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KöNIGSBERG is the historical name for the present-day city of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
. Originally a Sambian or Old Prussian city, it later belonged to the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights , the Duchy of Prussia , the Kingdom of Prussia , the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
and Germany until 1946. After being largely destroyed in World War II
World War II
by Soviet forces and annexed by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
thereafter, the city was renamed Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
. Few traces of the former Königsberg
Königsberg
remain today.

The literal meaning of Königsberg
Königsberg
is 'King’s Mountain'. In the local Low German dialect, spoken by many of its German former inhabitants, the name was _Kenigsbarg_ (pronounced ). Further names included Russian : Кёнигсберг, Королевец, tr. _Kyonigsberg, Korolevets_, Old Prussian : _Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg_, Lithuanian : _Karaliaučius_ and Polish : _Królewiec_.

Königsberg
Königsberg
was founded in 1255 on the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement _Twangste_ by the Teutonic Knights during the Northern Crusades , and was named in honour of King Ottokar II of Bohemia . A Baltic port city, it successively became the capital of their monastic state , the Duchy of Prussia (1525-1701) and East Prussia . Königsberg
Königsberg
remained the coronation city of the Prussian monarchy, though the capital was moved to Berlin
Berlin
in 1701. It was the easternmost large city in Germany
Germany
until it was captured by the Soviet Union on 9 April 1945, near the end of World War II
World War II
. After the fall of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in 1991, is it the only notable Russian city which still is named after a Bolshevik
Bolshevik
, Mikhail Kalinin .

A university city, home of the Albertina University (founded in 1544), Königsberg
Königsberg
developed into an important German intellectual and cultural centre, being the residence of Simon Dach , Immanuel Kant , Käthe Kollwitz , E. T. A. Hoffmann , David Hilbert , Agnes Miegel , Hannah Arendt , Michael Wieck and others.

Between the thirteenth and the twentieth centuries, the inhabitants spoke predominantly German, but the multicultural city also had a profound influence on the Lithuanian and Polish cultures. The city was a publishing centre of Lutheran literature, including the first Polish translation of the New Testament
New Testament
, printed in the city in 1551, the first book in Lithuanian language and the first Lutheran catechism, both printed in Königsberg
Königsberg
in 1547.

During World War II, Königsberg
Königsberg
was heavily damaged by Allied bombing in 1944 and during its siege in 1945. The city was captured and occupied by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Its German population was expelled , and the city was repopulated with Russians
Russians
and others from the Soviet Union. Briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg (Кёнигсберг), it was renamed "Kaliningrad" in 1946 in honour of Soviet leader Mikhail Kalinin .

It is now the capital of Russia
Russia
's Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
Oblast , an exclave bordered in the north by Lithuania
Lithuania
and in the south by Poland
Poland
.

The territory's current legal status is unclear. The Potsdam Agreement placed it provisionally under Soviet administration, but did not mention an explicit right of annexation. In the Final Settlement Germany
Germany
renounced all claim to it, but without specifically transferring its former title to any other party.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Sambians * 1.2 Teutonic Order * 1.3 Duchy of Prussia * 1.4 Brandenburg-Prussia * 1.5 Kingdom of Prussia * 1.6 Russian Empire
Russian Empire
* 1.7 Kingdom of Prussia * 1.8 Weimar Republic

* 1.9 Nazi Germany
Germany

* 1.9.1 Destruction in World War II
World War II

* 1.10 Soviet Russian Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad

* 2 Demographics

* 2.1 Jews
Jews
* 2.2 Lithuanians * 2.3 Poles
Poles

* 3 Culture and society of Königsberg
Königsberg

* 3.1 Sports * 3.2 Cuisine

* 4 Fortifications
Fortifications

* 5 Notable people

* 5.1 Writers * 5.2 Scientists * 5.3 Others

* 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
history

SAMBIANS

Königsberg
Königsberg
was preceded by a Sambian , or Old Prussian , fort known as _Twangste_ (_Tuwangste_, _Tvankste_), meaning Oak Forest, as well as several Old Prussian settlements, including the fishing village and port Lipnick , and the farming villages Sakkeim and Trakkeim .

TEUTONIC ORDER

During the conquest of the Prussian Sambians by the Teutonic Knights in 1255, Twangste was destroyed and replaced with a new fortress known as _Conigsberg_. This name meant "King’s Barrow" (Latin : _castrum Koningsberg, Mons Regius, Regiomontium_), honoring King Ottokar II of Bohemia , who paid for the erection of the first fortress there during the Prussian Crusade
Prussian Crusade
. Northwest of this new Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle arose an initial settlement, later known as Steindamm , roughly 4.5 miles (7 km) from the Vistula Lagoon .

The Teutonic Order used Königsberg
Königsberg
to fortify their conquests in Samland and as a base for campaigns against pagan Lithuania
Lithuania
. Under siege during the Prussian uprisings in 1262–63, Königsberg
Königsberg
Castle was relieved by the Master of the Livonian Order . Because the initial northwestern settlement was destroyed by the Prussians during the rebellion, rebuilding occurred in the southern valley between the castle hill and the Pregel River . This new settlement, Altstadt , received Culm rights in 1286. Löbenicht , a new town directly east of Altstadt between the Pregel and the Schlossteich
Schlossteich
, received its own rights in 1300. Medieval Königsberg's third town was Kneiphof , which received town rights in 1327 and was located on an island of the same name in the Pregel south of Altstadt.

