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KLM
KLM
Royal Dutch Airlines, legally Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V.,[5] is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands.[6] KLM
KLM
is headquartered in Amstelveen, with its hub at nearby Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol. It is part of the Air France–KLM
Air France–KLM
group, and is a member of the SkyTeam
SkyTeam
airline alliance. KLM
KLM
was founded in 1919; it is the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name and had 35,488 employees as of 2015[update].[7] KLM
KLM
operates scheduled passenger and cargo services to 145 destinations.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early years

1.1.1 Second World War 1.1.2 Post-World War II

1.2 Jet age 1.3 1980s and 1990s 1.4 Joint venture 1.5 Air France–KLM
Air France–KLM
merger 1.6 2010s

2 Corporate affairs and identity

2.1 Business trends 2.2 Management 2.3 Head office 2.4 Subsidiaries 2.5 Former subsidiaries 2.6 KLM
KLM
Asia 2.7 Branding

2.7.1 Livery and uniforms 2.7.2 Marketing slogans

2.8 Social media 2.9 Philanthropy

3 Destinations

3.1 Codeshare agreements

4 Fleet

4.1 Current fleet 4.2 Former fleet

5 Cabin

5.1 World Business Class 5.2 Europe Business Class 5.3 Economy Comfort 5.4 Economy Class

6 Services

6.1 In-flight entertainment 6.2 Catering 6.3 Delft Blue houses 6.4 Ground services 6.5 Bus services and train codeshares 6.6 Flying Blue

7 Incidents and accidents

7.1 Tenerife airport disaster 7.2 Other fatal accidents

7.2.1 1920s–1930s 7.2.2 1940s 7.2.3 1950s–1970s

7.3 Notable incidents without fatalities

8 Notable KLM
KLM
employees 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Early years[edit]

A KLM
KLM
poster featuring the airline's first commercial slogan. It is likely dated around the late 1920s, after it started service to Jakarta[8]

In 1919, a young aviator lieutenant named Albert Plesman
Albert Plesman
sponsored the ELTA aviation exhibition in Amsterdam. The exhibition was a great success; after it closed several Dutch commercial interests intended to establish a Dutch airline, which Plesman was nominated to head.[9] In September 1919, Queen Wilhelmina awarded the yet-to-be-founded KLM its "Royal" ("Koninklijke") predicate.[10] On 7 October 1919, eight Dutch businessmen, including Frits Fentener van Vlissingen, founded KLM—the abbreviation of Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij (Royal Airlines Company) as one of the first commercial airline companies. Plesman became its first administrator and director.[9] The first KLM
KLM
flight took place on 17 May 1920. KLM's first pilot, Jerry Shaw, flew from Croydon Airport, London, to Amsterdam.[10] The flight was flown using a leased Aircraft Transport and Travel
Aircraft Transport and Travel
De Haviland DH-16,[10] registration G-EALU, which was carrying two British journalists and some newspapers. In 1920, KLM
KLM
carried 440 passengers and 22 tons of freight. In April 1921, after a winter hiatus, KLM
KLM
resumed its services using its own pilots, and Fokker
Fokker
F.II and Fokker F.III
Fokker F.III
aircraft.[10] In 1921, KLM
KLM
started scheduled services.

KLM
KLM
Fokker
Fokker
F-XVIII departing from the Dutch East Indies, 1932.

KLM's first intercontinental flight took off on 1 October 1924.[10] The final destination was Jakarta (then called 'Batavia'), Java, in the Dutch East Indies; the flight used a Fokker
Fokker
F.VII[10] with registration H-NACC and was piloted by Van der Hoop.[11] In September 1929, regular scheduled services between Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Batavia commenced. Until the outbreak of the Second World War
Second World War
in 1939, this was the world's longest-distance scheduled service by airplane.[10] By 1926, it was offering flights to Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Brussels, Paris, London, Bremen, Copenhagen, and Malmö, using primarily Fokker F.II and Fokker F.III
Fokker F.III
aircraft.[12]

KLM's Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
aircraft Uiver in transit at Rambang airfield on the east coast of Lombok island following the aircraft being placed second in the MacRobertson Air Race
MacRobertson Air Race
from RAF Mildenhall, England, to Melbourne in 1934.

In 1930, KLM
KLM
carried 15,143 passengers. The Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
was introduced on the Batavia service in 1934. The first experimental transatlantic KLM
KLM
flight was between Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and Curaçao
Curaçao
in December 1934 using the Fokker F.XVIII
Fokker F.XVIII
"Snip".[10] The first of the airline's Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
aircraft were delivered in 1936; these replaced the DC-2s on the service via Batavia to Sydney. KLM
KLM
was the first airline to serve Manchester's new Ringway airport, starting June 1938. KLM
KLM
was the only civilian airline to receive the Douglas DC-5; the airline used two of them in the West Indies and sold two to the East Indies government, and is thus the only airline to have operated all Douglas 'DC' models other than the DC-1. Revenue
Revenue
Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only, in millions

Year Traffic

1947 454

1950 766

1955 1,485

1960 2,660

1965 3,342

1971 6,330

1975 10,077

1980 14,058

1985 18,039

1995 44,458

Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1947–55, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960–1995

Second World War[edit]

KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
at Manchester Airport
Manchester Airport
in 1947

When Germany invaded the Netherlands
Netherlands
on 10 May 1940, a number of KLM aircraft—mostly DC-3s and a few DC-2s—were en route to or from the Far East, or were operating services in Europe. Five DC-3s and one DC-2 were taken to England. During the war, these aircraft and crew members flew scheduled passenger flights between Bristol and Lisbon under BOAC registration.[citation needed] The Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PH-ALI "Ibis", then registered as G-AGBB, was attacked by the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
on 15 November 1942, 19 April 1943, and finally on 1 June 1943 as BOAC Flight 777, killing all passengers and crew. Some KLM
KLM
aircraft and their crews ended up in the Australia- Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
region, where they helped transport refugees from Japanese aggression in that area.[citation needed] Post-World War II[edit] After the end of the Second World War
Second World War
in August 1945, KLM
KLM
immediately started to rebuild its network. Since the Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
were in a state of revolt, Plesman's first priority was to re-establish KLM's route to Batavia. This service was reinstated by the end of 1945.[9] Domestic and European flights resumed in September 1945, initially with a fleet of Douglas DC-3s and Douglas DC-4s.[10] On 21 May 1946, KLM
KLM
was the first continental European airline to start scheduled transatlantic flights between Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and New York City
New York City
using Douglas DC-4
Douglas DC-4
aircraft.[10] By 1948, KLM
KLM
had reconstructed its network and services to Africa, North and South America, and the Caribbean resumed.[9]

Lockheed L-749A Constellation of KLM
KLM
in 1953.

Long-range, pressurized Lockheed Constellations[13] and Douglas DC-6s[14] joined KLM's fleet in the late 1940s; the Convair 240
Convair 240
short range pressurized twin engined airliner began European flights for the company in late 1948.[citation needed] During the immediate post-war period, the Dutch government expressed interest in gaining a majority stake in KLM, thus nationalizing it. Plesman wanted KLM
KLM
to remain a private company under private control; he allowed the Dutch government to acquire a minority stake in the airline.[9] In 1950, KLM
KLM
carried 356,069 passengers. The expansion of the network continued in the 1950s with the addition of several destinations in western North America.[9] KLM's fleet expanded with the addition of new versions of the Lockheed Constellation
Lockheed Constellation
and Lockheed Electra, of which KLM
KLM
was the first European airline to fly.[9]

KLM
KLM
Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
803

On 31 December 1953, the founder and president of KLM, Albert Plesman, died at the age of 64.[1][2] He was succeeded as president by Fons Aler.[15] After Plesman's death, the company and other airlines entered a difficult economic period. The conversion to jet aircraft placed a further financial burden on KLM. The Netherlands
Netherlands
government increased its ownership of the company to two-thirds, thus nationalizing it. The board of directors remained under the control of private shareholders.[9] On 25 July 1957, the airline introduced its flight simulator for the Douglas DC-7C
Douglas DC-7C
– the last KLM
KLM
aircraft with piston engines – which opened the transpolar route from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
via Anchorage
Anchorage
to Tokyo
Tokyo
on 1 November 1958.[10] Each crew flying the transpolar route over the Arctic was equipped with a winter survival kit, including a 7.62 mm selective-fire AR-10
AR-10
carbine for use against polar bears, in the event the plane was forced down onto the polar ice.[16] Jet age[edit] The four-engine turboprop Vickers Viscount
Vickers Viscount
800 was introduced on European routes in 1957.[17] Beginning in September 1959, KLM introduced the four-engine turboprop Lockheed L-188 Electra
Lockheed L-188 Electra
onto some of its European and Middle Eastern routes. In March 1960, the airline introduced the first Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
jet into its fleet.[10] In 1961, KLM reported its first year of losses.[9] In 1961, the airline's president Fons Aler was succeeded by Ernst van der Beugel. This change of leadership, however, did not lead to a reversion of KLM's financial difficulties.[9] Van der Beugel resigned as president in 1963 due to health reasons.[18] Horatius Albarda was appointed to succeed Ernst van der Beugel as president of KLM
KLM
in 1963.[19] Alberda initiated a reorganization of the company, which led to the reduction of staff and air services.[9] In 1965, Alberda died in an air crash and was succeeded as president by Dr. Gerrit van der Wal.[20][21] Van der Wal forged an agreement with the Dutch government that KLM
KLM
would be once again run as a private company. By 1966, the stake of the Dutch government in KLM
KLM
was reduced to a minority stake of 49.5%.[9] In 1966, KLM
KLM
introduced the Douglas DC-9
Douglas DC-9
on European and Middle East routes.

