The KAKAPO (Māori : KāKāPō or night parrot), also called OWL
PARROT, (Strigops habroptila) is a species of large, flightless ,
nocturnal , ground-dwelling parrot of the super-family Strigopoidea ,
It has finely blotched yellow-green plumage, a distinct facial disc
of sensory, vibrissa-like feathers, a large grey beak, short legs,
large feet, and wings and a tail of relatively short length. A
combination of traits make it unique among its kind; it is the world's
only flightless parrot, the heaviest parrot, nocturnal, herbivorous,
visibly sexually dimorphic in body size, has a low basal metabolic
rate and no male parental care, and is the only parrot to have a
polygynous lek breeding system. It is also possibly one of the world's
longest-living birds. Its anatomy typifies the tendency of bird
evolution on oceanic islands, with few predators and abundant food: a
generally robust physique, with accretion of thermodynamic efficiency
at the expense of flight abilities, reduced wing muscles, and a
diminished keel on the sternum . Like many other
The kakapo is critically endangered; as of December 2017, the total
known adult population was 154 living individuals , as reported by
* 1 Taxonomy, systematics and naming
* 2 Description
* 2.1 Internal anatomy
* 3 Ecology and behaviour
* 3.1 Breeding * 3.2 Feeding
* 4 Conservation
* 4.1 Human impact
* 4.2 Early protection efforts
* 4.3 1950–89 conservation efforts
* 5 In Māori culture
* 5.1 Use for food and clothing
* 6 In the media * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 Further reading * 10 External links
TAXONOMY, SYSTEMATICS AND NAMING
Illustration of a kakapo from the book "A History of the Birds of New Zealand" by Walter Lawry Buller, published in 1873.
The kakapo was originally described by English ornithologist George
Robert Gray in 1845. The name "kakapo" is the English transliteration
of "kākāpō" which is derived from the Māori terms kākā
("parrot") + pō ("night"). Its generic name is derived from the
Ancient Greek strix, genitive strigos "owl", and ops "face", while its
specific epithet comes from habros "soft", and ptilon "feather". It
has so many unusual features that it was initially placed in its own
tribe , Strigopini. Recent phylogenetic studies have confirmed the
unique position of this genus as well as the closeness to the kākā
and the kea , both belonging to the
New Zealand parrot
Earlier ornithologists felt that the kakapo might be related to the ground parrots and night parrot of Australia due to their similar colouration, but this is contradicted by recent studies; rather, the cryptic colour seems to be adaptation to terrestrial habits that evolved twice convergently .
A year-old kakapo on Codfish Island .
The kakapo is a large, rotund parrot; the adult can measure from 58 to 64 cm (23 to 25 in) in length, and weight can vary from 0.95 to 4 kg (2 to 9 lb) at maturity. Males are larger than females. Twenty-eight males were found to average 2 kg (4.4 lb) in one study, and 39 males were found to average 2.06 kg (4.5 lb) in another. In the same studies, 28 females were found to average 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) and 18 females were found to average 1.28 kg (2.8 lb); respectively. Kakapos are the heaviest living species of parrot and on average weigh about 400 g (14 oz) more than the largest flying parrot, the hyacinth macaw . The kakapo cannot fly, having relatively short wings for its size and lacking the keel on the sternum (breastbone), where the flight muscles of other birds attach. It uses its wings for balance and to break its fall when leaping from trees. Unlike many other land birds, the kakapo can accumulate large amounts of body fat.
The upper parts of the kakapo have yellowish moss-green feathers
barred or mottled with black or dark brownish grey, blending well with
native vegetation. Individuals may have strongly varying degrees of
mottling and colour tone and intensity – museum specimens show that
some birds had completely yellow colouring. The breast and flank are
yellowish-green streaked with yellow. The belly, undertail, neck, and
face are predominantly yellowish streaked with pale green and weakly
mottled with brownish-grey. Because the feathers do not need the
strength and stiffness required for flight, they are exceptionally
soft, giving rise to the specific epithet habroptilus. The kakapo has
a conspicuous facial disc of fine feathers resembling the face of an
owl; thus, early European settlers called it the "owl parrot". The
beak is surrounded by delicate vibrissae or "whiskers", which the bird
uses to sense the ground for navigation as it walks with its head
lowered. The mandible is mostly ivory-coloured, with part of the upper
mandible being bluish-grey. The eyes are dark brown.