Within the state of the Teutonic Order , Königsberg
Königsberg
was the residence of the marshal, one of the chief administrators of the military order. The city was also the seat of the Bishopric of Samland , one of the four dioceses into which Prussia had been divided in 1243 by the papal legate , William of Modena . Adalbert of Prague became the main patron saint of Königsberg Cathedral , a landmark of the city located in Kneiphof.

Königsberg
Königsberg
joined the Hanseatic League in 1340 and developed into an important port for the south-eastern Baltic region, trading goods throughout Prussia, the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Lithuania
. The chronicler Peter of Dusburg probably wrote his _Chronicon terrae Prussiae_ in Königsberg
Königsberg
from 1324–1330. After the Teutonic Order's victory over pagan Lithuanians in the 1348 Battle of Strawen , Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode established a Cistercian nunnery in the city. Aspiring students were educated in Königsberg
Königsberg
before continuing on to higher education elsewhere, such as Prague or Leipzig .

Although the knights suffered a crippling defeat in the Battle of Grunwald (Tannenberg) , Königsberg
Königsberg
remained under the control of the Teutonic Knights throughout the Polish-Lithuanian-Teutonic War . Livonian knights replaced the Prussian branch's garrison at Königsberg, allowing them to participate in the recovery of towns occupied by Władysław II Jagiełło
Władysław II Jagiełło
's troops. Prussian Confederation offered to incorporate Prussia into the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
, 1454, Central Archives of Historical Records , Warsaw

In 1454 the Prussian Confederation rebelled against the Teutonic Knights and formally asked the Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon, to incorporate Prussia into the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
as a fief. This marked the beginning of the Thirteen Years\' War (1454-66) between the State of the Teutonic Order and the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
. While Königsberg's three towns initially joined the rebellion, Altstadt and Löbenicht soon rejoined the Teutonic Knights and defeated Kneiphof in 1455. Grand Master Ludwig von Erlichshausen fled from the crusaders' capital at Castle Marienburg to Königsberg
Königsberg
in 1457; the city's magistrate presented Erlichshausen with a barrel of beer out of compassion. When western Prussia was transferred to victorious Poland in the Second Peace of Thorn (1466) , which ended the Thirteen Years\' War , Königsberg
Königsberg
became the new capital of the reduced monastic state, which became a fief of the Crown of the Polish Kingdom . The grand masters took over the quarters of the marshal. During the Polish-Teutonic War (1519–1521) , Königsberg
Königsberg
was unsuccessfully besieged by Polish forces led by Grand Crown Hetman Mikołaj Firlej .

DUCHY OF PRUSSIA

The 14th-century Königsberg Cathedral

Through the preachings of the Bishop of Samland , Georg von Polenz , Königsberg
Königsberg
became predominantly Lutheran during the Protestant Reformation . After summoning a quorum of the Knights to Königsberg, Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg
Albert of Brandenburg
(a member of the House of Hohenzollern ) secularised the Teutonic Knights' remaining territories in Prussia in 1525 and converted to Lutheranism. By paying feudal homage to his uncle, King Sigismund I of Poland
Poland
, Albert became the first duke of the new Duchy of Prussia , a fief of Poland. _ Prussian Homage
Prussian Homage
_: Albert of Brandenburg
Albert of Brandenburg
and his brothers receive the Duchy of Prussia as a fief from Polish King Sigismund I the Old , 1525. Painting by Jan Matejko
Jan Matejko
, 1882.

While the Prussian estates quickly allied with the duke, the Prussian peasantry would only swear allegiance to Albert in person at Königsberg, seeking the duke's support against oppressive nobility. After convincing the rebels to lay down their arms, Albert had several of their leaders executed.

Königsberg, the capital, became one of the biggest cities and ports of ducal Prussia, having considerable autonomy, a separate parliament and currency, and with German as its dominant language. The city flourished through the export of wheat , timber , hemp , and furs , as well as pitch , tar , and ash . Königsberg
Königsberg
was one of the few Baltic ports regularly visited by more than one hundred ships annually in the latter 16th century, along with Danzig
Danzig
and Riga
Riga
. The University of Königsberg , founded by Albert in 1544, became a centre of Protestant teaching.

The capable Duke Albert was succeeded by his feeble minded son, Albert Frederick . Anna, daughter of Albert Frederick, married Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg , who was granted the right of succession to Prussia on Albert Frederick's death in 1618. From this time the Electors of Brandenburg , the rulers of Brandenburg-Prussia , governed the Duchy of Prussia and Königsberg.

BRANDENBURG-PRUSSIA

Map of Königsberg
Königsberg
from 1651. Old engraving showing Königsberg
Königsberg

When Imperial and then Swedish armies overran Brandenburg during the Thirty Years\' War of 1618-1648, the Hohenzollern court fled to Königsberg. On 1 November 1641, Elector Frederick William persuaded the Prussian diet to accept an excise tax . In the Treaty of Königsberg
Königsberg
of January 1656, the elector recognized his Duchy of Prussia as a fief of Sweden. In the Treaty of Wehlau in 1657, however, he negotiated the release of Prussia from Polish sovereignty in return for an alliance with Poland. The 1660 Treaty of Oliva confirmed Prussian independence from both Poland
Poland
and Sweden.

