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The Kaaba
Kaaba
(Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة‎ al-kaʿbah IPA: [alˈkaʕba], "The Cube"), also referred as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة‎, the Holy Ka'bah), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic: ٱلْـمَـسْـجِـد الْـحَـرَام‎, The Sacred Mosque), in the Hejazi city of Mecca, Saudi Arabia.[1] It is the most sacred site in Islam.[2] It is considered by Muslims to be the Bayṫ Allāh (Arabic: بَـيْـت ٱلله‎, "House of God"), and has a similar role to the Tabernacle and Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
in Judaism. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Ka'bah when performing Ṣalâṫ (Arabic: صَـلَاة‎, Islamic prayer). Being the qiblah (Arabic: قِـبْـلَـة‎, direction of prayer), Muslims would face it when praying. One of the Five Pillars of Islam
Islam
requires every Muslim
Muslim
who is able to do so to perform the Ḥajj (Arabic: حَـجّ‎, Greater Pilgrimage) at least once in their lifetime. Multiple parts of the hajj require pilgrims to make Ṭawāf (Arabic: طَـوَاف‎, Circumambulation) seven times around the Kaaba
Kaaba
in a counter-clockwise direction. Tawaf
Tawaf
is also performed by pilgrims during the ‘Umrah (Arabic: عُـمْـرَة‎, Lesser Pilgrimage).[2] However, the most significant times are during the hajj, when millions of pilgrims gather to circle the building within a 5-day period.[3][4] In 2013, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia to perform hajj was officially reported as 1,379,531.[5] In 2014, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
reported having completed Hajj
Hajj
permits for 1,389,053 international pilgrims and 63,375 for residents.[6]

Contents

1 Lexicology 2 Architecture and interior 3 Religious significance

3.1 Qibla 3.2 Pilgrimage

4 History

4.1 Islamic views on origin 4.2 Independent views on origin

4.2.1 Ptolemy 4.2.2 Diodorus Siculus 4.2.3 Others

4.3 Pre-Islamic Era 4.4 Muhammad's era 4.5 After Muhammad

5 Cleaning 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Lexicology[edit]

This section needs expansion with: please specify where and by what names Kaaba
Kaaba
is mentioned in Quran
Quran
and Hadith. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)

The literal meaning of the Arabic word kaʿbah (كَعْبَة) is "cube."[7] In the Qur'an, the Ka'ba has been also mentioned as "al-Bayt" (Arabic: البیت, the house), "al-Bayt al-Haram" (Arabic: البیت الحرام, the sacred house), "al-Bayt al-'Atiq" (Arabic: البیت العتیق, the old house), and "al-Bayt al-Muharram" (Arabic: البیت المحرم, respected house). The mosque surrounding the Ka'ba is called al-Masjid al-Haram. According to some reports, in ancient times, the Ka'ba was also called "Qadis" (Arabic: القادس, holy), "Nadhir" (Arabic: الناذر). Architecture and interior[edit] The Kaaba
Kaaba
is a prismal stone structure made of granite. It is approximately 13.1 m (43 ft) high (some claim 12.03 m (39.5 ft)), with sides measuring 11.03 m (36.2 ft) by 12.86 m (42.2 ft).[8][9] Inside the Kaaba, the floor is made of marble and limestone. The interior walls, measuring 13 m (43 ft) by 9 m (30 ft), are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m (7.2 ft) above the ground area where tawaf is performed. The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba
Kaaba
has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, and there are several more tablets along the other walls. Along the top corners of the walls runs a green cloth embroidered with gold Qur'anic verses. Caretakers anoint the marble cladding with the same scented oil used to anoint the Black Stone outside. Three pillars (some erroneously report two) stand inside the Kaaba, with a small altar or table set between one and the other two. (It has been claimed that this table is used for the placement of perfumes or other items.) Lamp-like objects (possible lanterns or crucible censers) hang from the ceiling. The ceiling itself is of a darker colour, similar in hue to the lower trimming. A golden door—the bāb al-tawbah (also romanized as Baabut Taubah, and meaning "Door of Repentance")—on the right wall (right of the entrance) opens to an enclosed staircase that leads to a hatch, which itself opens to the roof. Both the roof and ceiling (collectively dual-layered) are made of stainless steel-capped teak wood.

A drawing of the Kaaba. See key in text.

A technical drawing of the Kaaba
Kaaba
showing dimensions and elements

Each numbered item in the following list corresponds to features noted in the diagram image.