KLM
KLM
Lockheed Electra turboprop airliner in 1965

The new terminal buildings at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
opened in April 1967, and in 1968 the stretched Douglas DC-8-63
Douglas DC-8-63
("Super DC-8") entered service.[10] With 244 seats, it was the largest airliner at the time. KLM
KLM
was the first airline to put the higher-gross-weight Boeing
Boeing
747-200B, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines, into service in February 1971;[22] this began the airline's use of widebody jets.[10] In March 1971, KLM
KLM
opened its current headquarters in Amstelveen.[10] In 1972, it purchased the first of several McDonnell Douglas DC-10 aircraft—McDonnell Douglas's response to Boeing's 747.[9] In 1973, Sergio Orlandini was appointed to succeed Gerrit van der Wal as president of KLM.[9][23] At the time, KLM, as well as other airlines, had to deal with overcapacity. Orlandini proposed to convert KLM
KLM
747s to "combis" that could carry a combination of passengers and freight in a mixed configuration on the main deck of the aircraft.[9] In November 1975, the first of these Boeing
Boeing
747-200B Combi aircraft were added to the KLM
KLM
fleet.[10] The airline previously operated DC-8 passenger and freight combi aircraft as well and currently operates Boeing
Boeing
747-400 combi aircraft. The oil crisis of 1973, which caused difficult economic conditions, led KLM
KLM
to seek government assistance in arranging debt refinancing. The airline issued additional shares of stock to the government in return for its money. In the late 1970s, the government's stake had again increased to a majority of 78%, re-nationalizing it.[9] The company management remained under the control of private stakeholders.[10] 1980s and 1990s[edit]

A KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-8-63
Douglas DC-8-63
at London Heathrow Airport
London Heathrow Airport
in 1982. The DC-8 was the mainstay of KLM's narrowbody jet fleet.

A McDonnell Douglas DC-10
McDonnell Douglas DC-10
operated by Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
(tail number N237NW) in a hybrid Northwest- KLM
KLM
livery (1999). This photo shows the starboard (above) and port side of the aircraft (below)

In 1980, KLM
KLM
carried 9,715,069 passengers. In 1983, it reached an agreement with Boeing
Boeing
to convert ten of its Boeing
Boeing
747-200 combo aircraft to stretched-upper-deck configuration. The work started in 1984 at the Boeing
Boeing
factory in Everett, Washington, and finished in 1986. The converted aircraft were called Boeing
Boeing
747-200SUD or 747-300, which the airline operated in addition to three newly build Boeing 747-300s. In 1983, KLM
KLM
took delivery of the first of ten Airbus A310 passenger jets.[9] Sergio Orlandini retired in 1987 and was succeeded as president of KLM
KLM
by Jan de Soet.[24] In 1986, the Dutch government's shareholding in KLM
KLM
was reduced to 54.8 percent.[9] It was expected that this share would be further reduced during the decade.[9] The Boeing
Boeing
747-400 was introduced into KLM's fleet in June 1989.[10] With the liberalization of the European market, KLM
KLM
started developing its hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
by feeding its network with traffic from affiliated airlines.[9] As part of its development of a worldwide network, KLM
KLM
acquired a 20% stake in Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
in July 1989.[10] In 1990, KLM
KLM
carried 16,000,000 passengers. KLM president Jan de Soet retired at the end of 1990 and was succeeded in 1991 by Pieter Bouw.[25] In December 1991, KLM
KLM
was the first European airline to introduce a frequent flyer loyalty program, which was called Flying Dutchman.[10] Joint venture[edit] In January 1993, the United States Department of Transportation granted KLM
KLM
and Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
anti-trust immunity, which allowed them to intensify their partnership.[10] As of September 1993, the airlines operated their flights between the United States and Europe as part of a joint venture.[10] In March 1994, KLM
KLM
and Northwest Airlines introduced World Business Class on intercontinental routes.[10] KLM's stake in Northwest Airlines
Northwest Airlines
was increased to 25% in 1994.[9] KLM
KLM
introduced the Boeing
Boeing
767-300ER in July 1995.[10] In January 1996, KLM
KLM
acquired a 26% share in Kenya Airways, the flag-carrier airline of Kenya.[10] In 1997, Pieter Bouw resigned as president of KLM
KLM
and was succeeded by Leo van Wijk.[26] In August 1998, KLM
KLM
repurchased all regular shares from the Dutch government to make KLM
KLM
a private company.[10] On 1 November 1999, KLM
KLM
founded AirCares, a communication and fundraising platform supporting worthy causes and focusing on underprivileged children.[10] KLM
KLM
renewed its intercontinental fleets by replacing the Boeing
Boeing
767s, Boeing
Boeing
747-300s, and eventually the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, with Boeing
Boeing
777-200ERs and Airbus A330-200s. Some 747s were withdrawn from service first. The MD-11s remained in service until October 2014.[27][28] The first Boeing
Boeing
777 was received on 25 October 2003, while the first Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-200
was introduced on 25 August 2005.[10] Air France–KLM
Air France–KLM
merger[edit] On 30 September 2003, Air France
Air France
and KLM
KLM
agreed to a merger plan in which Air France
Air France
and KLM
KLM
would become subsidiaries of a holding company called Air France–KLM. Both airlines would retain their own brands, and both Charles de Gaulle Airport
Charles de Gaulle Airport
in Paris and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol
Schiphol
would become key hubs.[29] In February 2004, the European Commission
European Commission
and United States Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
approved the proposed merger of the airlines.[30][31] In April 2004, an exchange offer in which KLM
KLM
shareholders exchanged their KLM
KLM
shares for Air France
Air France
shares took place.[32] Since 5 May 2004, Air France– KLM
KLM
has been listed on the Euronext
Euronext
exchanges in Paris, Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and New York.[33] In September 2004, the merger was completed by creation of the Air France–KLM
Air France–KLM
holding company.[33] The merger resulted in the world's largest airline group and should have led to an estimated annual cost-saving of between €400 million and €500 million.[34] It did not appear that KLM's longstanding joint venture with Northwest Airlines—which merged with Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
in 2008—was affected by the merger with Air France. KLM
KLM
and Northwest joined the SkyTeam alliance in September 2004. Also in 2004, senior management came under fire for providing itself with controversial bonuses after the merger with Air France, while 4,500 jobs were lost at KLM. After external pressure, management gave up on these bonuses.[35] In March 2007, KLM
KLM
started to use the Amadeus reservation system, along with partner Kenya Airways. After 10 years as president of the airline, Leo van Wijk resigned from his position and was succeeded by Peter Hartman.[36] 2010s[edit]

Boeing
Boeing
787-9 of KLM

Beginning in September 2010, KLM
KLM
integrated the passenger division of Martinair
Martinair
into KLM, transferring all personnel and routes. By November 2011, Martinair
Martinair
consisted of only the cargo and maintenance division.[37] In March 2011, KLM
KLM
and InselAir
InselAir
reached an agreement for mutual cooperation on InselAir
InselAir
destinations, thus expanding its passenger services. Beginning 27 March 2011, KLM
KLM
passengers could fly to all InselAir
InselAir
destinations through InselAir's hubs in Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten.[38][39] This cooperation was extended to a codeshare agreement in 2012.[40] On 20 February 2013, KLM
KLM
announced that Peter Hartman would resign as president and CEO of KLM
KLM
on 1 July 2013. He was succeeded by Camiel Eurlings. Hartman remained employed by the company until he retired on 1 January 2014.[41] On 15 October 2014, KLM
KLM
announced that Eurlings, in joint consultation with the supervisory board, had decided to immediately resign as president and CEO. As of this date, he was succeeded by Pieter Elbers.[3] KLM
KLM
received the award for "Best Airline Staff Service" in Europe at the World Airline Awards 2013. This award represents the rating for an airline's performance across both airport staff and cabin staff combined.[42] It is the second consecutive year that KLM
KLM
won this award; in 2012 it was awarded with this title as well.[43] On 19 June 2012, KLM
KLM
made the first transatlantic flight fueled partly by sustainable biofuels to Rio de Janeiro. This was the longest distance any aircraft had flown on biofuels.[44] Corporate affairs and identity[edit] Business trends[edit] Key business and operating results of KLM
KLM
are shown below.

