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The KAABA (Arabic : ٱلْكَعْبَة‎‎ al-kaʿbah IPA: , "The Cube"), also referred as AL-KA`BAH AL-MUSHARRAFAH (The Holy Kaaba), is a building at the center of Islam
Islam
's most sacred mosque , that is Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (Arabic : الـمَـسـجِـد الـحَـرَام‎‎, The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
), in Mecca
Mecca
, Hejaz
Hejaz
, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
. It is the most sacred site in Islam
Islam
. It is considered by Muslims to be the bayt Allāh, the "House of God", and has a similar role to the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
and Holy of Holies in Judaism
Judaism
. Wherever they are in the world, Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba when performing salat (prayer). From any point in the world, the direction facing the Kaaba
Kaaba
is called the qibla .

One of the Five Pillars of Islam
Islam
requires every Muslim
Muslim
who is able to do so to perform the hajj pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime. Multiple parts of the hajj require pilgrims to make tawaf , the circumambulation seven times around the Kaaba
Kaaba
in a counter-clockwise direction. Tawaf
Tawaf
is also performed by pilgrims during the umrah (lesser pilgrimage). However, the most significant times are during the hajj, when millions of pilgrims gather to circle the building within a 5-day period. In 2013, the number of pilgrims coming from outside the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
to perform hajj was officially reported as 1,379,531. In 2014, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
reported having completed Hajj
Hajj
permits for 1,389,053 international pilgrims and 63,375 for residents.

CONTENTS

* 1 Lexicology * 2 Architecture and interior

* 3 Religious significance

* 3.1 Qibla
Qibla
* 3.2 Pilgrimage

* 4 History

* 4.1 Islamic views on origin

* 4.2 Modern independent views on origin

* 4.2.1 Ptolemy
Ptolemy
* 4.2.2 Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
* 4.2.3 Others

* 4.3 Pre-Islamic Era * 4.4 Muhammad\'s era * 4.5 After Muhammad
Muhammad

* 5 Cleaning * 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References * 9 External links

LEXICOLOGY

THIS SECTION NEEDS EXPANSION with: please specify where and by what names Kaaba
Kaaba
is mentioned in Quran
Quran
and Hadith. You can help by adding to it . (April 2016)

The literal meaning of the Arabic word ka`bah (كَعْبَة) is “cube.” The Kaaba
Kaaba
of Mecca
Mecca
is called by many names in the Quran and Hadith, such as al-bayt (the house), al-bayt al-ḥarām (the sacred house), bayt Allāh (the house of God), al-bayt al-`atīq (the ancient house), and ’awwal bayt (the first house).

ARCHITECTURE AND INTERIOR

The Kaaba
Kaaba
is a cubical stone structure made of granite . It is approximately 13.1 m (43 ft) high (some claim 12.03 m (39.5 ft)), with sides measuring 11.03 m (36.2 ft) by 12.86 m (42.2 ft). Inside the Kaaba, the floor is made of marble and limestone. The interior walls, measuring 13 m (43 ft) by 9 m (30 ft), are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. The floor of the interior stands about 2.2 m (7.2 ft) above the ground area where tawaf is performed.

The wall directly adjacent to the entrance of the Kaaba
Kaaba
has six tablets inlaid with inscriptions, and there are several more tablets along the other walls. Along the top corners of the walls runs a green cloth embroidered with gold Qur'anic verses. Caretakers anoint the marble cladding with the same scented oil used to anoint the Black Stone outside. Three pillars (some erroneously report two) stand inside the Kaaba, with a small altar or table set between one and the other two. (It has been claimed that this table is used for the placement of perfumes or other items.) Lamp -like objects (possible lanterns or crucible censers ) hang from the ceiling. The ceiling itself is of a darker colour, similar in hue to the lower trimming. A golden door—the bāb al-tawbah (also romanized as Baabut Taubah, and meaning "Door of Repentance")—on the right wall (right of the entrance) opens to an enclosed staircase that leads to a hatch, which itself opens to the roof. Both the roof and ceiling (collectively dual-layered) are made of stainless steel-capped teak wood. A drawing of the Kaaba. See key in text. A technical drawing of the Kaaba
Kaaba
showing dimensions and elements

Each numbered item in the following list corresponds to features noted in the diagram image.