Al-Ḥajaru al-Aswad, "the Black Stone", is located on the Kaaba's eastern corner. Its northern corner is known as the Ruknu l-ˤĪrāqī, "the Iraqi corner", its western as the Ruknu sh-Shāmī, "the Levantine corner", and its southern as Ruknu l-Yamanī, "the Yemeni corner" taught by Imam Ali.[2][9] The four corners of the Kaaba roughly point toward the four cardinal directions of the compass.[2] Its major (long) axis is aligned with the rising of the star Canopus toward which its southern wall is directed, while its minor axis (its east-west facades) roughly align with the sunrise of summer solstice and the sunset of winter solstice.[10][11] The entrance is a door set 2.13 m (7 ft) above the ground on the north-eastern wall of the Kaaba, which acts as the façade.[2] In 1979 the 300 kg gold doors made by chief artist Ahmad
Ahmad
bin Ibrahim Badr, replaced the old silver doors made by his father, Ibrahim
Ibrahim
Badr in 1942.[12] There is a wooden staircase on wheels, usually stored in the mosque between the arch-shaped gate of Banū Shaybah and the Zamzam Well. Mīzāb al-Raḥmah, rainwater spout made of gold. Added in the rebuilding of 1627 after the previous year's rain caused three of the four walls to collapse. Gutter, added in 1627 to protect the foundation from groundwater. Hatīm (also romanized as hateem), a low wall originally part of the Kaaba. It is a semi-circular wall opposite, but not connected to, the north-west wall of the Kaaba. This is 90 cm (35 in) in height and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in width, and is composed of white marble. At one time the space lying between the hatīm and the Kaaba belonged to the Kaaba
Kaaba
itself, and for this reason it is not entered during the tawaf. Al-Multazam, the roughly 2 meter space along the wall between the Black Stone
Black Stone
and the entry door. It is sometimes considered pious or desirable for a hajji to touch this area of the Kaaba, or perform dua here. The Station of Ibrahim
Ibrahim
(Maqam Ibrahim), a glass and metal enclosure with what is said to be an imprint of Abraham's feet. Ibrahim
Ibrahim
is said to have stood on this stone during the construction of the upper parts of the Kaaba, raising Ismail on his shoulders for the uppermost parts.[13] Corner of the Black Stone
Black Stone
(East). Corner of Yemen
Yemen
(South-West). Pilgrims traditionally acknowledge a large vertical stone that forms this corner. Corner of Syria
Syria
(North-West). Corner of Iraq
Iraq
(North-East). This inside corner, behind a curtain, contains the Babut Taubah, Door of Repentance, which leads to a staircase to the roof. Kiswah, the embroidered covering. Kiswa is a black silk and gold curtain which is replaced annually during the Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage.[14][15] Two-thirds of the way up is a band of gold-embroidered Quranic text, including the Shahada, the Islamic declaration of faith. Marble
Marble
stripe marking the beginning and end of each circumambulation.[16]

A 3D model of the interior can be seen on Google Streetview.

Entrance, golden door—the bāb al-tawbah

Pilgrims performing Tawaf

The Station of Ibrahim
Ibrahim
(Maqam Ibrahim)

Mizab al-Rahmah

Religious significance[edit]

The Kaaba
Kaaba
and the Sacred Mosque
Mosque
during Hajj, 2008

The Kaaba
Kaaba
is the holiest site in Islam, and is often called by names such as the House of God.[17][18] Qibla[edit] Main article: Qibla The Qibla
Qibla
is the direction faced during prayer.[Quran 2:143–144] It is the focal point for prayer. The direction faced during prayer is the direction of where the Kaaba
Kaaba
is. Pilgrimage[edit] Main articles: Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
is the focal point of the Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah pilgrimages[19] that occur in the month of Dhu al-Hijjah
Dhu al-Hijjah
in the Islamic calendar
Islamic calendar
and at any time of the year, respectively. The Hajj pilgrimage is one of the Pillars of Islam, required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford the trip. In recent times, about 1.8 million Muslims perform the Hajj
Hajj
every year.[20] Some of the rituals performed by pilgrims are symbolic of historical incidents. For example, the incident of Hagar's search for water is emulated by Muslims as they run between the two hills of Safa and Marwah whenever they visit Mecca. The Hajj
Hajj
is associated with the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Prophet
Prophet
Ibrahim. History[edit] See also: Pre-Islamic Arabia
Pre-Islamic Arabia
and Jahiliyyah Islamic views on origin[edit] The Quran
Quran
contains several verses regarding the origin of the Kaaba, it states that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was the first House of Worship, and that it was built by Ibrahim
Ibrahim
and Ishmael
Ishmael
on God's instructions.[21][22][23]

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah
Bakkah
(Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for mankind. — Quran, Chapter 3 (Aale-Imran) verse 96[24][25][26]

Behold! We gave the site, to Ibrahim, of the (Sacred) House, (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer). — Quran, Chapter 22 (Al Hajj) verse 26[27][28][29]

And remember Ibrahim
Ibrahim
and Ishmael
Ishmael
raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing. — Quran, Chapter 2 (Al Bakarah) verse 127[30][31][32]