2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017

Revenues (€ m) 8,904 9,473 9,688 9,643 9,905 9,800

Net Profit (€ m) 1 -98 133 341 54 519

Number of Passengers (m) 25.3 25.8 26.6 27.7 28.6 30.4 32.7

Passenger Load Factor (%) 84.3 85.7 85.8 86.5 86.4 87.2 88.4

Revenue
Revenue
Passenger Kilometres (m) 84.2 86.3 89.0 91.5 93.2 97.7 103.5

Number of Aircraft (at Year's End) incl. Cargo 204 203 206 202 199 203

Number of Employees 37,169 35,787 35,662 35,685 35,488 34,363

References [45][46] [47][45] [48][47] [49][48] [50][49] [50] [51]

Management[edit] As of October 2015[update], KLM's corporate leader is its president and chief executive officer (CEO) Pieter Elbers, who replaced Camiel Eurlings suddenly on 15 October 2014. The president and CEO is part of the larger Executive Committee, which manages KLM
KLM
and consists of the statutory managing directors and executive vice-presidents of KLM's business units that are represented in the Executive Committee.[52] The supervision and management of KLM
KLM
are structured in accordance with the two-tier model; the Board of Managing Directors is supervised by a separate and independent Supervisory Board. The Supervisory Board also supervises the general performance of KLM.[53] The Board of Managing Directors is formed by the four Managing Directors, including the CEO. Nine Supervisory Directors comprise the Supervisory Board.[52] Head office[edit]

KLM
KLM
company head office in Amstelveen

KLM's head office is located in Amstelveen,[54] on a 6.5-hectare (16-acre) site near Schiphol
Schiphol
Airport. The airline's current headquarters was built between 1968 and 1970.[55] Before the opening of the new headquarters, the airline's head office was on the property of Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
in Haarlemmermeer.[56] Subsidiaries[edit] Companies with a majority KLM
KLM
stake include:[57]

Company Type Principal activities Incorporated in Group's equity shareholding

Cobalt Ground Solutions Subsidiary Ground handling United Kingdom 60%

Cygnific Subsidiary Sales and service Netherlands 100%

EPCOR Subsidiary Maintenance Netherlands 100%

KLM
KLM
Asia Subsidiary Airline Taiwan 100%

KLM
KLM
Catering Services Subsidiary Catering services Netherlands 100%

KLM
KLM
Cityhopper Subsidiary Airline Netherlands 100%

KLM Cityhopper
KLM Cityhopper
UK Subsidiary Airline United Kingdom 100%

KLM
KLM
Equipment Services Subsidiary Equipment support Netherlands 100%

KLM
KLM
Financial Services Subsidiary Financing Netherlands 100%

KLM
KLM
Flight Academy Subsidiary Flight academy Netherlands 100%

KLM
KLM
Health Services Subsidiary Health services Netherlands 100%

KLM
KLM
UK Engineering Subsidiary Engineering and maintenance United Kingdom 100%

Martinair Subsidiary Cargo airline Netherlands 100%

Schiphol
Schiphol
Logistics Park Joint controlled entity Logistics Netherlands 53% (45% voting right)

Transavia Subsidiary Airline Netherlands 100%

Former subsidiaries[edit] Subsidiaries, associates, and joint ventures of KLM
KLM
in the past include:

Company Type Year of establishment Year of rejection Notes References

Air UK Associate 1987 1998 Renamed KLM uk
KLM uk
upon obtaining majority stake [58]

Braathens Joint Venture 1998 2003 — [59][60]

Buzz Subsidiary 2000 2003 Sold to Ryanair [61][62][63]

De Kroonduif Subsidiary 1955 1963 Acquired by Garuda Indonesia [64]

KLM
KLM
alps Subsidiary 1998 2001 Franchise agreement with Air Engiadina and Air Alps [65][66]

KLM
KLM
exel Subsidiary 1991 2004 — [67]

KLM
KLM
Helicopters Subsidiary 1965 1998 Sold to Schreiner Airways [68][69][70]

KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf
KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf
(KLM-IIB) Subsidiary 1947 1949 Nationalized and renamed Garuda Indonesia [71]

KLM
KLM
uk Subsidiary 1998 2002 Merged with KLM
KLM
Cityhopper [58][72]

NetherLines Subsidiary 1988 1991 Merged with NLM CityHopper
NLM CityHopper
and formed KLM
KLM
Cityhopper [73][74]

NLM CityHopper Subsidiary 1966 1991 Merged with NetherLines
NetherLines
and formed KLM
KLM
Cityhopper [74][75]

High Speed Alliance Subsidiary 2007 2014 5% (10% voting) share before it became NS International [76]

KLM
KLM
also worked closely with ALM Antillean Airlines
ALM Antillean Airlines
in the Caribbean in order to provide air service for the Dutch controlled islands in the region with KLM
KLM
aircraft such as the Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
and McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 being operated by KLM
KLM
flight crews on behalf of ALM.[77] KLM
KLM
Asia[edit]

PH-BFC, one of the Boeing
Boeing
747-400s that served KLM
KLM
Asia. This aircraft was still in service with KLM, painted in the KLM
KLM
livery, until March 2018 when it was retired from service. The same aircraft is also notorious for the Flight 867 incident.

KLM Asia
KLM Asia
(Chinese: 荷蘭亞洲航空公司; pinyin: Hélán Yàzhōu Hángkōng Gōngsī) is a wholly KLM-owned subsidiary registered in Taiwan. The airline was established in 1995 to operate flights to Taipei without compromising the traffic rights held by KLM
KLM
for destinations in the People's Republic of China.[78] The livery of KLM Asia
KLM Asia
does not feature Dutch national symbols, such as the flag of the Netherlands, nor KLM's stylised Dutch Crown logo. Instead, it features a special KLM Asia
KLM Asia
logo. The airline has seven Boeing
Boeing
777-200ER and two Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER. KLM Asia
KLM Asia
initially operated the Amsterdam-Bangkok-Taipei route with a B747-400 Combi or a B747-400 non-combi aircraft. Since March 2012, it has operated the revised Amsterdam-Taipei- Manila
Manila
route with Boeing
Boeing
777-200ER/-300ER aircraft. Some aircraft are already painted in the revised KLM Asia
KLM Asia
livery of 2014.[79] Branding[edit] Dirk Roosenburg designed the KLM
KLM
logo at its establishment in 1919; he intertwined the letter K, L, and M, and gave them wings and a crown. The crown was depicted to denote KLM's royal status, which was granted at KLM's establishment.[80] The logo became known as the "vinklogo" in reference to the common chaffinch.[81] The KLM
KLM
logo was largely redesigned in 1961 by F.H.K. Henrion. The crown, formed by a line, four blue circles and a cross, was retained. In 1991, the logo was further revised by Chris Ludlow of Henrion, Ludlow & Schmidt.[82] In addition to its main logo, KLM
KLM
displays its alliance status in its branding, including "Worldwide Reliability" with Northwest Airlines (1993–2002) and the SkyTeam
SkyTeam
alliance (2004–present).[83]

Livery and uniforms[edit]