* Al-Ḥajaru al-Aswad, "the Black Stone ", is located on the Kaaba's eastern corner. Its northern corner is known as the Ruknu l-ˤĪrāqī, "the Iraqi corner", its western as the Ruknu sh-Shāmī, "the Levantine corner", and its southern as Ruknu l-Yamanī, "the Yemeni corner". The four corners of the Kaaba
Kaaba
roughly point toward the four cardinal directions of the compass . Its major (long) axis is aligned with the rising of the star Canopus
Canopus
toward which its southern wall is directed, while its minor axis (its east-west facades) roughly align with the sunrise of summer solstice and the sunset of winter solstice . * The entrance is a door set 2.13 m (7 ft) above the ground on the north-eastern wall of the Kaaba, which acts as the façade. In 1979 the 300 kg gold doors made by chief artist Ahmad bin Ibrahim Badr , replaced the old silver doors made by his father, Ibrahim
Ibrahim
Badr in 1942. There is a wooden staircase on wheels, usually stored in the mosque between the arch-shaped gate of Banū Shaybah and the Zamzam Well . * Mīzāb al-Raḥmah, rainwater spout made of gold. Added in the rebuilding of 1627 after the previous year's rain caused three of the four walls to collapse. * Gutter, added in 1627 to protect the foundation from groundwater. * Hatīm (also romanized as hateem), a low wall originally part of the Kaaba. It is a semi-circular wall opposite, but not connected to, the north-west wall of the Kaaba. This is 90 cm (35 in) in height and 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in width, and is composed of white marble. At one time the space lying between the hatīm and the Kaaba
Kaaba
belonged to the Kaaba itself, and for this reason it is not entered during the tawaf. * Al-Multazam, the roughly 2 meter space along the wall between the Black Stone and the entry door. It is sometimes considered pious or desirable for a hajji to touch this area of the Kaaba, or perform dua here. * The Station of Ibrahim
Ibrahim
(Maqam Ibrahim), a glass and metal enclosure with what is said to be an imprint of Abraham
Abraham
's feet. Ibrahim
Ibrahim
is said to have stood on this stone during the construction of the upper parts of the Kaaba, raising Ismail on his shoulders for the uppermost parts. * Corner of the Black Stone (East). * Corner of Yemen
Yemen
(South-West). Pilgrims traditionally acknowledge a large vertical stone that forms this corner. * Corner of Syria
Syria
(North-West). * Corner of Iraq
Iraq
(North-East). This inside corner, behind a curtain, contains the Babut Taubah, Door of Repentance, which leads to a staircase to the roof. * Kiswah , the embroidered covering. Kiswa is a black silk and gold curtain which is replaced annually during the Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage. Two-thirds of the way up is a band of gold-embroidered Quranic text, including the Shahada
Shahada
, the Islamic declaration of faith. * Marble stripe marking the beginning and end of each circumambulation.

The interior can be seen on Google Streetview.

*

Entrance, golden door—the bāb al-tawbah *

Pilgrims performing Tawaf
Tawaf
*

The Station of Ibrahim
Ibrahim
(Maqam Ibrahim) *

Mizab al-Rahmah

RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE

The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
and Kaaba
Kaaba
during Hajj, 2008

The Kaaba
Kaaba
is the holiest site in Islam, and is often called by names such as the House of God.

QIBLA

Main article: Qibla
Qibla

The Qibla
Qibla
is the direction faced during prayer. It is the focal point for prayer. The direction faced during prayer is the direction of where the Kaaba
Kaaba
is.