Ibn Kathir, the famous commentator on the Quran, mentions two interpretations among the Muslims on the origin of the Kaaba. One is that the shrine was a place of worship for Angels before the creation of man. Later, a house of worship was built on the location by Adam and Eve
Eve
which was lost during the flood in Noah's time and was finally rebuilt by Abraham
Abraham
and Ishmael
Ishmael
as mentioned later in the Quran. Ibn Kathir regarded this tradition as weak and preferred instead the narration by Ali ibn Abi Talib
Ali ibn Abi Talib
that although several other temples might have preceded the Kaabah, it was the first "House of God", dedicated solely to Him, built by His instruction and sanctified and blessed by Him as stated in Quran
Quran
22:26–29.[33] A Hadith
Hadith
in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was the First Mosque
Mosque
on Earth, and the Second Mosque
Mosque
was the Temple in Jerusalem.[34] While Abraham
Abraham
was building the Kaaba, an angel brought to him the Black Stone
Black Stone
which he placed in the eastern corner of the structure. Another stone was the Maqam-e- Ibrahim
Ibrahim
(literally the Station of Abraham) where Abraham
Abraham
stood for elevation while building the structure. The Black Stone
Black Stone
and the Maqam-e- Ibrahim
Ibrahim
are believed by Muslims to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham
Abraham
as naturally the remaining structure had to be demolished and rebuilt several times over history for maintenance purposes. After the construction was complete, God
God
enjoined the descendants of Ishmael
Ishmael
to perform an annual pilgrimage: the Hajj
Hajj
and the Korban, sacrifice of cattle. The vicinity of the shrine was also made a sanctuary where bloodshed and war were forbidden.[Quran 22:26–33] According to Islamic tradition, over the millennia after Ishmael's death, his progeny and the local tribes who settled around the oasis of Zam-Zam gradually turned to polytheism and idolatry. Several idols were placed within the Kaaba
Kaaba
representing deities of different aspects of nature and different tribes. Several heretical rituals were adopted in the Pilgrimage (Hajj) including doing naked circumambulation.[35] In her book, Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong
Karen Armstrong
asserts that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was officially dedicated to Hubal, a Nabatean
Nabatean
deity, and contained 360 idols that probably represented the days of the year.[36] But by Muhammad's day, it seems that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was venerated as the shrine of Allah, the High God. Once a year, tribes from all around the Arabian
Arabian
peninsula, whether Christian
Christian
or pagan, would converge on Mecca
Mecca
to perform the Hajj, marking the widespread conviction that Allah
Allah
was the same deity worshiped by monotheists.[36] Guillaume in his translation of Ibn Ishaq, an early biographer of Muhammad, says the Ka'aba itself was addressed using a feminine grammatical form.[37] Circumambulation
Circumambulation
was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women,[35] and linked to ancient fertility rites.[38] It is disputed whether Allah
Allah
and Hubal were the same deity or different. Per a hypothesis by Uri Rubin
Uri Rubin
and Christian
Christian
Robin, Hubal was only venetrated by Quraysh
Quraysh
and the Kaaba
Kaaba
was first dedicated to Allah, a supreme god of individuals belonging to different tribes, while the pantheon of the gods of Quraysh
Quraysh
was installed in Kaaba
Kaaba
after they conquered Mecca
Mecca
a century before Muhammad's time.[39] Independent views on origin[edit] Ptolemy[edit] Writing in the Encyclopedia of Islam, Wensinck identifies Mecca
Mecca
with a place called Macoraba mentioned by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and found in a 3rd-century BC map which suggests that Macoraba was Mecca.[40][41] G. E. von Grunebaum states: " Mecca
Mecca
is mentioned by Ptolemy. The name he gives it allows us to identify it as a South Arabian
Arabian
foundation created around a sanctuary.[42] In Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, Patricia Crone argues that the identification of Macoraba with Mecca
Mecca
is false and that Macoraba was a town in southern Arabia in what was then known as Arabia Felix.[43] Her point of view was supported by some Islamic scholars[44] and challenged by others.[45][46]

Ottoman tiles representing the Kaaba

Diodorus Siculus[edit] The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
is believed to have mentioned the Kaabah in 60–30 BC while describing the coast of Jeddah
Jeddah
and its surrounding areas mentioned:

The inhabitants of the land about the gulf, who are known as Banizomenes, find their food by hunting the land animals and eating their meat. And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians. — Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca Historica, Book 3 Chapter 44[47]

Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
suggested that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was mentioned by ancient Greek writer, Diodorus Siculus, before the Christian
Christian
era:

The genuine antiquity of Caaba ascends beyond the Christian
Christian
era: in describing the coast of the Red sea the Greek historian Diodorus has remarked, between the Thamudites and the Sabeans, a famous temple, whose superior sanctity was revered by all the Arabians; the linen or silken veil, which is annually renewed by the Turkish emperor, was first offered by the Homerites, who reigned seven hundred years before the time of Mohammad. — Edward Gibbon, Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire, Volume V, pp. 223–24