Females are easily distinguished from males as they have a narrower and less domed head, narrower and proportionally longer beak, smaller cere and nostrils , more slender and pinkish grey legs and feet, and proportionally longer tail. While their plumage colour is not very different from that of the male, the toning is more subtle, with less yellow and mottling. They tend to resist more and be more aggressive than the male when handled. Nesting females also have a brood patch on the bare skin of the belly.
The kakapo's altricial young are first covered with greyish white down, through which their pink skin can be easily seen. They then become fully feathered at approximately 70 days of age, when they fledge. Juvenile individuals tend to have duller green coloration, more uniform black barring, and less yellow present in their feathers. They are additionally distinguishable because of their shorter tails, wings, and beaks. At this stage, they have a ring of short feathers surrounding their irises that resemble eyelashes.
Like many other parrots, kakapos have a variety of calls. As well as the booms (see below for a recording) and chings of their mating calls, they will often loudly skraark to announce their location to other birds.
The kakapo has a well-developed sense of smell , which complements its nocturnal lifestyle. It can distinguish between odours while foraging, a behaviour reported in only one other parrot species. The kakapo has a large olfactory bulb ratio (longest diameter of the olfactory bulb/longest diameter of the brain) indicating that it does, indeed, have a more developed sense of smell than other parrots. One of the most striking characteristics of the kakapo is its distinct musty-sweet odour. Given their well-developed sense of smell, this odour may be a pheromone . The smell often alerts predators to the presence of kakapos.
As a nocturnal species, the kakapo has adapted its senses to living in darkness. Its optic tectum, nucleus rotundus, and entopallium are smaller in relation to its overall brain size than those of diurnal parrots. Its retina shares some qualities with that of other nocturnal birds but also has some qualities typical of diurnal birds, lending to best function around twilight. These modifications allow the kakapo to have enhanced light sensitivity but with poor visual acuity.
The skeleton of the kakapo differs from other parrots in several features associated with flightlessness. Firstly, it has the smallest relative wing size of any parrot. Its wing feathers are shorter, more rounded, less asymmetrical, and have fewer distal barbules to lock the feathers together. The sternum is small and has a low, vestigial keel and a shortened spina externa . As in other flightless birds and some flighted parrots, the furcula is not fused but consists of a pair of clavicles lying in contact with each coracoid . As in other flightless birds, the angle between the coracoid and sternum is enlarged. The kakapo has a larger pelvis than other parrots. The proximal bones of the leg and arm are disproportionately long and the distal elements are disproportionately short.
The pectoral musculature of the kakapo is also modified by flightlessness. The pectoralis and supracoracoideus muscles are greatly reduced. The propatagialis tendo longus has no distinct muscle belly. The sternocoracoideus is tendinous. There is an extensive cucularis capitis clavicularis muscle that is associated with the large crop.
ECOLOGY AND BEHAVIOUR
Historic distribution of the kakapo. Maximum distribution since 1840 Fossil evidence
It seems that the kakapo – like many of New Zealand's bird species – has evolved to occupy an ecological niche normally filled by various species of mammal (the only non-marine mammals native to New Zealand are three species of small bats ). Before the arrival of humans, the kakapo was distributed throughout the three main islands of New Zealand. It lived in a variety of habitats, including tussocklands , scrublands and coastal areas. It also inhabited forests dominated by podocarps (rimu , matai , kahikatea , totara ), beeches , tawa , and rata . In Fiordland , areas of avalanche and slip debris with regenerating and heavily fruiting vegetation – such as five finger, wineberry , bush lawyer , tutu , hebes , and coprosmas – became known as "kakapo gardens".
The kakapo is considered to be a "habitat generalist". Though they are now confined to islands free of predation, they were once able to live in nearly any climate present on the islands of New Zealand. They survived dry, hot summers on the North Island as well as cold winter temperatures in the sub-alpine areas of Fjordland. Kakapos were mostly found in the areas adjacent to dense, temperate rainforests, but the species was not exclusively forest-dwelling. All kakapo that were transferred to predator-free islands in the last decades have adapted well to any changes in environment and food plants.