PILGRIMAGE

Main articles: Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah
Umrah

The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
is the focal point of the Hajj
Hajj
and Umrah pilgrimages that occur in the month of Dhu al-Hijjah in the Islamic calendar and at any time of the year, respectively. The Hajj pilgrimage is one of the Pillars of Islam, required of all able-bodied Muslims who can afford the trip. In recent times, about 1.8 million Muslims perform the Hajj
Hajj
every year.

Some of the rituals performed by pilgrims are symbolic of historical incidents. For example, the incident of Hagar's search for water is emulated by Muslims as they run between the two hills of Safa and Marwah whenever they visit Mecca.

The Hajj
Hajj
is associated with the life of the Islamic prophet Muhammad from the 7th century, but the ritual of pilgrimage to Mecca
Mecca
is considered by Muslims to stretch back thousands of years to the time of Prophet
Prophet
Ibrahim
Ibrahim
.

HISTORY

See also: Pre-Islamic Arabia and Jahiliyyah

ISLAMIC VIEWS ON ORIGIN

The Quran
Quran
contains several verses regarding the origin of the Kaaba, it states that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was the first House of Worship, and that it was built by Ibrahim
Ibrahim
and Ishmael
Ishmael
on God's instructions.

Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for mankind. — Quran, Chapter 3 (Aale-Imran) verse 96

Behold! We gave the site, to Ibrahim, of the (Sacred) House, (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer). — Quran, Chapter 22 (Al Hajj) verse 26

And remember Ibrahim
Ibrahim
and Ishmael
Ishmael
raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing. — Quran, Chapter 2 (Al Bakarah) verse 127

Ibn Kathir , the famous commentator on the Quran, mentions two interpretations among the Muslims on the origin of the Kaaba. One is that the shrine was a place of worship for Angels before the creation of man. Later, a temple was built on the location by Adam
Adam
and Eve which was lost during the flood in Noah
Noah
's time and was finally rebuilt by Abraham
Abraham
and Ishmael
Ishmael
as mentioned later in the Quran. Ibn Kathir regarded this tradition as weak and preferred instead the narration by Ali ibn Abi Talib that although several other temples might have preceded the Kaabah, it was the first "House of God", dedicated solely to Him, built by His instruction and sanctified and blessed by Him as stated in Quran
Quran
22:26–29. A Hadith
Hadith
in Sahih al-Bukhari states that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was the First Mosque
Mosque
on Earth, and the Second Mosque
Mosque
was the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
.

While Abraham
Abraham
was building the Kaaba, an angel brought to him the Black Stone which he placed in the eastern corner of the structure. Another stone was the Maqam-e- Ibrahim
Ibrahim
(literally the Station of Abraham) where Abraham
Abraham
stood for elevation while building the structure. The Black Stone and the Maqam-e- Ibrahim
Ibrahim
are believed by Muslims to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham
Abraham
as naturally the remaining structure had to be demolished and rebuilt several times over history for maintenance purposes. After the construction was complete, God enjoined the descendants of Ishmael
Ishmael
to perform an annual pilgrimage: the Hajj
Hajj
and the Korban , sacrifice of cattle. The vicinity of the shrine was also made a sanctuary where bloodshed and war were forbidden.

According to Islamic tradition, over the millennia after Ishmael's death, his progeny and the local tribes who settled around the oasis of Zam-Zam gradually turned to polytheism and idolatry. Several idols were placed within the Kaaba
Kaaba
representing deities of different aspects of nature and different tribes. Several heretical rituals were adopted in the Pilgrimage (Hajj) including doing naked circumambulation.