Others[edit] Imoti[48] contends that there were numerous such "Kaaba" sanctuaries in Arabia at one time, but this was the only one built of stone. The others also allegedly had counterparts of the Black Stone. There was a "red stone", the deity of the south Arabian
Arabian
city of Ghaiman, and the "white stone" in the Kaaba
Kaaba
of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca). Grunebaum in Classical Islam
Islam
points out that the experience of divinity of that period was often associated with stone fetishes, mountains, special rock formations, or "trees of strange growth."[49] The Kaaba
Kaaba
was thought to be at the center of the world, with the Gate of Heaven directly above it. The Kaaba
Kaaba
marked the location where the sacred world intersected with the profane; the embedded Black Stone was a further symbol of this as a meteorite that had fallen from the sky and linked heaven and earth.[50] According to Sarwar,[51] about 400 years before the birth of Muhammad, a man named "Amr bin Lahyo bin Harath bin Amr ul-Qais bin Thalaba bin Azd bin Khalan bin Babalyun bin Saba", who was descended from Qahtan and was the king of Hijaz
Hijaz
had placed a Hubal idol onto the roof of the Kaaba. This idol was one of the chief deities of the ruling tribe Quraysh. The idol was made of red agate and shaped like a human, but with the right hand broken off and replaced with a golden hand. When the idol was moved inside the Kaaba, it had seven arrows in front of it, which were used for divination.[52] To maintain peace among the perpetually warring tribes, Mecca
Mecca
was declared a sanctuary where no violence was allowed within 20 miles (32 km) of the Kaaba. This combat-free zone allowed Mecca
Mecca
to thrive not only as a place of pilgrimage, but also as a trading center.[53] Many Muslim
Muslim
and academic historians stress the power and importance of the pre-Islamic Mecca. They depict it as a city grown rich on the proceeds of the spice trade. Crone believes that this is an exaggeration and that Mecca
Mecca
may only have been an outpost trading with nomads for leather, cloth, and camel butter. Crone argues that if Mecca
Mecca
had been a well-known center of trade, it would have been mentioned by later authors such as Procopius, Nonnosus, or the Syrian church chroniclers writing in Syriac. The town is absent, however, from any geographies or histories written in the three centuries before the rise of Islam.[54] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "before the rise of Islam it was revered as a sacred sanctuary and was a site of pilgrimage."[55] According to German historian Eduard Glaser, the name "Kaaba" may have been related to the southern Arabian
Arabian
or Ethiopian word "mikrab", signifying a temple.[41] Again, Crone disputes this etymology. In Samaritan
Samaritan
literature, the Samaritan
Samaritan
Book of the Secrets of Moses (Asatir) claims that Ishmael
Ishmael
and his eldest son Nebaioth built the Kaaba
Kaaba
as well as the city of Mecca.[56] "The Secrets of Moses" or Asatir book was suggested by some opinion to have been compiled in the 10th century,[57] while another opinion in 1927 suggested that it was written no later than the second half of the 3rd century BCE.[58] Pre-Islamic Era[edit] Prior to the spread of Islam
Islam
throughout the Arabian
Arabian
Peninsula, the Kaaba
Kaaba
was a holy site for the various Bedouin tribes of the area. Once every lunar year, the Bedouin tribes would make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their pagan gods in the Kaaba
Kaaba
and trade with each other in the city.[59] Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. A statue of Hubal, the principal idol of Mecca, and other pagan deities were in or around the Kaaba.[60] Prior to the spread of Islam
Islam
throughout the Arabian
Arabian
Peninsula, there were paintings of idols decorating the walls. A picture of the Prophet
Prophet
'Isa and his mother, Maryam was situated inside the Kaaba
Kaaba
and later found by the Prophet
Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad
after his conquest of Mecca. The iconography portrayed a seated Maryam with her child on her lap.[61] This description, which would later become a universal iconography in later times, is similar to Christian
Christian
art and its portrayal of the seated Virgin Mary holding a young Jesus
Jesus
in her lap.The iconography in the Kaaba
Kaaba
also included paintings of other prophets and angels. It is possible the paintings of the prophets and angels were figures associated with the Prophet
Prophet
'Isa and Maryam. Inside the Kaaba, undefined decorations, money and a pair of ram’s horns were recorded to be there. The pair of ram's horns were said to have belonged to the ram sacrificed by the Prophet
Prophet
Ibrahim
Ibrahim
in place of his son, the Prophet
Prophet
Ismail. Al-Azraqi provides the following narrative on the authority of his grandfather, whose own source was Da'ud b.'Abd al-Rahman, who said that Ibn Jurayj had said that Sulayman b.Musa al-Shami asked 'Ata' b. Abi Rabah the following:[60]

I have heard that there was set up in al-Bayt (the Ka'ba) a picture (timthal) of Maryam and 'Isa. ['Ata'] said: "Yes, there was set in it a picture of Maryam adorned (muzawwaqan); in her lap, her son 'Isa sat adorned."[1]

-al-Azraqi, Akhbar Mecca: History of Mecca Muhammad's era[edit]

An illustration from the early 14th-century Persian Jami al-Tawarikh, inspired by the story of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Meccan clan elders lifting the Black Stone
Black Stone
into place when the Kaaba
Kaaba
was rebuilt in the early 600s[62]