In 1661 Frederick William informed the Prussian diet that he possessed _jus supremi et absoluti domini_, and that the Prussian Landtag could convene with his permission. The Königsberg
Königsberg
burghers, led by Hieronymus Roth of Kneiphof, opposed "the Great Elector's" absolutist claims, and actively rejected the Treaties of Wehlau and Oliva, seeing Prussia as "indisputably contained within the territory of the Polish Crown". Delegations from the city's burghers went to the Polish king, Jan Kazimierz , who initially promised aid, but then failed to follow through. The townspeople attacked the elector's troops while local Lutheran priests held masses for the Polish king and for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, Frederick William succeeded in imposing his authority after arriving with 3,000 troops in October 1662 and training his artillery on the town. Refusing to request mercy, Roth went to prison in Peitz until his death in 1678.

The Prussian estates which swore fealty to Frederick William in Königsberg
Königsberg
on 18 October 1663 refused the elector's requests for military funding, and Colonel Christian Ludwig von Kalckstein sought assistance from neighboring Poland. After the elector's agents had abducted Kalckstein, he was executed in 1672. The Prussian estates' submission to Frederick William followed; in 1673 and 1674 the elector received taxes not granted by the estates and Königsberg
Königsberg
received a garrison without the estates' consent. The economic and political weakening of Königsberg
Königsberg
strengthened the power of the Junker nobility within Prussia.

Königsberg
Königsberg
long remained a centre of Lutheran resistance to Calvinism within Brandenburg-Prussia ; Frederick William forced the city to accept Calvinist citizens and property-holders in 1668.

KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA

Coronation of Frederick I , King in Prussia , in 1701.

By the act of coronation in Königsberg Castle on 18 January 1701, Frederick William's son, Elector Frederick III, became Frederick I , King in Prussia . The elevation of the Duchy of Prussia to the Kingdom of Prussia was possible because the Hohenzollerns' authority in Prussia was independent of Poland
Poland
and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
. Since "Kingdom of Prussia" was increasingly used to designate all of the Hohenzollern lands, former ducal Prussia became known as the Province of Prussia (1701–1773), with Königsberg
Königsberg
as its capital. However, Berlin
Berlin
and Potsdam
Potsdam
in Brandenburg were the main residences of the Prussian kings.

The city was wracked by plague and other illnesses from September 1709 to April 1710, losing 9,368 people, or roughly a quarter of its populace. On 13 June 1724, Altstadt , Kneiphof , and Löbenicht amalgamated to formally create the larger city Königsberg. Suburbs that subsequently were annexed to Königsberg
Königsberg
include Sackheim, Rossgarten, and Tragheim. Newly restored Königsberg Cathedral

RUSSIAN EMPIRE

During the Seven Years\' War Imperial Russian troops occupied eastern Prussia at the beginning of 1758 . On 31 December 1757, Empress Elizabeth I of Russia
Russia
issued an _ukase _ about the incorporation of Königsberg
Königsberg
into Russia. On 24 January 1758, the leading burghers of Königsberg
Königsberg
submitted to Elizabeth. Five Imperial Russian general-governors administered the city during the war from 1758–62; they included William Fermor and Nikolaus Friedrich von Korff . With the end of the Seven Years' War the Russian army abandoned the town in 1763.

KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA

After the First Partition of Poland
Poland
in 1772, Königsberg
Königsberg
became the capital of the province of East Prussia
East Prussia
in 1773, which replaced the Province of Prussia in 1773. By 1800 the city was approximately five miles (8.0 km) in circumference and had 60,000 inhabitants, including a military garrison of 7,000, making it one of the most populous German cities of the time. _ Meeting of the Prussian Army reformers (Heeresreform_) in Königsberg
Königsberg
in 1807, lithograph by Carl Röchling

After Prussia's defeat at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1806 during the War of the Fourth Coalition
War of the Fourth Coalition
, King Frederick William III of Prussia fled with his court from Berlin
Berlin
to Königsberg. The city was a centre for political resistance to Napoleon. In order to foster liberalism and nationalism among the Prussian middle class, the "League of Virtue" was founded in Königsberg
Königsberg
in April 1808. The French forced its dissolution in December 1809, but its ideals were continued by the _Turnbewegung _ of Friedrich Ludwig Jahn in Berlin. Königsberg
Königsberg
officials, such as Johann Gottfried Frey , formulated much of Stein 's 1808 _Städteordnung_, or new order for urban communities, which emphasized self-administration for Prussian towns. The East Prussian _ Landwehr _ was organized from the city after the Convention of Tauroggen .

In 1819 Königsberg
Königsberg
had a population of 63,800. It served as the capital of the united Province of Prussia from 1824–1878, when East Prussia was merged with West Prussia . It was also the seat of the Regierungsbezirk Königsberg
Königsberg
, an administrative subdivision.

Led by the provincial president Theodor von Schön and the _Königsberger Volkszeitung _ newspaper, Königsberg
Königsberg
was a stronghold of liberalism against the conservative government of King Frederick William IV . During the revolution of 1848 , there were 21 episodes of public unrest in the city; major demonstrations were suppressed. Königsberg
Königsberg
became part of the German Empire
German Empire
in 1871 during the Prussian-led unification of Germany
Germany
. A sophisticated for its time series of fortifications around the city that included fifteen forts was completed in 1888.