In her book, Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was officially dedicated to Hubal
Hubal
, a Nabatean deity, and contained 360 idols that probably represented the days of the year. But by Muhammad's day, it seems that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was venerated as the shrine of Allah, the High God. Once a year, tribes from all around the Arabian
Arabian
peninsula, whether Christian
Christian
or pagan, would converge on Mecca to perform the Hajj, marking the widespread conviction that Allah
Allah
was the same deity worshiped by monotheists. Guillaume in his translation of Ibn Ishaq , an early biographer of Muhammad, says the Ka'aba itself was addressed using a feminine grammatical form. Circumambulation
Circumambulation
was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women, and linked to ancient fertility rites . It is disputed whether Allah
Allah
and Hubal
Hubal
were the same deity or different. Per a hypothesis by Uri Rubin and Christian
Christian
Robin, Hubal
Hubal
was only venetrated by Quraysh and the Kaaba was first dedicated to Allah, a supreme god of individuals belonging to different tribes, while the pantheon of the gods of Quraysh was installed in Kaaba
Kaaba
after they conquered Mecca
Mecca
a century before Muhammad's time.

MODERN INDEPENDENT VIEWS ON ORIGIN

Ptolemy

Writing in the Encyclopedia of Islam
Islam
, Wensinck identifies Mecca
Mecca
with a place called Macoraba mentioned by Ptolemy
Ptolemy
and found in a 3rd-century BC map which suggests that Macoraba was Mecca. G. E. von Grunebaum states: " Mecca
Mecca
is mentioned by Ptolemy. The name he gives it allows us to identify it as a South Arabian
Arabian
foundation created around a sanctuary. In Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam
Islam
, Patricia Crone argues that the identification of Macoraba with Mecca
Mecca
is false and that Macoraba was a town in southern Arabia in what was then known as Arabia Felix . Her point of view was supported by some Islamic scholars and challenged by others. Ottoman tiles representing the Kaaba
Kaaba

Diodorus Siculus

The Greek historian Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
is believed to have mentioned the Kaabah in 60–30 BC while describing the coast of Jeddah
Jeddah
and its surrounding areas mentioned:

The inhabitants of the land about the gulf, who are known as Banizomenes, find their food by hunting the land animals and eating their meat. And a temple has been set up there, which is very holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians. —  Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
, Bibliotheca Historica, Book 3 Chapter 44

Edward Gibbon
Edward Gibbon
suggested that the Kaaba
Kaaba
was mentioned by ancient Greek writer, Diodorus Siculus
Diodorus Siculus
, before the Christian
Christian
era:

The genuine antiquity of Caaba ascends beyond the Christian
Christian
era: in describing the coast of the Red sea the Greek historian Diodorus has remarked, between the Thamudites and the Sabeans, a famous temple, whose superior sanctity was revered by all the Arabians; the linen or silken veil, which is annually renewed by the Turkish emperor, was first offered by the Homerites, who reigned seven hundred years before the time of Mohammad. — Edward Gibbon, Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire , Volume V, pp. 223–24

Others

Imoti contends that there were numerous such "Kaaba" sanctuaries in Arabia at one time, but this was the only one built of stone. The others also allegedly had counterparts of the Black Stone. There was a "red stone", the deity of the south Arabian
Arabian
city of Ghaiman, and the "white stone" in the Kaaba
Kaaba
of al-Abalat (near the city of Tabala, south of Mecca). Grunebaum in Classical Islam
Islam
points out that the experience of divinity of that period was often associated with stone fetishes , mountains, special rock formations, or "trees of strange growth."

The Kaaba
Kaaba
was thought to be at the center of the world, with the Gate of Heaven directly above it. The Kaaba
Kaaba
marked the location where the sacred world intersected with the profane; the embedded Black Stone was a further symbol of this as a meteorite that had fallen from the sky and linked heaven and earth.