Current KLM
KLM
pilot's wing

A Douglas DC-6
Douglas DC-6
seen in 1953

A Lockheed L-188 Electra
Lockheed L-188 Electra
in the airline's 1950s livery

KLM
KLM
has utilized several major liveries since its founding, with numerous variations on each. Initially many aircraft featured a bare-metal fuselage with a stripe above the windows bearing the phrase "The Flying Dutchman". The rudder was divided into three segments and painted to match the Dutch flag. Later aircraft types sometimes bore a white upper fuselage, and additional detail striping and titling. In the mid-1950s, the livery was changed to feature a split cheatline in two shades of blue on a white upper fuselage, and angled blue stripes on the vertical stabilizer. The tail stripes were later enlarged and made horizontal, and the then-new crown logo was placed in a white circle. The final major variation of this livery saw the vertical stabilizer painted completely white with the crown logo in the center. All versions of this livery had small " KLM
KLM
Royal Dutch Airlines" titles, first in red, and later in blue. Since 1971, the KLM
KLM
livery has primarily featured a bright blue fuselage, with variations on the striping and details. Originally a wide, dark blue cheatline covered the windows, and was separated from the light gray lower fuselage by a thin white stripe. The KLM
KLM
logo was placed centrally on the white tail and on the front of the fuselage. In December 2002, KLM
KLM
introduced an updated livery in which the white strip was removed and the dark-blue cheatline was significantly narrowed. The bright blue color was retained and now covers most of the fuselage. The KLM
KLM
logo was placed more centrally on the fuselage while its position on the tail and the tail design remained the same.[84] In 2014, KLM
KLM
modified its livery with a swooping cheatline that wraps around the entire forward fuselage. The livery was first introduced on Embraer 190
Embraer 190
aircraft.[85] In 2018 KLM
KLM
will introduce a new livery owing to the unpopular reception to the revised scheme introduced in 2014.[86] KLM
KLM
also has several aircraft painted in special liveries; they include the following:

PH-BVA, a Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER, features an orange forward fuselage that fades into the standard blue to commemorate the Netherlands
Netherlands
national team's participation in the 2016 Summer Olympics
2016 Summer Olympics
in Rio de Janeiro.[87] PH-KZU, a Fokker
Fokker
F70, has been applied with a special livery featuring Anthony Fokker, the founder of Fokker, commemorating the airline's long standing history with Fokker
Fokker
aircraft and the phase out of the Fokker
Fokker
70 aircraft in October 2017.[88] Several aircraft bear the silver SkyTeam
SkyTeam
alliance livery, including PH-BVD (a 777-300ER), PH-BXO (a 737-900), and PH-EZX (a KLM
KLM
Cityhopper ERJ-190).

In April 2010, KLM
KLM
introduced new uniforms for its female cabin attendants, ground attendants and pilots at KLM
KLM
and KLM
KLM
Cityhopper. The new uniform was designed by Dutch couturier Mart Visser. It retains the KLM
KLM
blue color that was introduced in 1971 and adds a touch of orange—the national color of the Netherlands.[89] Marketing slogans[edit] KLM
KLM
has used several slogans for marketing throughout its operational history:

"The businessman travels, sends, and receives by KLM" (translated from Dutch)[90][91] (1920s) "The Flying Dutchman"[90][92] "Bridging the World"[90] (1994) "The Reliable Airline"[93] "KLM, A Journey of Inspiration"[93][94] (2009–present)

Social media[edit] KLM
KLM
has an extensive presence on social media platforms Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram, LinkedIn, Google+, and YouTube, and also runs a blog.[95] Customers can make inquiries through these channels. The airline also uses these networks to inform customers of KLM
KLM
news, marketing campaigns and promotions.[96][97] The airline's use of social media platforms to reach customers peaked when the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull
Eyjafjallajökull
erupted in April 2010, causing widespread disruption to air traffic. Customers used the social networks to contact the airline, which used them to provide information about the situation.[98] Following the increased use of social media, KLM
KLM
created a centralized, public social media website named the Social Media Hub in October 2010.[99] KLM
KLM
has developed several services based on these social platforms, including:

Meet & Seat; this service allows passengers to find information about people who will be on the same KLM
KLM
flight by connecting their Facebook
Facebook
or LinkedIn
LinkedIn
profiles to the flight. Meet & Seat facilitates contact with fellow travelers who have the same background or interests.[100] By launching Meet & Seat, KLM
KLM
became the first airline to integrate social networking into its regular flight process.[101] Trip Planner; this platform uses Facebook
Facebook
to organize a trip with Facebook
Facebook
friends.[102] Twitterbots; KLM
KLM
operates several Twitterbots, including one to request the current status of a flight and one to request the lowest KLM
KLM
fares to a destination on a specified date or month.[103]

In June 2013, KLM
KLM
launched its own 3D strategy game "Aviation Empire" for iOS and Android platforms. The game allows users to experience airline management. Players manage KLM
KLM
from its establishment until the present; they can by investing in a fleet, build a network with international destinations and develop airports. The game combines the digital world with the real world by enabling the unlocking of airports by GPS
GPS
check-ins.[104] Philanthropy[edit] KLM
KLM
started KLM
KLM
AirCares, a program that aids underprivileged children in developing countries to which KLM
KLM
flies, in 1999.[105] The airline collects money and airmiles from passengers. In 2012, new applications for support from the program were suspended because it needed an overhaul.[106] Destinations[edit] Main article: KLM
KLM
destinations

A KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER at Kuala Lumpur International Airport

KLM
KLM
and its partners serve 133 destinations in 70 countries on five continents from their hub at Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Schiphol
Schiphol
Airport.[107][108] Codeshare agreements[edit] KLM
KLM
codeshares with the following airlines:[109]

Adria Airways Aer Lingus Aeroflot Aerolíneas Argentinas Aeroméxico Air Astana[110] Air Europa Air France Air Malta Air Mauritius Air Serbia airBaltic Alaska Airlines
Alaska Airlines
(ends April 30, 2018)[111] Alitalia Bangkok
Bangkok
Airways Belavia Bulgaria Air China Airlines China Eastern Airlines China Southern Airlines CityJet Copa Airlines Croatia Airlines Czech Airlines Delta Air Lines Etihad Airways Garuda Indonesia Georgian Airways Gol Transportes Aéreos Insel Air Jet Airways Kenya Airways Korean Air Malaysia Airlines Oman Air Pegasus Airlines Saudia Sichuan Airlines TAAG Angola
TAAG Angola
Airlines TAROM Transavia Ukraine International Airlines Vietnam Airlines WestJet XiamenAir

Fleet[edit] Current fleet[edit]

KLM
KLM
Airbus A330-200

KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
737-800 wearing the new 2014 livery

KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
747-400

KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
777-306(ER) PH-BVR 'Gunung Mulu National Park' lined up on Rwy 16R at Paine Field.

KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER wearing the SkyTeam
SkyTeam
livery

KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER wearing the special Orange Dutch Pride livery

KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
787-9 Dreamliner

KLM
KLM
Cargo Boeing
Boeing
747-400ERF

As of January 2018[update], the KLM
KLM
fleet (excluding its subsidiaries KLM
KLM
Cityhopper, Transavia
Transavia
and Martinair) consists of the following aircraft:[112][113][114]

KLM
KLM
Fleet

Aircraft In Service Orders Passengers[115] Notes

C Y+ Y Total

Airbus A330-200 8 — 18 36 214 268

Airbus A330-300 5 — 30 40 222 292

Airbus A350-900 — 7 TBA Delivery will start from 2021 to 2023.

Boeing
Boeing
737-700 18 — 20 6 106 132

Boeing
Boeing
737-800 27 — 20 6 150 176

Boeing
Boeing
737-900 5 — 28 18 132 178 PH-BXO in SkyTeam
SkyTeam
livery.

Boeing
Boeing
747-400 4 — 35 36 337 408 To be phased out in 2021.

Boeing
Boeing
747-400M 9 — 35 36 197 268

Boeing
Boeing
777-200ER 15 — 34 40 242 316

Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER 14 — 34 40 334 408 PH-BVA in OrangePride livery. PH-BVD in SkyTeam
SkyTeam
livery.

Boeing
Boeing
787-9 12 1 30 48 216 294

Boeing
Boeing
787-10 — 8 38 36 264 338 Delivery will starts from 2019 to 2023.