The extensive Prussian Eastern Railway linked the city to Breslau , Thorn , Insterburg , Eydtkuhnen , Tilsit , and Pillau . In 1860 the railway connecting Berlin
Berlin
with St. Petersburg was completed and increased Königsberg's commerce. Extensive electric tramways were in operation by 1900; and regular steamers plied to Memel , Tapiau
Tapiau
and Labiau , Cranz , Tilsit, and Danzig
Danzig
. The completion of a canal to Pillau in 1901 increased the trade of Russian grain in Königsberg, but, like much of eastern Germany, the city's economy was generally in decline. By 1900 the city's population had grown to 188,000, with a 9,000-strong military garrison. By 1914 Königsberg
Königsberg
had a population of 246,000; Jews
Jews
flourished in the culturally pluralistic city.

WEIMAR REPUBLIC

Königsberg
Königsberg
within the borders of East Prussia
East Prussia
from 1919 to 1939.

Following the defeat of the Central Powers
Central Powers
in World War I
World War I
, Imperial Germany
Germany
was replaced with the democratic Weimar Republic . The Kingdom of Prussia ended with the abdication of the Hohenzollern monarch, William , and the kingdom was succeeded by the Free State of Prussia . Königsberg
Königsberg
and East Prussia
East Prussia
, however, were separated from the rest of Weimar Germany
Germany
by the creation of the Polish Corridor .

In 1925, Josef Nadler became professor at Königsberg
Königsberg
university.

NAZI GERMANY

In 1930s Nazis
Nazis
confiscated Jewish shops and, as in the rest of Germany, a public book burning was organized accompanied by anti-Semitic speeches in May 1933 at the Trommelplatz square. Street names and monuments of Jewish origin were removed, and signs such as " Jews
Jews
are not welcomed in hotels" started appearing. As part of the statewide "aryanization" of the civil service Jewish academics were thrown out of the university.

In 1932 the local paramilitary SA had already started to terrorise their political opponents. On the night of 31 July 1932 there was a bomb attack on the headquarters of the Social Democrats in Königsberg, the Otto-Braun-House . The Communist politician Gustav Sauf was killed, the executive editor of the Social Democrat _"Königsberger Volkszeitung"_, Otto Wyrgatsch, and the German People\'s Party politician Max von Bahrfeldt were severely injured. Members of the Reichsbanner were attacked and the local Reichsbanner Chairman of Lötzen , Kurt Kotzan, was murdered on 6 August 1932.

On July 1934 Adolf Hitler
Hitler
made a speech in the city, gathering 25,000 supporters In 1933 NSDAP alone received 54% of votes in the city After the Nazis
Nazis
took power in Germany, opposition politicians were persecuted and newspapers were banned. The Otto-Braun-House was requisitioned and became the headquarters of the SA, which used the house to imprison and torture opponents. Walter Schütz , a communist member of the Reichstag was murdered here. Many who would not cooperate with the rulers of Nazi Germany
Germany
were sent to concentration camps and held prisoner there until their death or liberation.

In 1935, the Wehrmacht
Wehrmacht
designated Königsberg
Königsberg
as the Headquarters for Wehrkreis I (under the command of General der Artillerie Albert Wodrig ), which took in all of East Prussia
East Prussia
. According to the census of May 1939, Königsberg
Königsberg
had a population of 372,164.

Prior to the Nazi era, Königsberg
Königsberg
was home to a third of East Prussia's 13,000 Jews. Under Nazi rule, the Polish and Jewish minorities were classified as _ Untermensch _ and persecuted by the authorities. The city's Jewish population shrank from 3,200 in 1933 to 2,100 in October 1938. The New Synagogue of Königsberg
Königsberg
, constructed in 1896, was destroyed during Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht
(9 November 1938); 500 Jews
Jews
soon fled the city.

In 1941, in his _Literaturgeschichte des deutschen Volkes_ Prof. Josef Nadler justified the removal of Jews
Jews
from the German _Volksraum_. Shortly thereafter, the city of Königsberg
Königsberg
awarded him with its _Kant Preis_.

After the Wannsee Conference of 20 January 1942, Königsberg's Jews began to be deported to camps such as Maly Trostenets , Theresienstadt , and Auschwitz .

Destruction In World War II

Main articles: Bombing of Königsberg
Königsberg
in World War II
World War II
and Battle of Königsberg
Königsberg

In September 1939 with the German invasion against Poland
Poland
ongoing, the Polish consulate in Königsberg
Königsberg
was attacked (which constituted a violation of international law), its workers arrested and sent to concentration camps where several of them died. Polish students at the local university were captured, tortured and finally executed. Other victims included local Polish civilians guillotined for petty violations of Nazi law and regulations such as buying and selling meat.

In September 1944 there were 69,000 slave labourers registered in the city (not counting prisoners of war), with most of them working on the outskirts; within the city itself 15,000 slave labourers were located. All of them were denied freedom of movement, forced to wear "P" sign if Poles, or "Ost" sign if they were from Soviet Union
Soviet Union
and were watched by special units of Gestapo and Wehrmacht. They were denied basic spiritual and physical needs and food, and suffered from famine and exhaustion. The conditions of the forced labour were described as "tragic", especially Poles
Poles
and Russians, who were treated harshly by their German overseers. Ordered to paint German ships with toxic paints and chemicals, they were neither given gas-masks nor was there any ventilation in facilities where they worked, in order to speed up the construction of the ships, while the substances evaporated in temperatures as low as 40 Celsius. As a result, there were cases of sudden illness or death during the work.