According to Sarwar, about 400 years before the birth of Muhammad, a man named "Amr bin Lahyo bin Harath bin Amr ul-Qais bin Thalaba bin Azd bin Khalan bin Babalyun bin Saba", who was descended from Qahtan and was the king of Hijaz
Hijaz
had placed a Hubal
Hubal
idol onto the roof of the Kaaba. This idol was one of the chief deities of the ruling tribe Quraysh . The idol was made of red agate and shaped like a human, but with the right hand broken off and replaced with a golden hand. When the idol was moved inside the Kaaba, it had seven arrows in front of it, which were used for divination .

To maintain peace among the perpetually warring tribes, Mecca
Mecca
was declared a sanctuary where no violence was allowed within 20 miles (32 km) of the Kaaba. This combat-free zone allowed Mecca
Mecca
to thrive not only as a place of pilgrimage, but also as a trading center.

Many Muslim
Muslim
and academic historians stress the power and importance of the pre-Islamic Mecca. They depict it as a city grown rich on the proceeds of the spice trade . Crone believes that this is an exaggeration and that Mecca
Mecca
may only have been an outpost trading with nomads for leather, cloth, and camel butter. Crone argues that if Mecca
Mecca
had been a well-known center of trade, it would have been mentioned by later authors such as Procopius
Procopius
, Nonnosus , or the Syrian church chroniclers writing in Syriac. The town is absent, however, from any geographies or histories written in the three centuries before the rise of Islam.

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica , "before the rise of Islam it was revered as a sacred sanctuary and was a site of pilgrimage." According to German historian Eduard Glaser, the name "Kaaba" may have been related to the southern Arabian
Arabian
or Ethiopian word "mikrab", signifying a temple. Again, Crone disputes this etymology.

In Samaritan
Samaritan
literature, the Samaritan
Samaritan
Book of the Secrets of Moses (Asatir) claims that Ishmael
Ishmael
and his eldest son Nebaioth built the Kaaba
Kaaba
as well as the city of Mecca. "The Secrets of Moses" or Asatir book was suggested by some opinion to have been compiled in the 10th century, while another opinion in 1927 suggested that it was written no later than the second half of the 3rd century BCE.

PRE-ISLAMIC ERA

Prior to the spread of Islam
Islam
throughout the Arabian
Arabian
Peninsula, the Kaaba
Kaaba
was a holy site for the various Bedouin tribes of the area. Once every lunar year, the Bedouin tribes would make a pilgrimage to Mecca. Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their pagan gods in the Kaaba
Kaaba
and trade with each other in the city. Islam
Islam
would later adopt the established traditions of the Bedouin tribes, such as encouragement of trade during the Hajj, but replacing the worship of their pagan gods with Allah
Allah
.

MUHAMMAD\'S ERA

An illustration from the early 14th-century Persian Jami al-Tawarikh , inspired by the story of Muhammad
Muhammad
and the Meccan clan elders lifting the Black Stone into place when the Kaaba
Kaaba
was rebuilt in the early 600s

During Muhammad's time (570–632 CE), the Kaaba
Kaaba
was considered a holy and sacred site by the local Arabs
Arabs
and later Islam
Islam
recognized it. Muhammad
Muhammad
took part in the reconstruction of the Kaaba
Kaaba
after its structure was damaged due to floods around 600 CE. Ibn Ishaq 's Sirat Rasūl Allāh , one of the biographies of Muhammad
Muhammad
(as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume), describes Muhammad
Muhammad
settling a quarrel between Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone cornerstone in place.

According to Ishaq's biography, Muhammad's solution was to have all the clan elders raise the cornerstone on a cloak, after which Muhammad set the stone into its final place with his own hands. Ibn Ishaq says that the timber for the reconstruction of the Kaaba
Kaaba
came from a Greek ship that had been wrecked on the Red Sea
Red Sea
coast at Shu'ayba and that the work was undertaken by a Coptic carpenter called Baqum. Muhammad\'s night journey is said to have taken him from the Kaaba
Kaaba
to the Temple Mount and heavenwards from there.