KLM
KLM
Cargo Fleet

Boeing
Boeing
747-400ERF 3 — Cargo

Total 119 17

Former fleet[edit] Over the years, KLM
KLM
has operated the following aircraft types:[116]

KLM
KLM
historical fleet

Aircraft Introduced Retired

Airbus A310-200 1983 1997

Boeing
Boeing
737-300 1986 2011

Boeing
Boeing
737-400 1989 2011

Boeing
Boeing
747-200 1971 2004

Boeing
Boeing
747-300 1983 2004

Boeing
Boeing
767-300ER 1995 2007

Convair 240 1948 1959

Convair 340 1953 1964

De Havilland DH.16 1920 1924

Douglas DC-2 1934 1946

Douglas DC-3 1936 1964

Douglas DC-4 1946 1958

Douglas DC-5 1940 1941

Douglas DC-6 1948 1963

Douglas DC-7 1953 1966

Douglas DC-8
Douglas DC-8
Family[117] 1960 1985

Douglas DC-9-10
Douglas DC-9-10
/ McDonnell Douglas DC-9-30 1966 1989

Douglas Skymaster C-54 1945 1959

Fokker
Fokker
F.XXXVI 1935 1939

Fokker
Fokker
F.XXII 1935 1939

Fokker
Fokker
F.XX 1933 1936

Fokker
Fokker
F.XVIII 1932 1946

Fokker
Fokker
F.XII 1931 1936

Fokker
Fokker
F.IX 1930 1936

Fokker
Fokker
F.VIII 1927 1940

Fokker
Fokker
F.VII 1925 1936

Fokker
Fokker
F.III 1921 1930

Fokker
Fokker
F.II 1920 1924

Lockheed L-188 Electra 1959 1969

Lockheed Super Constellation
Lockheed Super Constellation
L-1049 1953 1966

Lockheed Super Electra-14 1938 1948

McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 1972 1995

McDonnell Douglas MD-11 1993 2014

Vickers Viscount 1957 1966

Cabin[edit]

Old KLM
KLM
World Business Class

Old Economy Class on board a KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
777-200ER

Economy Class on board a KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER

KLM
KLM
has three cabin classes for international long-haul routes; World Business Class, Economy Comfort and Economy. Personal screens with audio-video on demand, satellite telephone, SMS, and e-mail services are available in all cabins on all long-haul aircraft . European short-haul and medium-haul flights have Economy seats in the rear cabin, and Economy Comfort and Europe Business in the forward cabin.[citation needed] World Business Class[edit] World Business Class is KLM's long-haul business class product. Seats in the older World Business Class are 20 inches (51 cm) wide and have a 60-inch (150 cm) pitch.[118] Seats can be reclined into a 170-degree angled flat bed with a length of 75 inches (190 cm). Seats are equipped with a 10.4-inch (26 cm) personal entertainment system with audio and video on demand in the armrest, privacy canopy, massage function and laptop power ports.[119] World Business Class seating is in a 2–2–2 abreast arrangement on all Airbus A330s. In March 2013, KLM
KLM
introduced a new World Business Class seat to the long-haul fleet. Dutch designer Hella Jongerius designed the new cabin. The diamond-type seat is manufactured by B/E Aerospace
B/E Aerospace
and is installed on all Boeing
Boeing
747-400s and Boeing
Boeing
777s. The new seats are fully flat and offer 17-inch (43 cm)-high definition personal entertainment systems. When fully flat, the bed is about 2 metres (6.6 ft) long. The cabin features a cradle-to-cradle carpet made from old uniforms woven in an intricate pattern, which is combined with new pillows and curtains with a similar design.[120] A completely new design of Business Class seat was introduced with the launch of KLM's Boeing
Boeing
787; this aircraft's business class seats are based on the Zodiac Cirrus platform used by Air France. The new seats lie fully flat, with a 1-2-1 layout so every passenger has direct aisle access, a large side-storage area and 16-inch (41 cm) HD video screen.[121][122] Dutch design group Viktor & Rolf has designed and provides amenity kits to World Business Class passengers. A new design will be introduced each year and the color of the kits will change every six months. The kit contains socks, eye mask, toothbrush, toothpaste, earplugs and Viktor & Rolf lip balm.[123][124][125][126] Europe Business Class[edit] Europe Business Class is KLM's and KLM
KLM
Cityhopper's, short-haul business-class product. Europe Business Class seats are 17-inch (43 cm) wide and have an average pitch of 33 inches (84 cm).[118] Middle seats in rows of three are blocked to increase passengers' personal space. Europe Business Class seats feature extra legroom and recline further than regular Economy Class seats. In-seat power is available on all Boeing
Boeing
737 aircraft.[127] Europe Business Class has no personal entertainment. Seating is arranged 3–3 abreast with the middle seat blocked on the Boeing
Boeing
737 aircraft, and a 2–2 abreast arrangement on the Embraer 190 aircraft.[128] Economy Comfort[edit] Economy Comfort is the premium economy product offered on all KLM
KLM
and KLM Cityhopper
KLM Cityhopper
flights. Economy Comfort seats on long-haul flights have 4 inches (10 cm) more pitch than Economy Class, a 35–36-inch (89–91 cm) pitch and recline up to 7 inches (18 cm); double the recline of Economy.[129] Economy Comfort seats on short-haul flights have 3.5 inches (8.9 cm) more pitch, totaling 33.5–34.5-inch (85–88 cm), and can recline up to 5 inches (13 cm) (40%) further.[130] Except for the increased pitch and recline, seating and service in Economy Comfort is the same as in Economy Class. Economy Comfort is located in a separate cabin before the Economy Class; passengers can exit the aircraft before Economy passengers.[131] Economy Comfort seats can be reserved by Economy Class passengers. The service is free for passengers with a full-fare ticket, for Flying Blue Platinum members and for Delta Air Lines
Delta Air Lines
SkyMiles
SkyMiles
Platinum or Diamond members. Discounts apply for Flying Blue
Flying Blue
Silver or Gold members, SkyTeam
SkyTeam
Elite Plus members and Delta SkyMiles
SkyMiles
members.[131] Economy Class[edit] The Economy Class seats on long-haul flights have a 31-to-32-inch (79–81 cm) pitch and are 17.5 inches (44 cm) wide.[118][129] All seats are equipped with adjustable winged headrests, a 9-inch (23 cm) PTV with AVOD, and a personal handset satellite telephone that can be used with a credit card. Economy Class seats in Airbus A330-300
Airbus A330-300
aircraft are also equipped with in-seat power.[118] The Economy Class seats on short-haul flights have a 30-to-31-inch (76–79 cm) pitch and are 17 inches (43 cm) wide.[118][129] The Economy Class seats on short-haul flights do not feature any personal entertainment. The long-haul Economy Class seating is in a 3–4–3 abreast arrangement on the Boeing
Boeing
747-400, Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER aircraft and on Boeing
Boeing
777-200ER aircraft, a 3-3-3 abreast arrangement on the Boeing
Boeing
787-9 aircraft, and a 2–4–2 abreast arrangement on the Airbus A330
Airbus A330
aircraft. The short-haul Economy Class seating is in a 3–3 abreast arrangement on the Boeing 737 aircraft and a 2–2 abreast arrangement on the Embraer 175 and 190 aircraft.[128][132] Services[edit] In-flight entertainment[edit] KLM's in-flight entertainment system is available in all classes on all widebody aircraft; it provides all passengers with Audio/Video on Demand (AVOD). The system includes interactive entertainment including movies, television programs, music, games, and language courses. About 80 movies including recent releases, classics and world cinema are available in several languages. The selection is changed every month.[133] The in-flight entertainment system can be used to send SMS text messages and emails to the ground. Panasonic's 3000i system is installed on all Boeing
Boeing
747-400, Boeing
Boeing
777-200ER, and on most of the Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-200
aircraft.[134] All Airbus A330-300
Airbus A330-300
and Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, and some Airbus A330-200
Airbus A330-200
aircraft are fitted with the Panasonic
Panasonic
eX2 in-flight entertainment system.[135] KLM
KLM
provides a selection of international newspapers to its passengers on long-haul flights; on short-haul flights they are only offered to Europe Business Class passengers. A selection of international magazines is available for World Business Class passengers on long-haul flights.[136] All passengers are provided with KLM's in-flight magazine, the Holland Herald.[137] On board flights to China, South Korea and Japan, the airline offers in-flight magazines EuroSky (China and Japan), in either Chinese or Japanese, and Wings of Europe (South Korea) in Korean.[138] On 29 May 2013, KLM
KLM
and Air France launched a pilot scheme to test in-flight Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
internet access. Each airline equipped one Boeing
Boeing
777-300ER in its fleet with Wi-Fi, which passengers can use with their Wi-Fi-enabled devices. Wireless service was available after the aircraft reached 20,000 feet (6,100 m) in altitude.[139] Catering[edit] World Business Class passengers are served a three-course meal. Each year KLM
KLM
partners with a leading Dutch chef to develop the dishes that are served on board. Passengers in Europe Business Class are served either a cold meal, a hot main course, or a three-course meal depending on the duration of the flight.[140] All chicken served in World and Europe Business Class meets the standards of the Dutch Beter Leven Keurmerk (Better Life Quality Mark).[141] KLM
KLM
partnered with Dutch designer Marcel Wanders
Marcel Wanders
to design the tableware of World and European Business Class.[142] Economy Class passengers on long-haul flights are served a hot meal and a snack, and second hot meal or breakfast, depending on the duration of the flight. On short-haul flights, passengers are served sandwiches or a choice of sweet or savory snack, depending on the duration and time of the day. If the flight is at least two hours long, "stroopwafel" cookies are served before descent. Most alcoholic beverages are free of-charge for all passengers. After a successful trial period, KLM
KLM
introduced à la carte meals in Economy Class on 14 September 2011; Dutch, Japanese, Italian, cold delicacies, and Indonesian meals are offered.[143][144] Special
Special
meals, include children's, vegetarian, medical, and religious meals, can be requested in each class up to 24 or 36 hours before departure.[145] On flights to India, China, South Korea, and Japan, KLM
KLM
offers authentic Asian meals in all classes.[138] Meals served on KLM
KLM
flights departing from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
are provided by KLM
KLM
Catering Services.[146] In September 2016, KLM
KLM
launched world's first in-flight draft beer under the partnership with Heineken. The new service made its premiere this week aboard a flight to Curacao
Curacao
in the airline's World Business Class cabin.[147] Delft Blue houses[edit] See also: List of KLM
KLM
Delft Blue houses