Throughout Muhammad's time (570–632 CE), the Kaaba
Kaaba
was considered a holy and sacred site by the local Arabs. Muhammad
Muhammad
took part in the reconstruction of the Kaaba
Kaaba
after its structure was damaged due to floods around 600 CE. Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasūl Allāh, one of the biographies of Muhammad
Muhammad
(as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume), describes Muhammad
Muhammad
settling a quarrel between Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone
Black Stone
cornerstone in place. According to Ishaq's biography, Muhammad's solution was to have all the clan elders raise the cornerstone on a cloak, after which Muhammad set the stone into its final place with his own hands.[63][64] Ibn Ishaq says that the timber for the reconstruction of the Kaaba
Kaaba
came from a Greek ship that had been wrecked on the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast at Shu'ayba and that the work was undertaken by a Coptic carpenter called Baqum.[65] Muhammad's night journey is said to have taken him from the Kaaba
Kaaba
to the Temple Mount and heavenwards from there. Muslims initially considered Jerusalem as their qibla and faced that direction while offering prayers; however, pilgrimage to the Kaaba
Kaaba
was considered a religious duty though its rites were not yet finalized. During the first half of Muhammad's time as a prophet while he was at Mecca, he and his followers were severely persecuted which eventually led to their migration to Medina
Medina
in 622 CE. In 624 CE the direction of the Qiblah (Prayer Direction) was changed from Jerusalem to the Kaabah in Mecca.[66] In 628CE Muhammad
Muhammad
led a group of Muslims towards Mecca with the intention of performing the minor pilgrimage (Umrah) at the Kaaba, though he wasn't allowed by the people of Mecca
Mecca
to do so, he secured a peace treaty with them called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which allowed the Muslims to freely perform pilgrimage at the Kaaba from the following year.[67] At the culmination of his mission, in 629 CE, Muhammad
Muhammad
conquered Mecca with a Muslim
Muslim
army.[68] His first action was to remove statues and images from the Kaaba.[69] According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi, Muhammad
Muhammad
spared a painting of Mary and Jesus, and a fresco of Abraham; but according to Ibn Hisham all pictures were erased.[70][69][71]

Narrated Abdullah: When the Prophet
Prophet
entered Mecca
Mecca
on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka'bah. The Prophet
Prophet
started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood has Vanished.. (Qur'an 17:81)" — Sahih Al-Bukhari, Book 59, Hadith
Hadith
583

al-Azraqi further conveys how Muhammad,after he entered the Kaaba
Kaaba
on the day on the conquest, ordered all the pictures erased except that of Maryam.

...Shihab (said) that the Prophet
Prophet
(peace be upon him) entered the Ka'ba the day of the conquest, and in it was a picture of the angels (mala'ika) and others, and he saw a picture of Ibrahim
Ibrahim
and he said: "May Allah
Allah
kill those representing him as a venerable old man casting arrows in divination (shaykhan yastaqsim bi 'l-azlam)." Then he saw the picture of Maryam, so he put his hands on it and he said: "Erase what it in it [the Ka'ba] in the way of pictures except the picture of Maryam."[61]

-al-Azraqi, Akhbar Mecca: History of Mecca After the conquest Muhammad
Muhammad
restated the sanctity and holiness of Mecca, including its Great Mosque, in Islam.[72] He performed a lesser Pilgrimage (Umrah) in 629 CE, followed by the Greater Pilgrimage(Hajj) in 632 CE called the Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
since Muhammad
Muhammad
prophesied his impending death on this event.[73] After Muhammad[edit]

The site of Kaaba
Kaaba
in 1880

The Kaaba
Kaaba
in 1907

The Kaaba
Kaaba
has been repaired and reconstructed many times since Muhammad's day. The structure was severely damaged by fire on 3 Rabi I (Sunday, 31 October 683 CE), during the first siege of Mecca
Mecca
in the war between the Umayyads
Umayyads
and Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr, an early Muslim who ruled Mecca
Mecca
for many years between the death of ʿAli and the consolidation of Umayyad power. Ibn al-Zubayr rebuilt it to include the hatīm.[74] He did so on the basis of a tradition (found in several hadith collections[75]) that the hatīm was a remnant of the foundations of the Abrahamic Kaaba, and that Muhammad
Muhammad
himself had wished to rebuild so as to include it. The Kaaba
Kaaba
was bombarded with stones in the second siege of Mecca
Mecca
in 692, in which the Umayyad army was led by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf. The fall of the city and the death of Ibn al-Zubayr allowed the Umayyads under ʿAbdu l-Malik ibn Marwan
ʿAbdu l-Malik ibn Marwan
to finally reunite all the Islamic possessions and end the long civil war. In 693 CE, ʿAbdu l-Malik had the remnants of al-Zubayr's Kaaba
Kaaba
razed, and rebuilt on the foundations set by the Quraysh.[76] The Kaaba
Kaaba
returned to the cube shape it had taken during Muhammad's time. During the Hajj
Hajj
of 930 CE, the Qarmatians
Qarmatians
attacked Mecca, defiled the Zamzam Well
Zamzam Well
with the bodies of pilgrims and stole the Black Stone, taking it to the oasis region of Eastern Arabia known as al-Aḥsāʾ, where it remained until the Abbasids ransomed it in 952 CE.[citation needed] The basic shape and structure of the Kaaba
Kaaba
have not changed since then.[77][not in citation given] After heavy rains and flooding in 1629, the walls of the Kaaba collapsed and the Mosque
Mosque
was damaged. The same year, during the reign of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV, the Kaaba
Kaaba
was rebuilt with granite stones from Mecca, and the Mosque
Mosque
was renovated.[78] The Kaaba's appearance has not changed since then. The Kaaba
Kaaba
is depicted on the reverse of 500 Saudi Riyal, and the 2000 Iranian rial
Iranian rial
banknotes.[79] Cleaning[edit]