Muslims initially considered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as their qibla and faced that direction while offering prayers; however, pilgrimage to the Kaaba
Kaaba
was considered a religious duty though its rites were not yet finalized. During the first half of Muhammad's time as a prophet while he was at Mecca, he and his followers were severely persecuted which eventually led to their migration to Medina
Medina
in 622 CE. In 624 CE the direction of the Qiblah (Prayer Direction) was changed from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to the Kaabah in Mecca. In 628CE Muhammad
Muhammad
led a group of Muslims towards Mecca
Mecca
with the intention of performing the minor pilgrimage (Umrah) at the Kaaba, though he wasn't allowed by the people of Mecca
Mecca
to do so, he secured a peace treaty with them called the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah , which allowed the Muslims to freely perform pilgrimage at the Kaaba
Kaaba
from the following year.

At the culmination of his mission, in 629 CE, Muhammad
Muhammad
conquered Mecca
Mecca
with a Muslim
Muslim
army. His first action was to remove statues and images from the Kaaba. According to reports collected by Ibn Ishaq and al-Azraqi , Muhammad
Muhammad
spared a painting of Mary and Jesus
Jesus
, and a fresco of Abraham
Abraham
; but according to Ibn Hisham all pictures were erased.

Narrated Abdullah: When the Prophet
Prophet
entered Mecca
Mecca
on the day of the Conquest, there were 360 idols around the Ka'bah. The Prophet
Prophet
started striking them with a stick he had in his hand and was saying, "Truth has come and Falsehood has Vanished.. (Qur'an 17:81)" — Sahih Al-Bukhari , Book 59, Hadith
Hadith
583

After the conquest Muhammad
Muhammad
restated the sanctity and holiness of Mecca, including its Great Mosque
Mosque
, in Islam. He performed a lesser Pilgrimage ( Umrah
Umrah
) in 629 CE, followed by the Greater Pilgrimage(Hajj) in 632 CE called the Farewell Pilgrimage
Farewell Pilgrimage
since Muhammad
Muhammad
prophesied his impending death on this event.

AFTER MUHAMMAD

The site of Kaaba
Kaaba
in 1880 The Kaaba
Kaaba
in 1907

The Kaaba
Kaaba
has been repaired and reconstructed many times since Muhammad's day. The structure was severely damaged by fire on 3 Rabi I (Sunday, 31 October 683 CE), during the first siege of Mecca
Mecca
in the war between the Umayyads
Umayyads
and Abd- Allah
Allah
ibn al-Zubayr , an early Muslim who ruled Mecca
Mecca
for many years between the death of ʿAli and the consolidation of Umayyad power. Ibn al-Zubayr rebuilt it to include the hatīm. He did so on the basis of a tradition (found in several hadith collections ) that the hatīm was a remnant of the foundations of the Abrahamic Kaaba, and that Muhammad
Muhammad
himself had wished to rebuild so as to include it.

The Kaaba
Kaaba
was bombarded with stones in the second siege of Mecca
Mecca
in 692, in which the Umayyad army was led by al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf . The fall of the city and the death of Ibn al-Zubayr allowed the Umayyads under ʿAbdu l-Malik ibn Marwan to finally reunite all the Islamic possessions and end the long civil war. In 693 CE, ʿAbdu l-Malik had the remnants of al-Zubayr's Kaaba
Kaaba
razed, and rebuilt on the foundations set by the Quraysh. The Kaaba
Kaaba
returned to the cube shape it had taken during Muhammad's time.

During the Hajj
Hajj
of 930 CE, the Qarmatians attacked Mecca, defiled the Zamzam Well
Zamzam Well
with the bodies of pilgrims and stole the Black Stone, taking it to the oasis region of Eastern Arabia known as al-Aḥsāʾ, where it remained until the Abbasids ransomed it in 952 CE. The basic shape and structure of the Kaaba
Kaaba
have not changed since then.