The kakapo is primarily nocturnal; it roosts under cover in trees or on the ground during the day and moves around its territories at night.
Though the kakapo cannot fly, it is an excellent climber, ascending to the crowns of the tallest trees. It can also "parachute" – descending by leaping and spreading its wings. In this way it may travel a few metres at an angle of less than 45 degrees. With only 3.3% of its mass made up of pectoral muscle, it is no surprise that the kakapo cannot use its wings to lift its heavy body off the ground. Because of its flightlessness, it has very low metabolic demands in comparison to flighted birds. It is able to survive easily on very little or on very low quality food sources. Unlike most other bird species, the kakapo is entirely herbivorous, feeding on fruits, seeds, leaves, stems, and rhizomes. The sex ratio of kakapo offspring is dependent on the diet of the mother. Higher protein diets tend to lead to higher percentages of males among the offspring. When foraging, kakapo tend to leave crescent-shaped wads of fiber in the vegetation behind them, called "browse signs".
Having lost the ability to fly, it has developed strong legs. Locomotion is often by way of a rapid "jog-like" gait by which it can move several kilometres. A female has been observed making two return trips each night during nesting from her nest to a food source up to 1 km (0.6 mi) away and the male may walk from its home range to a mating arena up to 5 km (3 mi) away during the mating season (October–January). Feeding on poroporo fruits, Maud Island
Young birds indulge in play fighting, and one bird will often lock the neck of another under its chin. The kakapo is curious by nature and has been known to interact with humans. Conservation staff and volunteers have engaged extensively with some kakapo, which have distinct personalities. While they are curious toward humans, kakapos are extremely asocial around one another. If two individuals encounter one another along their track while searching for food, a fight will inevitably ensue. Even during mating, the male is only hospitable toward the female in that he will not bite her to death during their interaction. After mating, the two mated individuals separate to continue on alone.
The kakapo was a very successful species in pre-human New Zealand,
and one of the reasons for this was their set of adaptations to
effectively avoid predation from native birds of prey, which were
their only predators in the past. However, these same behaviours have
been of no use to them when faced with the mammalian predators which
were introduced to
Mammalian predators, in contrast to birds, rely on their sense of smell and hearing to find prey and often hunt by night. The kakapo's adaptations to avoid avian predation have thus been useless against its new enemies – this is one of the reasons for its massive decline since the introduction of dogs, cats and mustelids – see Conservation: Human impact . A typical way for humans to hunt down the kakapo is by releasing trained dogs.
The kakapo is the only species of flightless parrot in the world, and the only flightless bird that has a lek breeding system. Males loosely gather in an arena and compete with each other to attract females. Females listen to the males as they display, or "lek". They choose a mate based on the quality of his display; they are not pursued by the males in any overt way. No pair bond is formed; males and females meet only to mate.
During the courting season, males leave their home ranges for hilltops and ridges where they establish their own mating courts. These leks can be up to 7 kilometres (4 mi) from a kakapo's usual territory and are an average of 50 metres (160 ft) apart within the lek arena. Males remain in the region of their court throughout the courting season. At the start of the breeding season, males will fight to try to secure the best courts. They confront each other with raised feathers, spread wings, open beaks, raised claws and loud screeching and growling. Fighting may leave birds with injuries or even kill them. Mating occurs only approximately every five years, with the ripening of the Rimu fruit. In mating years, males making "booming" calls for 6–8 hours every night for more than four months.
Each court consists of one or more saucer-shaped depressions or "bowls" dug in the ground by the male, up to 10 centimetres (4 in) deep and long enough to fit the half-metre length of the bird. The kakapo is one of only a handful of birds in the world which actually constructs its leks. Bowls are often created next to rock faces, banks, or tree trunks to help reflect sound - the bowls themselves function as amplifiers to enhance the projection of the males' booming mating calls. Each male's bowls are connected by a network of trails or tracks which may extend 50 metres (160 ft) along a ridge or 20 metres (70 ft) in diameter around a hilltop. Males meticulously clear their bowls and tracks of debris. One way researchers check whether bowls are visited at night is to place a few twigs in the bowl; if the male visits overnight, he will pick them up in his beak and toss them away.