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The Kaaba
Kaaba
during Hajj

The building is opened twice a year for a ceremony known as "the cleaning of the Kaaba." This ceremony takes place approximately thirty days before the start of the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
and thirty days before the start of Hajj. The keys to the Kaaba
Kaaba
are held by the Banī Shaybah (بني شيبة) tribe. Members of the tribe greet visitors to the inside of the Kaaba
Kaaba
on the occasion of the cleaning ceremony. A small number of dignitaries and foreign diplomats are invited to participate in the ceremony. The governor of Mecca
Mecca
leads the guests who ritually clean the structure, using a broom.[80][better source needed]

See also[edit]

Islam
Islam
portal Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal

Al-Aqsa Mosque Al-Masjid al-Nabawi Hubal Khaabou Mount Sinai

References[edit]

^ a b Al-Azraqi. Akhbar Mecca: History of Mecca. p. 262. ISBN 9773411273.  More than one of pages= and page= specified (help) ^ a b c d e Wensinck, A. J; Kaʿba. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
IV p. 317 ^ "In pictures: Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage". BBC News. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2008.  ^ "As Hajj
Hajj
begins, more changes and challenges in store".  ^ "Interior Minister Addresses Cable to Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques on Pilgrims". Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.  ^ "More than 1.380 million pilgrims arrived". Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.  ^ Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 1994. ^ Peterson, Andrew (1996). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. London: Routledge. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010.  ^ a b Hawting, G.R.; Kaʿba. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an p. 76 ^ Clive L. N. Ruggles (2005). Ancient astronomy: an encyclopedia of cosmologies and myth (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-85109-477-6.  ^ Dick Teresi (2003). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya (Reprint, illustrated ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-7432-4379-7.  ^ "Saudi Arabia's Top Artist Ahmad
Ahmad
bin Ibrahim
Ibrahim
Passes Away". Khaleej Times. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ According to Muslim
Muslim
tradition: " God
God
made the stone under Ibrahim's feet into something like clay so that his feet sunk into it. That was a miracle. It was transmitted on the authority of Abu Ja'far al-Baqir (may peace be upon him) that he said: Three stones were sent down from the Garden: the Station of Ibrahim, the rock of the children of Israel, and the Black Stone, which God
God
entrusted Ibrahim
Ibrahim
with as a white stone. It was whiter than paper, but became black from the sins of the children of Adam." (The Hajj, F.E. Peters 1996) ^ "'House of God' Kaaba
Kaaba
gets new cloth". The Age Company Ltd. 2003. Retrieved 2006-08-17.  ^ "The Kiswa – ( Kaaba
Kaaba
Covering)". Al-Islaah Publications. Archived from the original on 22 July 2003. Retrieved 17 August 2006.  ^ Key to numbered parts translated from, accessed 2 December ^ The Basis for the Building Work of God
God
p. 37, Witness Lee, 2003 ^ Al-Muwatta Of Iman Malik Ibn Ana, p. 186, Anas, 2013 ^ Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj
Hajj
to Umrah: From A to Z. Mamdouh Mohamed. ISBN 0-915957-54-X.  ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
says Hajj
Hajj
2016 receives 1.8 million pilgrims". Al Arabiya English. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 6 October 2016.  ^ Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (1986). Goss, V. P.; Bornstein, C. V., eds. The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. 21. Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. p. 208. ISBN 0918720583.  ^ Mustafa Abu Sway. "The Holy Land, Jerusalem and Al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
in the Qur'an, Sunnah and other Islamic Literary Source" (PDF). Central Conference of American Rabbis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28.  ^ Dyrness, W. A. (2013-05-29). Senses of Devotion: Interfaith Aesthetics in Buddhist and Muslim
Muslim
Communities. 7. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 162032136X.  ^ Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Pickthall, Ed., Muhammad
Muhammad
M. "The Quran". Retrieved 10 January 2018. Another version: "[96] Lo! the first Sanctuary appointed for mankind was that at Becca, a blessed place, a guidance to the peoples;"  ^ Shakir, Ed., M. H. "The Quran". Retrieved 10 January 2018. And another version: "[96] Most surely the first house appointed for men is the one at Bekka, blessed and a guidance for the nations."  ^ Quran 22:26 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Pickthall, Ed., Muhammad
Muhammad
M. "The Quran". Retrieved 10 January 2018. Another version: "[26] And (remember) when We prepared for Abraham
Abraham
the place of the (holy) House, saying: Ascribe thou no thing as partner unto Me, and purify My House for those who make the round (thereof) and those who stand and those who bow and make prostration."  ^ Shakir, Ed., M. H. "The Quran". Retrieved 10 January 2018. And another version: "[26] And when We assigned to Ibrahim
Ibrahim
the place of the House, saying: Do not associate with Me aught, and purify My House for those who make the circuit and stand to pray and bow and prostrate themselves."  ^ Quran 2:127 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Pickthall, Ed., Muhammad
Muhammad
M. "The Quran". Retrieved 10 January 2018. Another version: "[127] And when Abraham
Abraham
and Ishmael
Ishmael
were raising the foundations of the House, ( Abraham
Abraham
prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower."  ^ Shakir, Ed., M. H. "The Quran". Retrieved 10 January 2018. And another version: "[127] And when Ibrahim
Ibrahim
and Ismail raised the foundations of the House: Our Lord! accept from us; surely Thou art the Hearing, the Knowing:"  ^ Tafsir Ibn Kathir
Ibn Kathir
on 3:96.  ^ Sahih Bukhari. Book 55, Hadith