In 1944, Königsberg
Königsberg
suffered heavy damage from British bombing attacks and burned for several days. The historic city centre, especially the original quarters Altstadt, Löbenicht, and Kneiphof, was destroyed, including the cathedral, the castle, all churches of the old city, the old and the new universities, and the old shipping quarters. Königsberg
Königsberg
in ruins after Allied bombings, 1945

Many people fled from Königsberg
Königsberg
ahead of the Red Army
Red Army
's advance after October 1944, particularly after word spread of the Soviet atrocities at Nemmersdorf . In early 1945, Soviet forces, under the command of the Polish-born Soviet Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky , besieged the city that Hitler
Hitler
had envisaged as the home for a museum holding all the Germans
Germans
had 'found in Russia'. In Operation Samland , General Baghramyan\'s 1st Baltic Front , now known as the Samland Group, captured Königsberg
Königsberg
in April. Although Hitler
Hitler
had declared Königsberg
Königsberg
an "invincible bastion of German spirit", the Soviets captured the city after three-month-long siege. A temporary German breakout had allowed some of the remaining civilians to escape via train and naval evacuation from the nearby port of Pillau. Königsberg, which had been declared a "fortress" (_Festung _) by the Germans, was fanatically defended.

On 21 January, during the Red Army
Red Army
's East Prussian Offensive , mostly Polish and Hungarian Jews
Jews
from Seerappen, Jesau, Heiligenbeil , Schippenbeil, and Gerdauen (subcamps of Stutthof concentration camp ) were gathered in Königsberg. Up to 7,000 of them were forced on a death march to Sambia : those that survived being subsequently executed at Palmnicken .

On 9 April – one month before the end of the war in Europe – the German military commander of Königsberg, General Otto Lasch , surrendered the remnants of his forces, following the three-month-long siege by the Red Army
Red Army
. For this act, Lasch was condemned to death, in absentia, by Hitler. At the time of the surrender, military and civilian dead in the city were estimated at 42,000, with the Red Army claiming over 90,000 prisoners. Lasch's subterranean command bunker was preserved as a museum in today's Kaliningrad. Refugees from Königsberg
Königsberg
fleeing to West Germany
Germany
before the advancing Red Army
Red Army
in 1945

About 120,000 survivors remained in the ruins of the devastated city. These survivors, mainly women, children and the elderly, plus a few others who had returned immediately after the fighting ended, were held as slave labourers until 1949. The vast majority of the German civilians left in Königsberg
Königsberg
after 1945, died from disease or deliberate starvation, or in revenge-driven ethnic cleansing. The remaining 20,000 German residents were expelled in 1949–50.

SOVIET RUSSIAN KALININGRAD

Main article: Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad

As agreed by the Allies at the Potsdam
Potsdam
Conference , northern Prussia, including Königsberg, was annexed by the USSR, which attached it to the Russian SFSR . In 1946, the city's name was changed to Kaliningrad . Northern Prussia remained part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
until its dissolution in 1991, and since then has been an exclave of the Russian Federation .

DEMOGRAPHICS

The vast majority of the population belonged to the Lutheran Church and other Protestant denominations . Number of inhabitants, by year

* 1400: 10,000 * 1663: 40,000 * 1819: 63,869 * 1840: 70,839 * 1855: 83,593 * 1871: 112,092 * 1880: 140,909 * 1890: 172,796 * 1900: 189,483 (including the military), among whom were 8,465 Roman Catholics and 3,975 Jews
Jews
. * 1905: 223,770, among whom were 10,320 Roman Catholics , 4,415 Jews and 425 Poles. * 1910: 245,994 * 1919: 260,895 * 1925: 279,930, among whom were 13,330 Catholics, 4,050 Jews
Jews
and approximately 6,000 others. * 1933: 315,794 * 1939: 372,164 * 1945: 73,000

JEWS

New Synagogue Main article: History of the Jews
Jews
in Königsberg
Königsberg

The Jewish community in the city had its origins in the 16th century, with the arrival of the first Jews
Jews
in 1538. The first synagogue was built in 1756. A second, smaller synagogue which serviced Orthodox Jews
Jews
was constructed later, eventually becoming the New Synagogue .

The Jewish population of Königsberg
Königsberg
in the 18th century was fairly low, although this changed as restrictions became relaxed over the course of the 19th century. In 1756 there were 29 families of "protected Jews" in Königsberg, which increased to 57 by 1789. The total number of Jewish inhabitants was less than 500 in the middle of the 18th century, and around 800 by the end of it, out of a total population of almost 60,000 people.

The number of Jewish inhabitants peaked in 1880 at about 5,000, many of whom were migrants escaping pogroms in the Russian empire
Russian empire
. This number declined subsequently so that by 1933, when the Nazis
Nazis
took over, the city had about 3,200 Jews. As a result of anti-semitism and persecution in the 1920s and 1930s two thirds of the city's Jews emigrated, mostly to the US and Great Britain. Those who remained were shipped by the Germans
Germans
to concentration camps in two waves; first in 1938 to various camps in Germany, and the second in 1942 to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in occupied Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, Kaiserwald concentration camp in occupied Latvia
Latvia
, as well as camps in Minsk in occupied Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic .

LITHUANIANS

University of Königsberg was an important center of Protestant Lithuanian culture and studies. Abraomas Kulvietis and Stanislovas Rapalionis are also seen as important early Lithuanian scholars. Daniel Klein published the first Lithuanian grammar book in Königsberg
Königsberg
in 1653.