To attract females, males make loud, low-frequency (below 100 Hz ) booming calls from their bowls by inflating a thoracic sac. They start with low grunts, which increase in volume as the sac inflates. After a sequence of about 20 loud booms, the male kakapo emits a high-frequency, metallic "ching" sound. He stands for a short while before again lowering his head, inflating his chest and starting another sequence of booms. The booms can be heard at least 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) away on a still night; wind can carry the sound at least 5 kilometres (3.1 mi). Males boom for an average of eight hours a night; each male may produce thousands of booms in this time. This may continue every night for three or four months during which time the male may lose half his body weight. Each male moves around the bowls in his court so that the booms are sent out in different directions. These booms are also notorious for attracting predators, because of the long range at which they can be heard.
Females are attracted by the booms of the competing males; they too may need to walk several kilometres from their territories to the arena. Once a female enters the court of one of the males, the male performs a display in which he rocks from side to side and makes clicking noises with his beak. He turns his back to the female, spreads his wings in display and walks backwards towards her. He will then attempt copulation for 2 to 14 minutes. Once the birds have mated, the female returns to her home territory to lay eggs and raise the chicks. The male continues booming in the hope of attracting another female. Hatchlings
The female kakapo lays 1 or 2 eggs (rarely 3) per breeding cycle,
with long intervals between laying of first and second eggs. She
nests on the ground under the cover of plants or in cavities such as
hollow tree trunks. The female incubates the eggs faithfully, but is
forced to leave them every night in search of food. Predators are
known to eat the eggs and the embryos inside can also die of cold in
the mother's absence.
Because the kakapo is long-lived, with an average life expectancy of 58 years and the maximum at about 90 years, it tends to have an adolescence before it starts breeding. Males start booming at about 5 years of age. It was thought that females reached sexual maturity at 9 years of age, but this idea was debunked in the 2008 breeding season when two 6-year-old females named Apirama and Rakiura laid eggs. Generally females do not seek out males until they are between 9 and 11 years old. The kakapo does not breed every year and has one of the lowest rates of reproduction among birds. Breeding occurs only in years when trees mast (fruit heavily), providing a plentiful food supply. Rimu mast occurs only every three to five years, so in rimu-dominant forests such as those on Codfish Island, kakapo breeding occurs as infrequently.
Another aspect of the kakapo's breeding system is that a female can alter the sex ratio of her offspring depending on her condition. A female who eats protein-rich foods produces more male offspring (males have 30%–40% more body weight than females ). Females produce offspring biased towards the dispersive sex when competition for resources (such as food) is high and towards the non-dispersive sex when food is plentiful. A female kakapo will likely be able to produce eggs even when there are few resources, while a male kakapo will be more capable of perpetuating the species when there are plenty, by mating with several females. This supports the Trivers–Willard hypothesis . The relationship between clutch sex ratio and maternal diet has conservation implications, because a captive population maintained on a high quality diet will produce fewer females and therefore fewer individuals valuable to the recovery of the species.
The beak of the kakapo is adapted for grinding food finely. For this reason, the kakapo has a very small gizzard compared to other birds of their size. It is generally herbivorous , eating native plants, seeds, fruits, pollen and even the sapwood of trees. A study in 1984 identified 25 plant species as kakapo food. It is particularly fond of the fruit of the rimu tree, and will feed on it exclusively during seasons when it is abundant. The kakapo has a distinctive habit of grabbing a leaf or frond with a foot and stripping the nutritious parts of the plant out with its beak, leaving a ball of indigestible fibre. These little clumps of plant fibres are a distinctive sign of the presence of the bird. The kakapo is believed to employ bacteria in the fore-gut to ferment and help digest plant matter.
Fossil records indicate that in pre-Polynesian times, the kakapo was
New Zealand's third most common bird and it was widespread on all
three main islands. However, the kakapo population in
Specimens at the Vienna Museum of Natural History ; thousands of kakapo were collected for museums across the world
The first factor in the decline of the kakapo was the arrival of humans. Māori folklore suggests that the kakapo was found throughout the country when the Polynesians first arrived in Aotearoa 700 years ago. Subfossil and midden deposits show that the bird was present throughout the North Island, South Island and Stewart Island/Rakiura before and during early Māori times. Māori hunted the kakapo for food and for their skins and feathers, which were made into cloaks . They used the dried heads as ear ornaments. Due to its flightlessness, strong scent and habit of freezing when threatened, the kakapo was easy prey for the Māori and their dogs. Its eggs and chicks were also preyed upon by the Polynesian rat or kiore, which the Māori brought to New Zealand. Furthermore, the deliberate clearing of vegetation by Māori reduced the habitable range for kakapo. Although the kakapo was extinct in many parts of the islands by the time Europeans arrived, including the Tararua and Aorangi Ranges , it was still present in the central part of the North Island and forested parts of the South Island.