Selection of KLM
KLM
Delft Blue Houses

Since the 1950s, KLM
KLM
presents its World Business Class passengers with a Delft blue, miniature, traditional, Dutch house.[148] These miniatures are reproductions of real Dutch houses and are filled with Dutch genever.[149] Initially the houses were filled with Bols liqueur, which in 1986 was changed for Bols young genever.[150] In 1952, KLM
KLM
started to give the houses to its First Class passengers. With the elimination of First Class in 1993, the houses were handed out to all Business Class passengers.[151] The impetus for these houses was a rule aimed at curtailing a previously widespread practice of offering incentives to passengers by limiting the value of gifts given by airlines to 0.75 US cents. KLM
KLM
did not bill the Delft Blue houses as a gift, but as a last drink on the house, which was served in the house.[151][152] Every year, a new house is presented on 7 October, the anniversary of KLM's founding in 1919.[149] The number on the last-presented house thus represents the number of years KLM
KLM
has been in operation. Special edition houses—the Dutch Royal Palace
Dutch Royal Palace
and the 17th century Cheese Weighing House De Waag in Gouda—are offered to special guests, such as VIPs and honeymoon couples.[151] Ground services[edit] KLM
KLM
offers various check-in methods to its passengers, who can check in for their flights at self-service check-in kiosks at the airport, via the Internet, or via a mobile telephone or tablet. At destinations where these facilities are not available, check-in is by an airline representative at the counter. Electronic boarding passes can be received on a mobile device while boarding passes can be printed at airport kiosks.[153][154] Since 4 July 2008 KLM, in cooperation with Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol, has been offering self-service baggage drop-off to its passengers. The project started with a trial that included one drop-off point.[155] The number of these points has gradually increased; as of 8 February 2012[update] there are 12 of them.[156] KLM passengers can now drop off their bags themselves. Before they are allowed to do that they are being checked by a KLM
KLM
employee. In November 2012, KLM
KLM
started a pilot scheme at Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol
Schiphol
to test self-service boarding. Passengers boarded the aircraft without interference of a gate agent by scanning their boarding passes, which opened a gate. KLM
KLM
partner airline Air France ran the same pilot at its hub at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. The pilot ran until March 2013, which was followed by an evaluation.[157] KLM
KLM
is the first airline to offer self-service transfer kiosks on its European and intercontinental routes for passengers connecting through Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol.[158] The kiosks enable connecting passengers to view flight details of connecting flights, to change seat assignments or upgrade to a more comfortable seat. When a passenger misses a connecting flight, details about alternative flights can be viewed on the kiosk and a new boarding pass can be printed. Passengers who are entitled to coupons for a beverage, meal, the use of a telephone, or a travel discount can have these printed at the kiosk.[159] Bus services and train codeshares[edit] KLM
KLM
has bus services for customers living in certain cities without flights from KLM, transporting them to airports where they may board KLM
KLM
flights. It operates buses from Nijmegen railway station
Nijmegen railway station
and Arnhem Central Station
Arnhem Central Station
in the Netherlands
Netherlands
to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Schiphol, and from Ottawa Railway Station
Ottawa Railway Station
to Montreal Dorval Airport
Montreal Dorval Airport
in Canada. In addition KLM
KLM
has codeshares with Thalys
Thalys
and SNCF
SNCF
services so passengers from various French cities may travel to Charles de Gaulle Airport and passengers from Belgium may go to Schiphol
Schiphol
(from Antwerp) or Charles de Gaulle (from Brussels).[160] Flying Blue[edit] Air France-KLM's frequent flyer program, Flying Blue, awards miles based on the distance traveled, ticket fare and class of service. Other airlines that adopted the Flying Blue
Flying Blue
programme include Air Europa, Garuda Indonesia, Kenya Airways, Aircalin, and TAROM.[161] Miles can also be earned from all other SkyTeam
SkyTeam
partners.[162] Membership in the program is free.[163] Two types of miles can be earned within the Flying Blue
Flying Blue
program; Award Miles and Level Miles. Award Miles can be exchanged for rewards and expire after 20 months without flying. Level Miles are used to determine membership level and remain valid until 31 December of each year.[164] Award Miles can be earned on Flying Blue
Flying Blue
partner airlines including Alaska Airlines, Air Corsica, Airlinair, Bangkok
Bangkok
Airways, Chalair Aviation, Comair, Copa Airlines, Gol Transportes Aéreos, Japan Airlines, Jet Airways, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, TAAG Angola, Twin Jet, and Ukraine International Airlines, as well as SkyTeam partners.[165][166] Award Miles are redeemable for free tickets, upgrades to a more expensive seating class, extra baggage allowance, and lounge access. They can also be donated to charity through KLM AirCares,[167] or can be spent in the Flying Blue
Flying Blue
Store.[168] The Flying Blue
Flying Blue
programme is divided into four tiers; Ivory, Silver ( SkyTeam
SkyTeam
Elite), Gold ( SkyTeam
SkyTeam
Elite Plus) and Platinum ( SkyTeam
SkyTeam
Elite Plus).[169] The membership tier depends on the number of Level Miles earned and is recalculated each calendar year. Flying Blue
Flying Blue
privileges are additive by membership tier; higher tiers include all benefits listed for prior tiers. There is an additional fifth tier, Platinum for Life, which can be obtained after 10 consecutive years of Platinum membership. After the Platinum for Life status is obtained, re-qualification is not required.[170] Level Miles can be earned with Air France, KLM, Air Europa, Kenya Airways, TAROM, and other SkyTeam partners.[164] Qualification levels and general benefits with SkyTeam airline partners of the Flying Blue
Flying Blue
tiers are:[170][171][172][173][174] Incidents and accidents[edit] The most notable accident involving a KLM
KLM
aircraft was the 1977 Tenerife airport disaster, which led to 583 fatalities. Tenerife airport disaster[edit] The Tenerife disaster, which occurred on 27 March 1977, remains the accident with the highest number of airliner passenger fatalities. 583 people died when a KLM
KLM
Boeing
Boeing
747-206B attempted to take off without clearance, and collided with a taxiing Pan Am 747-121 at Los Rodeos Airport on the Canary Island of Tenerife, Spain. No one on the KLM
KLM
747 survived while 61 of the 396 passengers and crew on the Pan Am aircraft survived. Pilot error from the KLM
KLM
aircraft was the primary cause. Owing to a communication misunderstanding, the KLM
KLM
captain thought he had clearance for takeoff.[175][176] Another cause was dense fog, meaning the KLM
KLM
flight crew was unable to see the Pan Am aircraft on the runway until immediately prior to the collision.[177] The accident had a lasting influence on the industry, particularly in the area of communication. An increased emphasis was placed on using standardized phraseology in air traffic control (ATC) communication by both controllers and pilots alike, thereby reducing the chance for misunderstandings. As part of these changes, the word "takeoff" was removed from general usage, and is only spoken by ATC when actually clearing an aircraft to take off.[178] Other fatal accidents[edit] 1920s–1930s[edit]

