Stavropol Krai
Stavropol Krai
(N/NE), Republic of North Ossetia–Alania (E/SE/S), Karachay–Cherkess Republic
Karachay–Cherkess Republic
(W/NW) international: Georgia (S/SW)

Highest point: Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
(5,642 m) Maximum N->S distance: 167 kilometers (104 mi) Maximum E->W distance: 123 kilometers (76 mi)

Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
is traversed by the northeasterly line of equal latitude and longitude. Rivers[edit] Major rivers include:

Terek River
Terek River
(623 km) Malka River
Malka River
(216 km) Baksan River
Baksan River
(173 km) Urukh River (104 km) Chegem River (102 km) Cherek River
Cherek River
(76 km) Argudan River Kurkuzhin River Lesken River

Lakes[edit]

Map of the republic.

Mount Dykh-Tau.

There are about 100 lakes in the Republic, none of which are large. Just over half (55) are located between the Baksan and Malka Rivers, the largest each of an area of no more than 0.01 square kilometers (0.0039 sq mi). Some of the lakes are:

Tserikkel Lake (area 26,000 m²; depth 368 m) Lower Goluboye Lake Kel-Ketchen Lake (depth 177 m) Upper Tserikkel Lake (depth 18 m) Sekretnoye Lake Tambukan Lake
Tambukan Lake
(area 1.77 km²; depth 1.5 to 2 m), partially within Stavropol Krai.

Mountains[edit]

Mount Elbrus
Mount Elbrus
(5,642 m), a volcanic mountain and the highest peak in Europe, Russia, and the Caucasus

Other major mountains include:

Mount Dykhtau (5,402 m) Mount Koshtantau (5,151 m) Mount Shkhara
Shkhara
(5,068 m) Pushkin Peak (5,033 m) Mount Mizhergi (5,025 m)

Natural resources[edit] Kabardino-Balkaria's natural resources include molybdenum, tungsten, and coal. Climate[edit] The republic has a continental type climate.

Average January temperature: −12 °C (10 °F) (mountains) to −4 °C (25 °F) (plains) Average July temperature: +4 °C (39 °F) (mountains) to +23 °C (73 °F) (plains) Average annual precipitation: 500–2,000 mm.

History[edit] Main article: History of Kabardino-Balkaria Administrative divisions[edit] Main article: Administrative divisions of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic Demographics[edit] Population[edit]

Ethnic map of Kabardino-Balkaria, 2002.

Population: 859,939 (2010 Census);[10] 901,494 (2002 Census);[16] 759,586 (1989 Census).[17]

Vital statistics[edit]

Source: Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Fertility rates

1970 592 11,683 3,913 7,770 19.7 6.6 13.1

1975 634 12,315 4,717 7,598 19.4 7.4 12.0

1980 680 14,098 5,457 8,641 20.7 8.0 12.7

1985 725 15,941 5,854 10,087 22.0 8.1 13.9

1990 772 15,412 6,573 8,839 20.0 8.5 11.5 2,45

1991 788 14,952 6,995 7,957 19.0 8.9 10.1 2,35

1992 799 13,728 7,093 6,635 17.2 8.9 8.3 2,16

1993 807 11,781 7,864 3,917 14.6 9.7 4.9 1,86

1994 816 11,407 8,052 3,355 14.0 9.9 4.1 1,79

1995 828 10,844 8,236 2,608 13.1 9.9 3.2 1,67

1996 840 10,293 8,199 2,094 12.2 9.8 2.5 1,56

1997 853 10,016 7,985 2,031 11.7 9.4 2.4 1,47

1998 866 9,997 8,201 1,796 11.5 9.5 2.1 1,44

1999 875 9,221 8,292 929 10.5 9.5 1.1 1,30

2000 883 9,207 8,792 415 10.4 10.0 0.5 1,26

2001 891 8,892 8,778 114 10.0 9.9 0.1 1,19

2002 897 9,119 8,954 165 10.2 10.0 0.2 1,20

2003 896 9,294 9,202 92 10.4 10.3 0.1 1,20

2004 889 9,414 8,695 719 10.6 9.8 0.8 1,22

2005 882 8,991 9,034 - 43 10.2 10.2 -0.0 1,13

2006 875 9,308 8,764 544 10.6 10.0 0.6 1,16

2007 870 11,397 8,441 2,956 13.1 9.7 3.4 1,41

2008 866 12,052 8,095 3,957 13.9 9.3 4.6 1,49

2009 863 12,143 8,406 3,737 14.1 9.7 4.3 1,62

2010 860 12,576 8,080 4,496 14.6 9.4 5.2 1,66

2011 860 12,848 8,136 4,712 14.9 9.4 5.5 1,70

2012 859 13,786 7,709 6,077 16.0 9.0 7.0 1,83

2013 859 13,365 7,712 5,653 15.6 9.0 6.6 1,80

2014 860 13,397 7,571 5,826 15.6 8.8 6.8 1,83

2015 861 12,627 7,582 5,045 14.6 8.8 5.8 1,75

2016 863 12,191 7,386 4,805 14.1 8.5 5.6 1,73(e)

2017 865 11,092 7,391 3,701 12.8 8.5 4.3

Note: TFR 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 source.[18] Ethnic groups[edit] Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
includes two major ethnic communities, the Kabardins
Kabardins
(Circassians), who speak a North-West Caucasian language, and the Balkars
Balkars
who speak a Turkic language. According to the 2010 Census,[10] Kabardins
Kabardins
make up 57.2% of the republic's population, followed by Russians
Russians
(22.5%) and Balkars
Balkars
(12.7%). Other groups include Ossetians
Ossetians
(1.1%), Turks (1.6%), Ukrainians
Ukrainians
(0.6%), Armenians
Armenians
(0.6%), Koreans (0.5%), Chechens
Chechens
(0.2%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total population.