Beginning in the 1840s, European settlers cleared vast tracts of land
for farming and grazing, further reducing kakapo habitat. They brought
more dogs and other mammalian predators, including domestic cats,
black rats and stoats . Europeans knew little of the kakapo until
George Gray of the
In the 1880s, large numbers of mustelids (stoats, ferrets and
weasels) were released in
EARLY PROTECTION EFFORTS
In 1891, the
In 1903, three kakapo were moved from Resolution Island to the nature
Little Barrier Island north-east of
By the 1920s, the kakapo was extinct in the North Island and its range and numbers in the South Island were declining. One of its last refuges was rugged Fiordland. There, during the 1930s, it was often seen or heard, and occasionally eaten, by hunters or roadworkers. By the 1940s, reports of kakapo were becoming scarce.
1950–89 CONSERVATION EFFORTS
Sinbad Gully in Fiordland, seen between the mountains on the far side of a fjord , was one of the last strongholds of the kakapo on mainland New Zealand.
In the 1950s, the
By the early 1970s, it was uncertain whether the kakapo was still an extant species. At the end of 1974, scientists located several more male kakapo and made the first scientific observations of kakapo booming. These observations led Don Merton to speculate for the first time that the kakapo had a lek breeding system. From 1974 to 1976, 14 kakapo were discovered but all appeared to be males. This raised the possibility that the species would become extinct, because there might be no surviving females. One male bird was captured in the Milford area in 1975, christened "Richard Henry", and transferred to Maud Island . All the birds the Wildlife Service discovered from 1951 to 1976 were in U-shaped glaciated valleys flanked by almost-vertical cliffs and surrounded by high mountains. Such extreme terrain had slowed colonisation by browsing mammals, leaving islands of virtually unmodified native vegetation. However, even here, stoats were present and by 1976 the kakapo was gone from the valley floors and only a few males survived high on the most inaccessible parts of the cliffs.
Before 1977, no expedition had been to Stewart Island/Rakiura to search for the bird. In 1977, sightings of kakapo were reported on Stewart Island. An expedition to the island found a track and bowl system on its first day; soon after, it located several dozen kakapo. The finding in an 8,000-hectare area of fire-modified scrubland and forest raised hope that the population would include females. The total population was estimated at 100 to 200 birds.
Mustelids have never colonised Stewart Island/Rakiura, but feral cats were present. During a survey, it was apparent that cats killed kakapo at a rate of 56% per year. At this rate, the birds could not survive on the island and therefore an intensive cat control was introduced in 1982, after which no cat-killed kakapo were found. However, to ensure the survival of the remaining birds, scientists decided later that this population should be transferred to predator-free islands; this operation was carried out between 1982 and 1997.
KAKAPO RECOVERY PROGRAMME
Sirocco , an adult male on Maud Island
Maud Island (1974–81) 9 (6♂, 3♀) 3 (2♂, 1♀) 4 (2♂, 2♀)
Little Barrier Island (1982) 22 (13♂, 9♀) 2 (1♂, 1♀) 15–19 (10–12♂, 5–7♀)
Codfish Island (1987–92) 30 (20♂, 10♀) 0 20–30 (13–20♂, 7–10♀)
Maud Island (1989–91) 6 (4♂, 2♀) 0 5 (3♂, 2♀)
Mana Island (1992) 2 (2♀) 1 (1♀) 1 (1♀)
TOTAL 65 (43♂, 22♀) 6 (3♂, 3♀) 41–55 (27–36♂, 14–19♀)
NOTE: ♂ = males, ♀ = females.