After heavy rains and flooding in 1629, the walls of the Kaaba collapsed and the Mosque
Mosque
was damaged. The same year, during the reign of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV
Murad IV
, the Kaaba
Kaaba
was rebuilt with granite stones from Mecca, and the Mosque
Mosque
was renovated. The Kaaba's appearance has not changed since then.

The Kaaba
Kaaba
is depicted on the reverse of 500 Saudi Riyal , and the 2000 Iranian rial
Iranian rial
banknotes.

CLEANING

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Play media The Kaaba
Kaaba
during Hajj
Hajj

The building is opened twice a year for a ceremony known as "the cleaning of the Kaaba." This ceremony takes place roughly thirty days before the start of the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
and thirty days before the start of Hajj. The keys to the Kaaba
Kaaba
are held by the Banī Shayba (بني شيبة) tribe. Members of the tribe greet visitors to the inside of the Kaaba
Kaaba
on the occasion of the cleaning ceremony. A small number of dignitaries and foreign diplomats are invited to participate in the ceremony. The governor of Mecca
Mecca
leads the honoured guests who ritually clean the structure, using a simple broom.

SEE ALSO

* Islam
Islam
portal * Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
portal

* Al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
* Al-Masjid al-Nabawi * Khaabou * Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai

NOTES

* ^ Al-Azraqi. Akhbar Mecca: History of Mecca. p. 262. ISBN 9773411273 . * ^ A B C D E Wensinck, A. J; Ka`ba. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
IV p. 317 * ^ "In pictures: Hajj
Hajj
pilgrimage". BBC News
BBC News
. 7 December 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2008. * ^ "As Hajj
Hajj
begins, more changes and challenges in store". * ^ "Interior Minister Addresses Cable to Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques on Pilgrims". Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 10 December 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014. * ^ "More than 1.380 million pilgrims arrived". Saudi Arabia Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.

* ^ Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 1994. * ^ Peterson, Andrew (1996). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. London: Routledge
Routledge
. Archived from the original on 20 May 2010. * ^ A B Hawting, G.R.; Ka`ba. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an p. 76 * ^ Clive L. N. Ruggles (2005). Ancient astronomy: an encyclopedia of cosmologies and myth (Illustrated ed.). ABC-CLIO. p. 202. ISBN 978-1-85109-477-6 . * ^ Dick Teresi (2003). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science—from the Babylonians to the Maya (Reprint, illustrated ed.). Simon and Schuster. p. 137. ISBN 978-0-7432-4379-7 .