On 24 April 1923, Fokker F.III
Fokker F.III
H-NABS departed Lympne for Rotterdam and Amsterdam. The aircraft was not heard from again. It was presumed to have crashed into the sea, killing the pilot and both passengers.[179] On 25 June 1925, Fokker F.III
Fokker F.III
H-NABM struck trees and crashed at Locquignol, France while flying too low in poor visibility, killing all four on board. On 9 July 1926, Fokker F.VII
Fokker F.VII
H-NACC crashed in thick fog near Wolverthem, Belgium, killing both pilots. On 22 August 1927, Fokker
Fokker
F.VIII H-NADU crashed near Sevenoaks, England. One crewmember was killed.[180] On 14 July 1928, Fokker F.III
Fokker F.III
H-NABR crashed at Waalhaven
Waalhaven
after striking several ship masts after takeoff; one passenger drowned when the fuselage sank. On 20 December 1934, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
PH-AJU "Uiver" crashed at Rutbah Wells, Iraq, killing all occupants. The aircraft had participated in the Mac Robertson Air Race
Mac Robertson Air Race
in October 1934, and won the handicap division. It was on its first flight after return from the race and was en route to the Netherlands
Netherlands
East Indies carrying Christmas mail when it crashed.[181] On 6 April 1935, KLM
KLM
Fokker
Fokker
F.XII PH-AFL "Leeuwerik" struck a mountain 15 km (9 mi) from Brilon, Germany after it encountered severe snow and thunderstorms, killing all seven on board.[182] On 14 July 1935, KLM
KLM
Fokker
Fokker
F.XXII PH-AJQ "Kwikstaart" crashed and burned just outside Schiphol
Schiphol
after both left side engines failed due to a defect in the fuel system, killing four crew and two passengers. Fourteen occupants survived.[12] On 20 July 1935, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
PH-AKG "Gaai" crashed near the San Bernardino Pass near Pian San Giacomo, killing all three crew and all 10 passengers.[12] On 9 December 1936, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
PH-AKL "Lijster" crashed into a house after taking off from Croydon Airport, London. The accident killed 15 of the 17 people on board the aircraft. On 3 April 1937, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PH-ALP "Pluvier" was being delivered to KLM
KLM
when it struck Mount Baldy, Arizona, killing all eight on board.[183] On 28 July 1937, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-2
Douglas DC-2
PH-ALF "Flamingo" crashed in a field near Beert, Belgium. The crash was caused by an in-flight fire and killed all 15 on board.[184] On 6 October 1937, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PH-ALS "Specht" crashed on take-off from Talang Betoetoe Airport, killing three crew and one passenger; the co-pilot and seven passengers survived.[185] On 14 November 1938, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PH-ARY "IJsvogel" struck the ground and crashed near Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
for unknown reasons, killing six of 19 on board.[186] On 9 December 1938, KLM
KLM
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra
PH-APE "Ekster" crashed on take-off from Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
because of engine failure while on a training flight, killing the four crew.[187] On 10 June 1939, KLM
KLM
Koolhoven F.K.43
Koolhoven F.K.43
"Krekel" stalled and crashed at Vlissingen, killing all three on board.

1940s[edit]

On 28 December 1941, KNILM
KNILM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PK-ALN "Nandoe" (formerly KLM PH-ALN) was destroyed on the ground by Japanese fighters at Medan, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, killing all crew members and passengers. On 1 June 1943, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PH-ALI "Ibis", which had escaped the Dutch occupation and was operating under lease to BOAC, operating BOAC Flight 777, was shot down by eight German Junkers Ju 88
Junkers Ju 88
fighters over the Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
while on the scheduled Lisbon-Bristol route. All 13 passengers and four KLM
KLM
crew perished. The aircraft had survived attacks in November 1942 and April 1943. On 14 November 1946, a KLM
KLM
Douglas C-47
Douglas C-47
crashed at Schiphol
Schiphol
Airport during a failed landing in poor weather. All 21 passengers, including the Dutch writer Herman de Man, and the five crew were killed. On 26 January 1947, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
PH-TCR crashed after take-off from Copenhagen, killing all 22 on board, including Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden.[188] On 20 October 1948, KLM
KLM
Lockheed L-049 Constellation
Lockheed L-049 Constellation
PH-TEN "Nijmegen" crashed near Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 40 aboard. On 23 June 1949, KLM
KLM
Lockheed L-749 Constellation
Lockheed L-749 Constellation
PH-TER "Roermond", piloted by Hans Plesman—the son of CEO Albert Plesman—crashed into the sea off Bari, killing 33 occupants.[189] On 12 July 1949, KLM
KLM
Lockheed L-749 Constellation
Lockheed L-749 Constellation
PH-TDF "Franeker" crashed into a 674-foot (205 m) hill in Ghatkopar
Ghatkopar
near Bombay, India, killing all 45 aboard. Thirteen of those killed were American news correspondents.[190]

1950s–1970s[edit]

On 2 February 1950, KLM
KLM
Douglas C-47A PH-TEU crashed in the North Sea 40 mi (64 km) off the Dutch coast due to an apparent in-flight fire, killing all seven on board. The aircraft was operating an Amsterdam-London passenger service.[191] On 22 March 1952, Flight 592, a Douglas DC-6
Douglas DC-6
(PH-TBJ "Koningin Juliana") crashed at Frankfurt, killing 45 of the 47 occupants.[192] On 23 August 1954, Flight 608, a Douglas DC-6B (PH-DFO, "Willem Bontekoe") crashed between Shannon, Ireland, and Schiphol
Schiphol
in the North Sea, 40 kilometres (25 mi) from IJmuiden
IJmuiden
for reasons unknown. All 21 passengers and crew died. On 5 September 1954, Flight 633, a Lockheed Super Constellation, ditched in the River Shannon
River Shannon
after takeoff from Shannon Airport. Twenty eight of the 56 people on board (46 passengers and 10 crew) were killed. On 14 July 1957, Flight 844, a Lockheed Super Constellation, crashed in the sea near Biak, after takeoff from Mokmer Airport
Mokmer Airport
at Biak
Biak
on its way to Manila. The pilot made a low farewell pass over the island, but the aircraft lost altitude, crashed into the sea and exploded. Nine crew and 49 passengers died; there were 10 survivors. On 14 August 1958, Flight 607-E, a Lockheed Super Constellation
Lockheed Super Constellation
flying from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
to New York via Shannon, crashed into the ocean 180 kilometres (110 mi) off the coast of County Galway, Ireland, killing all 99 on board. On 12 June 1961, Flight 823, a Lockheed L-188 Electra, crashed on approach to Cairo International Airport
Cairo International Airport
due to pilot error, killing 20 of 36 on board. On 25 October 1968, KLM
KLM
Aerocarto Douglas C-47A PH-DAA flew into Tafelberg Mountain, Suriname, following an engine failure while on a survey flight. The aircraft collided with the mountain in cloudy conditions, killing three of the five people on board.[193]

Notable incidents without fatalities[edit]