In 1989, a
A key part of the Recovery Plan is the supplementary feeding of females. The kakapo breeds only once every two to five years, when a certain type of plant species, primarily Dacrydium cupressinum (rimu) , produces protein-rich fruit and seeds. Observations of the relationship between intermittent breeding and the plant's mast year help biologists choose which suitable supplementary foods to increase kakapo breeding frequency. In 1989, six preferred foods (apples, sweet potatoes, almonds, Brazil nuts, sunflower seeds and walnuts) were supplied ad libitum each night to 12 feeding stations. Males and females ate the supplied foods, and females nested on Little Barrier Island in the summers of 1989–91 for the first time since 1982, although nesting success was low.
Supplementary feeding not only increases kakapo breeding frequency, but also affects the sex ratio of kakapo offspring, as maternal conditions influence this ratio. (See section "Reproduction" .) This finding was subsequently used to increase the number of female chicks by deliberately manipulating maternal conditions. During the winter of 1981, only females lighter than 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) were given supplementary feeding to avoid raising their body condition, and the sex ratio results in 1982 were close to parity, eliminating the male-biased sex ratios in the unrestricted feeding.
Though breeding can be improved by supplementary feeding, the survival of young kakapo is hampered by the presence of Polynesian rats. Of 21 chicks that hatched between 1981 and 1994, nine were either killed by rats or died and were subsequently eaten by rats. Nest protection has been intensified since 1995 by using traps and poison stations as soon as a nest had been detected. A small video camera and infra-red light source watch the nest continuously, and will scare approaching rats with flashing lights and loud popping sounds. To increase the success rate of nesting, a nest watcher places a small thermostatically controlled electric blanket over the eggs or chicks, whenever the female leaves the nest for food. The survival rate of chicks has increased from 29% in unprotected nests to 75% in protected ones.
To monitor the kakapo population continuously, each bird is equipped
with a radio transmitter . Every known kakapo, barring some young
chicks, has been given a name by
In 2006, the
During the 2008–2009 summer breeding season, the total population of kakapo rose to over 100 for the first time since monitoring began, reaching 154 by 2016, with 116 adults. Twenty two of the 34 chicks had to be hand-reared because of a shortage of food on Codfish Island.
In 2012, seven kakapo were transferred to Little Barrier Island, in
an attempt to establish a successful breeding programme.
In March 2014, with the kakapo population having increased to 126,
the bird's recovery was used by
IN MāORI CULTURE
The kakapo is associated with a rich tradition of Māori folklore and beliefs. The bird's irregular breeding cycle was understood to be associated with heavy fruiting or "masting " events of particular plant species such as the Rimu which led Māori to credit the bird with the ability to tell the future. Used to substantiate this claim were reported observations of these birds dropping the berries of the Hinau and Tawa trees (when they were in season) into secluded pools of water to preserve them as a food supply for the summer ahead; in legend this became the origin of the Māori practice of immersing food in water for the same purpose.
USE FOR FOOD AND CLOTHING
The meat of kakapo made good eating and was considered by Māori to be a delicacy and it was hunted for food when it was still widespread. One source states that its flesh "resembles lamb in taste and texture", although European settlers have described the bird as having a "strong and slightly stringent flavour".
In breeding years, the loud booming calls of the males at their mating arenas made it easy for Māori hunting parties to track the kakapo down, and it was also hunted while feeding or when dust-bathing in dry weather. The bird was caught, generally at night, using snares , pitfall traps, or by groups of domesticated Polynesian dogs which accompanied hunting parties – sometimes they would use fire sticks of various sorts to dazzle a bird in the darkness, stopping it in their tracks and making the capture easier. Cooking was done in a hāngi or in gourds of boiling oil. The flesh of the bird could be preserved in its own fat and stored in containers for later consumption – hunters of the Ngāi Tahu tribe would pack the flesh in baskets made from the inner bark of totara tree or in containers constructed from kelp . Bundles of kakapo tail feathers were attached to the sides of these containers to provide decoration and a way to identify their contents. Also taken by the Māori were the bird's eggs, which are described as whitish "but not pure white", and about the same size as a kererū egg.
As well as eating the meat of the kakapo, Māori would use kakapo
skins with the feathers still attached or individually weave in kakapo
feathers with flax fibre to create cloaks and capes. Each one
required up to 11,000 feathers to make. Not only were these garments
considered very beautiful, they also kept the wearer very warm. They
were highly valued, and the few still in existence today are
considered taonga (treasures) – indeed, the old Māori adage "You
have a kākāpō cape and you still complain of the cold" was used to
describe someone who is never satisfied.