* ^ "Saudi Arabia’s Top Artist Ahmad
Ahmad
bin Ibrahim
Ibrahim
Passes Away". Khaleej Times. 9 November 2009. Archived from the original on 30 September 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2010. * ^ According to Muslim
Muslim
tradition: "God made the stone under Ibrahim's feet into something like clay so that his feet sunk into it. That was a miracle. It was transmitted on the authority of Abu Ja'far al-Baqir (may peace be upon him ) that he said: Three stones were sent down from the Garden : the Station of Ibrahim, the rock of the children of Israel , and the Black Stone, which God entrusted Ibrahim with as a white stone. It was whiter than paper, but became black from the sins of the children of Adam
Adam
." (The Hajj, F.E. Peters 1996) * ^ "\'House of God\' Kaaba
Kaaba
gets new cloth". The Age Company Ltd. 2003. Retrieved 2006-08-17. * ^ "The Kiswa – ( Kaaba
Kaaba
Covering)". Al-Islaah Publications. Retrieved 2006-08-17. * ^ Key to numbered parts translated from, accessed 2 December * ^ The Basis for the Building Work of God p. 37, Witness Lee, 2003 * ^ Al-Muwatta Of Iman Malik Ibn Ana, p. 186, Anas, 2013 * ^ Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj
Hajj
to Umrah: From A to Z. Mamdouh Mohamed. ISBN 0-915957-54-X . * ^ " Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
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Translated by A. Guillaume. The text reads "O God, do not be afraid", the second footnote reads "The feminine form indicates the Ka\'ba itself is addressed". Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 85 footnote 2. ISBN 9780196360331 . * ^ Rice, Edward (May 1978). Eastern Definitions: A Short Encyclopedia of Religions of the Orient. New York: Doubleday. p. 433. ISBN 9780385085632 . * ^ Christian
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Julien Robin (2012). Arabia and Ethiopia. In The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity. OUP USA. pp. 304–305. * ^ Marx, edited by Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, Michael (2010). The Qur\'an in context historical and literary investigations into the Qur\'anic milieu (PDF). Leiden: Brill. pp. 63,123,83, 295. ISBN 9789047430322 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2015. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link ) * ^ A B Wensinck, A. J; Ka`ba. Encyclopaedia of Islam
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IV p. 318 (1927, 1978) * ^ G. E. Von Grunebaum. Classical Islam: A History 600–1258, p. 19 * ^ Crone, Patricia (2004). Makkan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias. pp. 134–37 * ^ Donner, Fred M. (2010). Muhammad
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ordered his men to cleanse the Kaaba
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of the statues and pictures displayed there, he spared the paintings of the Virgin and Child and of Abraham. * ^ Guillaume, Alfred (1955). The Life of Muhammad. A translation of Ishaq\'s "Sirat Rasul Allah". Oxford University Press. p. 552. ISBN 978-0196360331 . Retrieved 2011-12-08. Quraysh had put pictures in the Ka'ba including two of Jesus
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son of Mary and Mary (on both of whom be peace!). ... The apostle ordered that the pictures should be erased except those of Jesus
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and Mary. * ^ Rogerson , Barnaby (2003). The Prophet
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Muhammad: A Biography. Paulist Press. p. 190. ISBN 9781587680298 . Muhammad
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raised his hand to protect an icon of the Virgin and Child and a painting of Abraham, but otherwise his companions cleared the interior of its clutter of votive treasures, cult implements, statuettes and hanging charms. * ^ W.M. Flinders Petrie; Hans F. Helmolt; Stanley Lane-Poole; Robert Nisbet Bain; Hugo Winckler; Archibald H. Sayce; Alfred Russel Wallace; William Lee-Warner ; Holland Thompson; W. Stewart Wallace (1915). The Book of History, a History of All Nations From the Earliest Times to the Present. The Grolier Society. * ^ Saifur Rahman. The Sealed Nectar. p. 298. * ^ Sahih Muslim
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, 7:3083 * ^ Sahih Bukhari 1506, 1508;Sahih Muslim
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1333 * ^ Sahih Bukhari 1509; Sahih Muslim
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1333 * ^ Javed Ahmad Ghamidi . The Rituals of Hajj
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REFERENCES

* Armstrong, Karen (2000,2002). Islam: A Short History. ISBN 0-8129-6618-X . * Crone, Patricia (2004). Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam. Piscataway, New Jersey: Gorgias. * Elliott, Jeri (1992). Your Door to Arabia. ISBN 0-473-01546-3 . * Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press. * Grunebaum, G. E. von (1970). Classical Islam: A History 600 A.D. to 1258 A.D. Aldine Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-202-30767-1 . * Hawting, G.R; Ka`ba. Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān * Hisham Ibn Al-Kalbi The book of Idols, translated with introduction and notes by Nabih Amin Faris 1952 * Macaulay-Lewis, Elizabeth, The Kaba" (text), Smarthistory . * Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj
Hajj
to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-X . * Peterson, Andrew (1997). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture London: Routledge. * Wensinck, A. J; Ka`ba. Encyclopaedia of Islam
Islam
IV * The Book of History, a History of All Nations From the Earliest Times to the Present, Viscount Bryce (Introduction), The Grolier Society.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikimedia Commons
Wikimedia Commons
has media related to: KAABA (category)

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article KAABA .

* Interesting

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