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On 26 October 1921, KLM
KLM
Fokker F.III
Fokker F.III
(H-NABL) crashed while on approach to Rotterdam from London. The aircraft landed in low visibility, struck the ground and crashed upside down. The pilot, the sole occupant, survived and although the aircraft was written off, it was rebuilt and re-registered H-NABR and returned to service, but was destroyed in a 1928 crash. On 17 July 1935, KLM
KLM
DC-2 (PH-AKM, "Maraboe") crashed near Bushehr, Iran. All occupants were rescued.[194] On 6 June 1939, KLM
KLM
DC-2 (PH-AKN, "Nachtegaal") crashed at Schiphol Airport during a single-engine training flight, killing one person on the ground; all four crew survived. The aircraft was rebuilt and returned to service until it was destroyed in a German air raid on 10 May 1940.[195] On 10 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands, nine KLM
KLM
aircraft (five DC-2's and four DC-3's) were destroyed in a German air raid at Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
by aircraft from KG 4. On 15 November 1942, KLM
KLM
DC-3 (PH-ALI, "Ibis"), which had escaped the Dutch occupation and was operating under lease to BOAC as G-AGBB, was attacked by a Messerschmitt Bf 110
Messerschmitt Bf 110
fighter. The aircraft was able to land in Lisbon where repairs were carried out. The port wing, engine nacelle and fuselage were damaged by cannon and machine gun fire.[citation needed] On 19 April 1943, KLM
KLM
DC-3 (PH-ALI, "Ibis") was attacked a second time by six Bf 110 fighters. Captain Koene Dirk Parmentier evaded the attackers by dropping to 50 ft (15 m) above the ocean and then climbing steeply into the clouds. The aircraft again sustained damage to the port aileron, shrapnel to the fuselage and a fuel tank. A new wingtip was flown to Lisbon to complete repairs. Despite these attacks, BOAC continued to fly the Lisbon–Whitchurch route. The aircraft was later destroyed in the crash of Flight 777-A.[citation needed] On 6 November 1946, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
(PH-TBO) crashed near Shere
Shere
on approach to Croydon Airport
Croydon Airport
after a flight from Amsterdam. All 20 passengers and crew survived the accident. The altimeter had been set incorrectly.[196][197] On 27 December 1947, KLM
KLM
C-47 (PH-TCV) crashed near Leeuwarden after the left wing struck a church steeple; the aircraft belly-landed and skidded across some ditches which broke off both propellers. All 15 on board survived.[198] On 16 June 1948, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-4
Douglas DC-4
(PH-TCF, "Friesland") landed short of the runway, bounced and landed hard on the runway at Schiphol Airport due to pilot error. All 27 passengers and crew survived. The pilot had come in too low and too slow.[199] On 23 March 1952, KLM
KLM
Lockheed L-749A Constellation (PH-TFF, "Venlo") suffered a No. 3 propeller fatigue failure and subsequent engine fire during landing in Bangkok. All 44 passengers and crew escaped shortly before the fire completely consumed the aircraft. A Thai ground crewman ran into the burning aircraft and returned with an infant who had been left behind.[200] On 1 January 1953, KLM
KLM
C-54B (PH-TDL) force-landed in the desert 17 miles from Dhahran Airport due to fuel exhaustion after the crew diverted twice due to poor visibility. All 66 passengers and crew on board survived.[201] On 25 May 1953, KLM
KLM
Convair 240
Convair 240
(PH-TEI, "Paulus Potter") lost altitude just after takeoff from Schiphol
Schiphol
Airport. The aircraft belly-landed on the runway and slid off, crossed a road and came to rest in a field. All 34 passengers and crew survived, however two people who were watching the aircraft died when the aircraft crossed the road.[202] On 11 June 1961, KLM
KLM
Douglas DC-7C
Douglas DC-7C
(PH-DSN) lost an engine at 17,000 feet over the Atlantic en route to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
from Windsor Locks; the aircraft landed safely at Prestwick
Prestwick
with no casualties to the 81 passengers and crew on board. The aircraft was repaired and returned to service.[203] On 25 November 1973, Flight 861 was hijacked over Iraq by Palestinian terrorists. The aircraft took off in Amsterdam
Amsterdam
and was bound for Tokyo. After several hours it made its final landing in Dubai. The passengers were released earlier in Malta. Everyone survived the hijacking.[citation needed] On 4 September 1976, Flight 366, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-33RC (PH-DNM) flying from Malaga to Amsterdam
Amsterdam
with an intermediate stop in Nice, was hijacked shortly after takeoff from Nice by Palestinian terrorists. After aborted attempts to land in Tunis, the aircraft landed in Larnaca, Cyprus. After refueling, the hijackers attempted to reach Palestine before the aircraft was turned around by Israeli F4 Phantoms. After returning to Cyprus, the passengers were released unharmed and the hijackers surrendered.[204][205] On 3 June 1983, a McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30
McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30
(PH-DTE, "Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart") was substantially damaged after landing at Panama City International Airport. During landing, the aircraft veered off the runway into muddy ground. The nose gear collapsed and the airplane sustained damage. After repair the plane was put back into service.[206] On 15 December 1989, Flight 867 flew through a volcanic plume causing nearly US$80 million of damage to the brand-new Boeing
Boeing
747-406M. The plane landed in Anchorage, Alaska, with no reported injuries or fatalities.[207][208] On 28 November 2004, Flight 1673, a Boeing
Boeing
737-400 (PH-BTC), suffered a birdstrike upon rotation from Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Airport Schiphol. The aircraft continued onwards to Barcelona International Airport, where the nose gear collapsed. No injuries or casualties were reported. The aircraft was written off.[209] On 24 September 2017, a Boeing
Boeing
777 leaving Kansai International Airport lost a 4 kg fuselage panel falling into the city of Osaka smashing a car window. The aircraft landed safely at Amsterdam Airport, and no injuries or fatalities were reported.[210]

Notable KLM
KLM
employees[edit]

Jacob Veldhuyzen van Zanten, pilot Ingrid de Caluwé Bob Hiensch, Flight attendant Joop van Werkhoven Leo Visser, pilot Lisa Westerhof, pilot King Willem-Alexander, guest pilot[211]

See also[edit]

Amsterdam
Amsterdam
portal Netherlands
Netherlands
portal Aviation portal

Air transport in the Netherlands List of airports in the Netherlands List of companies of the Netherlands

References[edit]

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Schiphol
Group. 8 February 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ " KLM
KLM
test 'self service boarding' op Schiphol
Schiphol
en Parijs CDG" [KLM tests 'self service boarding' at Schiphol
Schiphol
and Paris CDG]. Luchtvaartnieuws (in Dutch). Reismedia. Retrieved 28 February 2013.  ^ " KLM
KLM
and Schiphol Airport
Schiphol Airport
first to launch European and intercontinental Self Service Transfer Kiosks" (Press release). KLM. 15 December 2006. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ "Transfer to another flight". KLM. Retrieved 19 January 2013.  ^ "Travel by bus or rail with a KLM
KLM
ticket." KLM. Retrieved on October 29, 2016. ^ "All about Flying Blue
Flying Blue
Miles". FlyingBlue.com. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ "Earn Miles". FlyingBlue.com. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ "Levels and benefits". FlyingBlue.com. Retrieved 16 October 2015.  ^ a b "Earn Miles". KLM. Archived from the original on 8 February 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ KLM
KLM
(May 2015). " KLM
KLM
Maps - World". Holland Herald. G+J Media. 50 (5): 96, 97. Retrieved 11 May 2015.  ^ " Flying Blue
Flying Blue
Partners". Flying Blue
Flying Blue
News. Air France
Air France
– KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013. [permanent dead link] ^ "AirCares". KLM. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ "Spend Miles". KLM. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ "All about benefits". KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ a b "Platinum benefits with SkyTeam
SkyTeam
airline partners". KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ "Membership thresholds". KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ "Ivory membership". KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ "Silver benefits with SkyTeam
SkyTeam
airline partners". KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ "Gold benefits with SkyTeam
SkyTeam
airlines partners". KLM. Retrieved 28 January 2013.  ^ Tonyleather. "The Deadliest Airplane Accidents in History". Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ Sebastien Freissinet. "The Tenerife crash-March 27th, 1977". Retrieved 7 May 2012.  ^ "ASN Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network.  ^ "The Tenerife Airport Disaster - the worst in aviation history". The Tenerife Information Centre. Retrieved 29 October 2014.  ^ "Lost Aeroplane. Unavailing Search For Dutch Machine". The Times (43636). London. 26 April 1923. col F, p. 10.  ^ "The Fokker
Fokker
Disaster". Flight. No. 25 August 1927. p. 599.  ^ "Uiver verbrand, inzittenden gedood". De Telegraaf. 42 (15920). 21 December 1934. p. 1.  ^ "Air Crash in Storm". The Times (47033). London. 8 Apr 1935. p. 13.  ^ Accident description for PH-ALP at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 October 2014. ^ Accident description for PH-ALF at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 October 2014. ^ Accident description for PH-ALS at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 October 2014. ^ Accident description for PH-ARY at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 October 2014. ^ Accident description for PH-APE at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 30 October 2014. ^ "DC-3 PH-TCR bij start in Copenhagen
Copenhagen
verongelukt". Aviacrash.nl. Retrieved 27 October 2007.  ^ De Tijd (Netherlands)
De Tijd (Netherlands)
24 June 1949, cited in Heijn (1969) ^ "Constellation "Franeker" stort neer bij Bombay". 15 December 2005. Retrieved 27 October 2007.  ^ Accident description for PH-TEU at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 2 June 2015. ^ "Accident Synopsis: 03221952 – Accident Database". Airdisaster.com. 22 March 1952. Retrieved 29 November 2012.  ^ "PH-DAA Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 24 July 2011.  ^ De Telegraaf
De Telegraaf
17 July 1935, cited in Heijn (1969) ^ Accident description for PH-AKN at the Aviation Safety Network ^ Accident description for PH-TBO at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 29 November 2012. ^ "Photos of accidents 1946". B3A- Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives. Retrieved 5 April 2018.  ^ Accident description for PH-TCV at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 April 2018. ^ Accident description for PH-TCF at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 April 2018. ^ " KLM
KLM
PH-TFF Bangkok
Bangkok
Crash". Ralph M. Pettersen's Constellation Survivors Website. 13 March 2006.  ^ Accident description for PH-TDL at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 April 2018. ^ Accident description for PH-TEI at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 April 2018. ^ Accident description for PH-DSN at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 5 April 2018. ^ Hijacking description for PH-DNM at the Aviation Safety Network ^ "Behind the Headlines the Failure of Nerve". Jewish Telegraphic Agency.  ^ Accident description for PH-DTE at the Aviation Safety Network ^ Accident description for PH-BFC at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 29 November 2012. ^ ANC90FA020 NTSB Archived 24 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Aircraft registrations PH-BAA - PH-BZZ".  ^ "Falling jet wing panel hits car in Japan". BBC News. 2017-09-24. Retrieved 2017-09-27.  ^ Press, Associated (2017-05-17). "Dutch king admits he held part-time job as airline pilot". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-18. 

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