Hadith
585.  ^ a b Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1955). Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah
Allah
– The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
Translated by A. Guillaume. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 88–9. ISBN 9780196360331.  ^ a b Karen Armstrong
Karen Armstrong
(2002). Islam: A Short History. p. 11. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X.  ^ Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad
Muhammad
(1955). Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasul Allah
Allah
– The Life of Muhammad
Muhammad
Translated by A. Guillaume. The text reads "O God, do not be afraid", the second footnote reads "The feminine form indicates the Ka'ba itself is addressed". Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 85 footnote 2. ISBN 9780196360331.  ^ Rice, Edward (May 1978). Eastern Definitions: A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient. New York: Doubleday. p. 433. ISBN 9780385085632.  ^ Christian
Christian
Julien Robin (2012). Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity. OUP USA. pp. 304–305.  ^ Marx, edited by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, Michael (2010). The Qur'an in context historical and literary investigations into the Qur'anic milieu (PDF). Leiden: Brill. pp. 63,123,83, 295. ISBN 9789047430322. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ a b Wensinck, A. J; Kaʿba. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
IV p. 318 (1927, 1978) ^ G. E. Von Grunebaum. Classical Islam: A History 600–1258, p. 19 ^ Crone, Patricia (2004). Makkan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias.  pp. 134–37 ^ Donner, Fred M. (2010). Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Believers. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 241. ISBN 978-0-674-05097-6.  ^ "A Response to Patricia Crone's Book" (PDF). Retrieved 15 October 2010.  ^ R.B. Serjeant, "Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam: Misconceptions and Flawed Polemics", Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1990, p.472. ^ Siculus, Diodorus. Bibliotheca Historica. Book 3 Chapter 44.  ^ Imoti, Eiichi. "The Ka'ba-i Zardušt", Orient, XV (1979), The Society for Near Eastern Studies in Japan, pp. 65–69. ^ Grunebaum, p. 24 ^ Armstrong, Jerusalem, p. 221 ^ Hafiz Ghulam Sarwar. Muhammad
Muhammad
the Holy Prophet. pp. 18–19.  ^ Francis E. Peters, Muhammad
Muhammad
and the origins of Islam, SUNY Press, 1994, p. 109. ^ Armstrong, Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, pp. 221–22 ^ Crone, Patricia (2004). Makkan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias.  p. 137 ^ Britannica 2002 Deluxe Edition CD-ROM, "Ka'bah." ^ Gaster, Moses
Moses
(1927). The Asatir: the Samaritan
Samaritan
book of Moses. London: The Royal Asiatic Society. pp. 262, 71. Ishmaelites built Mecca
Mecca
(Baka, Bakh)  ^ Crown, Alan David
David
(2001). Samaritan
Samaritan
Scribes and Manuscripts. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. p. 27. ^ M. Gaster, The Asatir: The Samaritan
Samaritan
Book of the "Secrets of Moses", London (1927), p. 160 ^ Timur Kuran, “Commercial Life under Islamic Rule,” in The Long Divergence : How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. (Princeton University Press, 2011), 45-62. ^ a b King, G. R. D. (2004). "The Paintings of the Pre-Islamic Kaʿba". Muqarnas. 21: 219–229.  ^ a b King, G. R. D. (2004). "The Paintings of the Pre-Islamic Kaʿba". Muqarnas. 21: 219–229.  ^ University of Southern California. "The Prophet
Prophet
of Islam
Islam
– His Biography". Archived from the original on 21 July 2006. Retrieved 12 August 2006.  ^ Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  pp. 84–87 ^ Saifur Rahman al-Mubarakpuri, translated by Issam Diab (1979). "Muhammad's Birth and Forty Years prior to Prophethood". Ar-Raheeq Al-Makhtum (The Sealed Nectar): Memoirs of the Noble Prophet. Retrieved 2007-05-04.  ^ Cyril Glasse, New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 245. Rowman Altamira, 2001. ISBN 0-7591-0190-6 ^ Saifur Rahman. The Sealed Nectar. p. 130.  ^ Saifur Rahman. The Sealed Nectar. p. 213.  ^ Saifur Rahman. The Sealed Nectar. pp. 250–53.  ^ a b Ellenbogen, Josh; Tugendhaft, Aaron (18 July 2011). Idol Anxiety. Stanford University Press. p. 47. ISBN 9780804781817. When Muhammad
Muhammad
ordered his men to cleanse the Kaaba
Kaaba
of the statues and pictures displayed there, he spared the paintings of the Virgin and Child and of Abraham.  ^ Guillaume, Alfred (1955). The Life of Muhammad. A translation of Ishaq's "Sirat Rasul Allah". Oxford University Press. p. 552. ISBN 978-0196360331. Retrieved 2011-12-08. Quraysh
Quraysh
had put pictures in the Ka'ba including two of Jesus
Jesus
son of Mary and Mary (on both of whom be peace!). ... The apostle ordered that the pictures should be erased except those of Jesus
Jesus
and Mary.  ^ Rogerson, Barnaby (2003). The Prophet
Prophet
Muhammad: A Biography. Paulist Press. p. 190. ISBN 9781587680298. Muhammad
Muhammad
raised his hand to protect an icon of the Virgin and Child and a painting of Abraham, but otherwise his companions cleared the interior of its clutter of votive treasures, cult implements, statuettes and hanging charms.  ^ W.M. Flinders Petrie; Hans F. Helmolt; Stanley Lane-Poole; Robert Nisbet Bain; Hugo Winckler; Archibald H. Sayce; Alfred Russel Wallace; William Lee-Warner; Holland Thompson; W. Stewart Wallace (1915). The Book of History, a History of All Nations From the Earliest Times to the Present. The Grolier Society.  ^ Saifur Rahman. The Sealed Nectar. p. 298.  ^ Sahih Muslim, 7:3083 ^ Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
1506, 1508;Sahih Muslim
Muslim
1333 ^ Sahih Bukhari
Sahih Bukhari
1509; Sahih Muslim
Muslim
1333 ^ Javed Ahmad
Ahmad
Ghamidi. The Rituals of Hajj
Hajj
and ‘ Umrah
Umrah
Archived 7 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine., Mizan, Al-Mawrid ^ "History of the Kaba".  ^ Central Bank of Iran. Banknotes & Coins: 2000 Rials. – Retrieved on 24 March 2009. ^ "Kaaba". Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2010. 