POLES

Main article: History of Poles
Poles
in Königsberg
Königsberg
Steindamm Church , also known as the Polish Church, in 1908

Poles
Poles
were among the first professors of the University of Königsberg
Königsberg
, which received the royal Law of Privilege from king Sigismund II Augustus of Poland
Poland
on 28 March 1560. University of Königsberg
Königsberg
lecturers included Hieronim Malecki (theology), Maciej Menius (astronomy ) and Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (medicine ). Jan Kochanowski and Stanislaw Sarnicki were among the first students known to be Polish, later Florian Ceynowa , Wojciech Kętrzynski and Julian Klaczko studied in Königsberg. For 24 years Celestyn Myślenta (who first registered at the University as "Polonus") was a seven time rector of the university, while Maciej Menius was a three times rector. From 1728 there was a "Polish Seminar" at the seminary of Protestant theology, which operated until the early 1930s and had developed a number of pastors , including Christoph Mrongovius and August Grzybowski . Duke Albert of Prussia established a press in Königsberg
Königsberg
that issued thousands of Polish pamphlets and religious books. During the Reformation Königsberg
Königsberg
became a place of refuge for Polish Protestant adherents, a training ground for Polish Protestant clergy and a source of Polish Protestant literature. In 1564 Jan Mączyński issued his Polish-Latin lexicon at Königsberg.

According to historian Janusz Jasiński , based on estimates obtained from the records of St. Nicholas's Church, during the 1530s Lutheran Poles
Poles
constituted about one quarter of the city population. This does not include Polish Catholics or Calvinists who did not have centralized places of worship until the 17th century, hence records that far back for these two groups are not available.

From the 16th to 20th centuries, the city was a publishing center of Polish-language religious literature. In 1545 in Königsberg
Königsberg
a Polish catechism was printed by Jan Seklucjan . In 1551 the first translation of the New Testament
New Testament
in Polish language came out, issued by Stanisław Murzynowski . Murzynowski's collections of sermons were delivered by Eustachy Trepka and in 1574 by Hieronim Malecki . The works of Mikolaj Rej were printed here by Seklucjan. Maciej Stryjkowski announced in Königsberg
Königsberg
the publication of his _Kronika Polska, Litewska, Żmudzka, i wszystkiej Rusi_ ("A Chronicle of Poland, Lithuania, Samogitia and all Rus").

Although formally the relationship of these lands with Poland
Poland
stopped at the end of the 17th century, in practice the Polish element in Königsberg
Königsberg
played a significant role for the next century, until the outbreak of World War II. Before the second half of the 19th century many municipal institutions (e.g. courts, magistrates) employed Polish translators, and there was a course in the Polish language at the university. Polish books were issued as well as magazines with the last one being the _Kalendarz Staropruski Ewangelicki_ (Old Prussian Evangelical Calendar) issued between 1866 and 1931.

During the Protestant Reformation the oldest church in Königsberg, St. Nicholas , was opened for non-Germans, especially Lithuanians and Poles. Services for Lithuanians started in 1523, and by the mid-16th century also included ones for Poles. By 1603 it had become a solely Polish-language church as Lithuanian service was moved to St. Elizabeth . In 1880 St. Nicholas was converted to a German-language church; weekly Polish services remained only for Masurians in the Prussian Army , although those were halted in 1901. The church was bombed in 1944, further destroyed in 1945, and the remaining ruins were dismantled after the war in 1950.

CULTURE AND SOCIETY OF KöNIGSBERG

Further information: List of people from Königsberg Statue of Immanuel Kant (1990s replacement) in Königsberg
Königsberg
( Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
)

Königsberg
Königsberg
was the birthplace of the mathematician Christian Goldbach and the writer E.T.A. Hoffmann , as well as the home of the philosopher Immanuel Kant , who lived there virtually all his life and rarely travelled more than ten miles (16 km) away from the city. Kant entered the university of Königsberg
Königsberg
at age 16 and was appointed to a chair in metaphysics there in 1770 at the age of 46. While working there he published his _ Critique of Pure Reason _ (arguing that knowledge arises from the application of innate concepts to sensory experience) and his _ Metaphysics of Morals _ which argues that virtue is acquired by the performance of duty for its own sake. In 1736, the mathematician Leonhard Euler
Leonhard Euler
used the arrangement of the city's bridges and islands as the basis for the Seven Bridges of Königsberg Problem , which led to the mathematical branches of topology and graph theory . In the 19th century Königsberg
Königsberg
was the birthplace of the influential mathematician David Hilbert .

The dialect spoken by most citizens was Low Prussian , now a moribund language as its refugee speakers are elderly and dying out. The Königstor (King\'s Gate) in the 19th century

In the Königsstraße (King Street) stood the Academy of Art with a collection of over 400 paintings. About 50 works were by Italian masters; some early Dutch paintings were also to be found there. At the Königstor (King\'s Gate) stood statues of King Ottakar I of Bohemia , Albert of Prussia , and Frederick I of Prussia . Königsberg had a magnificent Exchange (completed in 1875) with fine views of the harbor from the staircase. Along Bahnhofsstraße ("Station Street") were the offices of the famous Royal Amber Works – Samland was celebrated as the " Amber Coast
Amber Coast
". There was also an observatory fitted up by the astronomer Friedrich Bessel , a botanical garden, and a zoological museum. The "Physikalisch", near the Heumarkt, contained botanical and anthropological collections and prehistoric antiquities. Two large theatres built during the Wilhelmine
Wilhelmine
era were the Stadt (city) Theatre and the Appollo. Eastern side of Königsberg Castle, ca. 1900.