Ethnic group 1926 Census1 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census3

Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number % Number %

Kabarday 122,237 54.2% 152,237 42.4% 190,284 45.3% 264,675 45.0% 303,604 45.5% 364,494 48.2% 498,7022 55.3% 490,453 57.2%

Balkars 33,197 14.7% 40,747 11.3% 34,088 8.1% 51,356 8.7% 59,710 9.0% 70,793 9.4% 104,951 11.6% 108,577 12.7%

Russians 32,622 14.5% 129,067 35.9% 162,586 38.7% 218,595 37.2% 234,137 35.1% 240,750 31.9% 226,620 25.1% 193,155 22.5%

Ossetians 3,839 1.7% 4,608 1.3% 6,442 1.5% 9,167 1.6% 9,710 1.5% 9,996 1.3% 9,845 1.1% 9,129 1.1%

Ukrainians 24,723 11.0% 11,142 3.1% 8,400 2.0% 10,620 1.8% 12,139 1.8% 12,826 1.7% 7,592 0.8% 4,800 0.6%

Others 8,803 3.9% 21,328 5.9% 18,315 4.4% 33,790 5.7% 47,246 7.1% 55,672 7.4% 53,784 6.0% 51,556 6.0%

1 The results of the 1926 census refer to the present territory, which is a combination of the Kabardo-Balkar AO and a part of the Terek district. The latter area was mainly inhabited by Russians
Russians
and Ukrainians.[19] 2 In view of the results of the 1989 census and the 2010 census, the number of Kabardins
Kabardins
in 2002 seems unlikely high. 3 2,269 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[20]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[21][22]

Russian Orthodoxy

15.6%

Other Christians

3.8%

Islam

55.4%

Rodnovery
Rodnovery
and other native faiths

3%

Spiritual but not religious

11.8%

Atheism
Atheism
and irreligion

6.6%

Other and undeclared

3.8%

According to a 2012 survey[21] 60% of the population of Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
adheres to Islam, 15.6% to the Russian Orthodox Church, 3% to Adyghe (Kabardian) folk religion and other indigenous faiths, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians. In addition, 12% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 5.4% is atheist or follows other religions.[21] Politics[edit] The head of government in Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
is the Head. The current Head is Yury Kokov The legislative body of the Republic is the Parliament comprising 72 deputies elected for a five-year term.[8][23] See also[edit]

Caucasian Avars Bulgars List of the Chairmen of the Parliament of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic Minor hydro-electric plants of Kabardino-Balkaria Mount Imeon

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ Law #13-RZ ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.). ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. ( Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ). ^ USSR. Administrative-Territorial Divisions of the Union Republics, p. 35 ^ Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Article 136 ^ Official website of the Head of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. Biography Archived October 28, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. (in Russian) ^ Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Article 78 ^ a b Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Article 91 ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All- Russia
Russia
Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.  ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All- Russia
Russia
Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.  ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population. ^ Kabardino-Balkar Republic Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность населения Кабардино-Балкарской Республики в разрезе городских округов и муниципальных районов на 1 января 2014 г. (in Russian) ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №271-ФЗ от 03 июля 2016 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #271-FZ of July 03, 2016 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.). ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia. ^ Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, Article 76 ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.  ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312 ^ http://www.ethno-kavkaz.narod.ru/rnkbr.html ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936 ^ a b c "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived. ^ Constitution, Article 94.

Sources[edit]

Совет Республики Парламента Кабардино-Балкарской Республики. Закон №13-РЗ от 4 августа 1994 г. «О государственном гимне Кабардино-Балкарской Республики», в ред. Закона №13-РЗ от 13 апреля 2015 г «О внесении изменений в статьи 2 и 4 Закона Кабардино-Балкарской Республики "О государственном гимне Кабардино-Балкарской Республики"». Вступил в силу 18 августа 1994 г. Опубликован: "Кабардино-Балкарская правда", №148, 12 августа 1994 г. (Council of the Republic of the Parliament of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. Law #13-RZ of August 4, 1994 On the State Anthem of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, as amended by the Law #13-RZ of April 13, 2015 On Amending Articles 2 and 4 of the Law of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic "On the State Anthem of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic". Effective as of August 18, 1994.). Парламент Кабардино-Балкарской Республики. №28-РЗ 1 сентября 1997 г. «Конституция Кабардино-Балкарской Республики», в ред. Закона №40-РЗ от 19 октября 2015 г. «О поправках к Конституции Кабардино-Балкарской Республики». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кабардино-Балкарская правда", №177, 9 сентября 1997 г. (Parliament of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. #28-RZ September 1, 1997 Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic, as amended by the Law #40-RZ of October 19, 2015 On the Amendments to the Constitution of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic. Effective as of the day of the official publication.). Дударев, В. А.; Евсеева, Н. А. (1987). И. Каманина, ed. СССР. Административно-территориальное деление союзных республик (in Russian). Moscow. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Kabardino-Balkaria.

(in Russian) Official website of the Head of the Republic Pictures of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic BBC News. Kabardino-Balkaria
Kabardino-Balkaria
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