Bibliography[edit]

Armstrong, Karen (2000,2002). Islam: A Short History. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X. Crone, Patricia (2004). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias. Elliott, Jeri (1992). Your Door to Arabia. ISBN 0-473-01546-3. Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Grunebaum, G. E. von (1970). Classical Islam: A History 600 A.D. to 1258 A.D. Aldine Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-202-30767-1.  Hawting, G.R; Kaʿba. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi The book of Idols, translated with introduction and notes by Nabih Amin Faris 1952 Macaulay-Lewis, Elizabeth, The Kaba" (text), Smarthistory. Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj
Hajj
to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-X. Peterson, Andrew (1997). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture London: Routledge. Wensinck, A. J; Kaʿba. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
IV [1915] The Book of History, a History of All Nations From the Earliest Times to the Present, Viscount Bryce (Introduction), The Grolier Society.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: Kaaba
Kaaba
(category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Kaaba.

Interesting Facts About Kaaba
Kaaba
(Mecca) that you don't know Ka'bah info: Everything you want to know about the Holy Ka'bah Description and significance of performing tawaf around the Kaaba SA's Official Live Webcam of the Kaaba Former door of the Kaaba
Kaaba
(ca. 1635)

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian
Arabian
Peninsula (excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat
Salat
(Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah
Umrah
al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

v t e

Hajj
Hajj
topics

Every year, from the eighth to the twelfth day of Dhu al-Hijjah.

Preparation

Ihram Meeqath Dhu'l-Hulayfah Juhfah Yalamlam

Sequence

Tawaf Zamzam Well Safa and Marwa Mina Mount Arafat Muzdalifah Rami al-Jamarat Eid al-Adha Tawaf
Tawaf
al-Ifadah Tawaf
Tawaf
al-Wida

Mosques

Great Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca Al-Masjid an-Nabawi Masjid-u-Shajarah Rabigh

History

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247665

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