Königsberg Castle was one of the city's most notable structures. The former seat of the Grand Masters of the Teutonic Knights and the Dukes of Prussia , it contained the Schloßkirche , or palace church, where Frederick I was crowned in 1701 and William I in 1861. It also contained the spacious Moscowiter-Saal, one of the largest halls in the German Reich
German Reich
, and a museum of Prussian history.

Königsberg
Königsberg
became a centre of education when the Albertina University was founded by Duke Albert of Prussia in 1544. The university was opposite the north and east side of the Königsberg Cathedral . Lithuanian scholar Stanislovas Rapalionis , one of founding fathers of the university, was the first professor of theology.

As a consequence of the Protestant Reformation , the 1525 and subsequent Prussian church orders called for providing religious literature in the languages spoken by the recipients. Duke Albrecht thus called in a Danzig
Danzig
(Gdańsk) book printer, Hans Weinreich , who was soon joined by other book printers, to publish Lutheran literature not only in German and (New) Latin, but also in Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian and Polish. The expected audience were inhabitants of the duchy, religious refugees, Lutherans in neighboring Ermland (Warmia), Lithuania, and Poland
Poland
as well as Lutheran priests from Poland
Poland
and Lithuania
Lithuania
called in by the duke. Königsberg
Königsberg
thus became a center of printing German- and other language books: In 1530, the first Polish translation of Luther\'s Small Catechism was published by Weinrich. In 1545, Weinreich published two Old Prussian editions of the catechism, which are the oldest printed and second-oldest books in that language after the handwritten 14th century "Elbing dictionary". The first Lithuanian-language book, _Catechismvsa prasty szadei, makslas skaitima raschta yr giesmes_ by Martynas Mažvydas , was also printed in Königsberg, published by Weinreich in 1547. Further Polish- and Lithuanian-language religious and non-religious prints followed. One of the first newspapers in Polish language was published in Königsberg
Königsberg
in the years 1718-1720 _ Poczta Królewiecka _.

There was a Bismarck tower just outside Königsberg, on the Galtgarben, the highest point on the Sambian peninsula. It was built in 1906 and destroyed by German troops sometime in January 1945 as the Russians
Russians
approached .

SPORTS

Sports clubs which played in Königsberg
Königsberg
included VfB Königsberg and SV Prussia-Samland Königsberg . Lilli Henoch , the world record holder in the discus , shot put , and 4 × 100 meters relay events who was killed by the Nazis, was born in Königsberg, as was Eugen Sandow , dubbed the "father of modern bodybuilding". Segelclub RHE , Germany's oldest sailing club , was founded in Königsberg
Königsberg
in 1855. The club still exists, and is now headquartered in Hamburg
Hamburg
.

CUISINE

Königsberg-style marzipan

Königsberg
Königsberg
was well-known within Germany
Germany
for its unique regional cuisine. A popular dish from the city was Königsberger Klopse , which is still made today in some specialty restaurants in Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
and present-day Germany.

Other food and drink native to the city included:

* Königsberger Marzipan * Kopskiekelwein , a wine made from blackcurrants or redcurrants * Bärenfang * Ochsenblut , literally "ox blood", a champagne-burgundy cocktail mixed at the popular Blutgericht pub, which no longer exists

FORTIFICATIONS

Main article: Königsberg fortifications Dohna Tower, the last to surrender after the Soviet storming of Königsberg
Königsberg
in 1945.

The fortifications of Königsberg
Königsberg
consist of numerous defensive walls , forts, bastions and other structures. They make up the First and the Second Defensive Belt, built in 1626–1634 and 1843–1859, respectively. The 15 metre-thick First Belt was erected due to Königsberg's vulnerability during the Polish–Swedish wars
Polish–Swedish wars
. The Second Belt was largely constructed on the place of the first one, which was in a bad condition. The new belt included twelve bastions, three ravelins , seven spoil banks and two fortresses, surrounded by water moat . Ten brick gates served as entrances and passages through defensive lines and were equipped with moveable bridges .

NOTABLE PEOPLE

WRITERS

* Stanisław Murzynowski (c.1527–53), Polish writer, translator and Protestant religionist * Caspar Schütz (c.1540 Eisleben – 1594 Danzig
Danzig
) German historian * Martynas Mažvydas (1510–63), Lithuanian-German writer, translator and Protestant religionist * Johann Georg Hamann (1730–88), German philosopher * E. T. A. Hoffmann (1776–1822), German author * Immanuel Kant (1724–1804), German philosopher * Ferdinand Nesselmann (1811 Fürstenau – 1881 Königsberg), German philologist * Fanny Lewald (1811–89), German feminist and author * Abraham Mapu (1808–67), German-Jewish novelist * Friedrich Radszuweit (1876–1932), German author and publisher * Agnes Miegel (1879–1964), German author * Max Colpet (1905–98), German-American songwriter * Leah Goldberg (1911–1970), Israeli poet