Despite this, the kakapo was also regarded as an affectionate pet by the Māori. This was corroborated by European settlers in New Zealand in the 19th century, among them George Edward Grey , who once wrote in a letter to an associate that his pet kakapo's behaviour towards him and his friends was "more like that of a dog than a bird".
IN THE MEDIA
The conservation of the kakapo has made the species well known. Many
books and documentaries detailing the plight of the kakapo have been
produced in recent years, one of the earliest being Two in the Bush,
Gerald Durrell for the
BirdLife International (2013). "Strigops habroptila". IUCN Red
List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for
Conservation of Nature . Retrieved 26 November 2013.
* ^ A B C D Best, H. A. (1984). "The foods of kakapo on Stewart
Island as determined from their feeding sign" (PDF). New Zealand
Journal of Ecology. 7: 71–83. Retrieved 15 January 2016.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q Powlesland, Ralph G.; Merton,
Don V. ; Cockrem, John F. (2006). "A parrot apart: the natural history
of the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus), and the context of its
conservation management" (PDF). Notornis. 53 (1): 3–26.
* ^ A B Plumb, Simon (27 November 2016). "Critically endangered
kakapo on the increase". The
* ^ "KAKAPO PARROTS – The 86 Names". anotherchancetosee.com. 4
August 2006. Archived from the original on 12 February 2007. Retrieved
6 February 2007.
* ^ "
* Ballance, Alison: "Kakapo. Rescued from the brink of extinction"
Craig Potton Publishing, Nelson 2010. 216 pages. ISBN
* Butler, David (1989). Quest for the kakapo. Auckland: Heinemann
Reed. ISBN 0-7900-0065-2 .
* Climo, Gideon; Ballance, Alison (1997). Hoki: The story of a
kakapo. Auckland: Godwit. ISBN 1-86962-009-7 .
* Jones, Jenny (2003). The kakapo. Auckland: Reed. ISBN
* Williams, Murray; Merton, Don (2006). "Saving kakapo: An
illustrated history" (PDF). Notornis. 53 (1).
* Eulenpapagei oder
Wikispecies has information related to KAKAPO
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Kea, kaka and kakapo (family : STRIGOPIDAE )
SPECIES (extinctions: † indicates a species confirmed to be extinct; ₴ indicates evidence only from sub-fossils)
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* Struthioniformes (ostriches) * Rheiformes (rheas) * Tinamiformes (tinamous) * Apterygiformes (kiwis) * Casuariiformes (emus and cassowaries)
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* Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin)
* Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) * Eurypygiformes (kagu and sunbittern)
* Gaviiformes (loons or divers) * Sphenisciformes (penguins) * Procellariiformes (albatrosses and petrels) * Ciconiiformes (storks) * Suliformes (cormorants and relatives) * Pelecaniformes (pelicans and relatives)
* Cariamiformes (seriemas and relatives) * Falconiformes (falcons and relatives) * Psittaciformes (parrots) * Passeriformes (perching birds)
* Cathartiformes (New World vultures and condors) * Accipitriformes (eagles and hawks) * Strigiformes (owls) * Coliiformes (mousebirds) * Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals) * Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller) * Bucerotiformes (hornbills and hoopoes) * Coraciiformes (kingfishers and rollers) * Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives)
* CATEGORY * PORTAL * Outline
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* Bellbird (korimako)
* Brown creeper (pipipi)
Buff-banded rail (moho-pereru)
* Dabchick (weweia)
Great spotted kiwi (roroa)
Little spotted kiwi (kiwi pukupuku)
North Island brown kiwi (roroa)
Southern brown kiwi
Endangered endemic birds (flying)
* Saddleback (tieke)
* Fernbird (mātātā)
* Kaka (kākā)
South Island piopio (piopio)
* Birds portal
* Animals portal
* Biology portal
* Wd : Q179959
* ADW : Strigops_habroptila
ARKive : strigops-habroptila
* Avibase: 16804FAF5DCCB288
* BHL : 43661632
* LCCN : sh85071313 * GND :