SCIENTISTS

* Christian Goldbach (1690–1764), German mathematician * Johann Bartsch (1709–1738), German physician and botanist * Karl Gottfried Hagen (1749–1829), German chemist * Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen (1797–1884), German physicist * Ludwig Otto Hesse (1811–1874), German mathematician * Adolph Eduard Grube (1812–1880), German zoologist * Gustav Robert Kirchhoff (1824–87), German physicist * Karl Rudolf König (1832–1901), German physicist * Carl Neumann (1832–1925), German mathematician * Rudolf Lipschitz (1832–1903), German mathematician * Alfred Clebsch (1833–1872), German mathematician * Franz Ernst Christian Neumann (1834–1918), German pathologist * Ernst Hugo Heinrich Pfitzer (1846–1906), German botanist * Otto Wallach (1847–1931), German chemist * David Hilbert (1862–1943), German mathematician * Hermann Minkowski (1864–1909), German-Jewish mathematician * Arnold Sommerfeld (1868–1951), German physicist * Hermann Eichhorst (1849–1921), German-Swiss physician * Max Wien (1866–1938), German physicist * Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899–1986), German biochemist

OTHERS

* Stanislovas Rapalionis (1485–1545), Lithuanian-German Protestant religionist * Abraomas Kulvietis (1509–45), Lithuanian-German jurist and Protestant religionist * Anton Möller (c.1563–1611), German painter * August Kohn (1732–c.1801/2), German violinist and composer * Friedrich von der Trenck (1726–94), German officer and adventurer * Johann Jacoby (1805–77), German-Jewish politician * Carl Otto Nicolai (1810–49), German composer and conductor * Eduard von Simson (1810–99), German jurist and politician * Hermann August Hagen (1817–93) Cambridge
Cambridge
, USA, German-American entomologist * Walter Liebenthal (1886–1982), German sinologist and philosopher * Pavel Pabst (1854–97), German-Russian pianist and composer * Heinz Tiessen (1887–1971), German composer * Erich von Drygalski (1865–1949), German-Polish explorer * Käthe Kollwitz (1867–1945), German painter and sculptor * Eugen Sandow (1867–1925), German bodybuilder * Otto Braun
Otto Braun
, (1872–1955), German statesman and politician * Hans Feige
Hans Feige
, (1880–1953), German general * Bruno Taut (1880–1938), German architect * Max Taut (1884–1967), German architect * Carl Friedrich Goerdeler (1884–1945), German politician * Moshe Smoira (1888–1961), first President of the Supreme Court of Israel * Lilli Henoch (1899–1942), German-Jewish athlete * Hannah Arendt (1906–75), German-Jewish-American political scientist * Josef Hirsch Dunner (1913–2007), chief rabbi of East Prussia 1936-1938 * Gerhard Barkhorn (1919–83), German fighter pilot * Michael Wieck (born 1928), German musician and author * de:Helmut Komp (born 1930), German writer and translator * Thomas Eichelbaum (born 1931), German-Jewish-New Zealander jurist * Witta Pohl (1937–2011), German actress * Heinrich August Winkler (born 1938), German historian * Veruschka von Lehndorff (born 1939), German model, actress and artist * Werner Ostendorff (1903–1945), German SS Major General ( Gruppenführer ) of the 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich * Philipp Friedrich Alexander, Fürst zu Eulenburg und Hertefeld, Graf von Sandels (1847-1921)

SEE ALSO

* Seven Bridges of Königsberg * Kaliningrad
Kaliningrad
(Königsberg) dispute * Königsberger Paukenhund , traditional kettle drum dog of the Prussian infantry

REFERENCES

Literature

* Baedeker, Karl (1904). _Baedeker's Northern Germany_. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 395. * Biskup, Marian . _ Königsberg
Königsberg
gegenüber Polen und dem Litauen der Jagiellonen zur Zeit des Mittelalters (bis 1525)_ in Królewiec a Polska Olsztyn 1993 (in German) * Bötticher, Adolf (1897). _Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Ostpreußen. Heft VII. Königsberg_ (in German). Königsberg: Rautenberg. p. 395. * Christiansen, Erik (1997). _The Northern Crusades_. London: Penguin Books . p. 287. ISBN 0-14-026653-4 . * Clark, Christopher (2006). _Iron Kingdom: The Rise and Downfall of Prussia 1600–1947_. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard. p. 776. ISBN 0-674-02385-4 . * Clark, Peter B. (2013). _The Death of East Pussia - War and Revenge in Germany's Easternmost Province_. USA: Andover Press. ISBN 978-1-481935-75-3 . * Gause, Fritz : _Die Geschichte der Stadt Königsberg
Königsberg
in Preußen_. Three volumes, Böhlau, Cologne
Cologne
1996, ISBN 3-412-08896-X (in German). * Holborn, Hajo (1964). _A History of Modern Germany: 1648-1840_. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 556. * Holborn, Hajo (1982). _A History of Modern Germany: 1840-1945_. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 844. ISBN 0-691-00797-7 . * Kirby, David (1990). _Northern Europe in the Early Modern Period: The Baltic World, 1492–1772_. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-00410-1 . * Kirby, David (1999). _The Baltic World, 1772–1993: Europe’s Northern Periphery in an Age of Change_. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-00408-X . * "Juden in Königsberg" (in German). Ostpreussen.net. 2006-12-12. Retrieved 2008-03-05. * Turnbull, Stephen (2003). _Crusader Castles of the Teutonic Knights (1): The red-brick castles of Prussia 1230–1466_. Oxford: Osprey Publishing . p. 64. ISBN 1-84176-557-0 . * Urban, William (2003). _The Teutonic Knights: A Military History_. London: Greenhill Books . p. 290. ISBN 1-85367-535-0 . * Wieck, Michael (2003). _A Childhood Under Hitler
Hitler
and Stalin: Memoirs of a "Certified Jew_. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press . ISBN 0-299-18544-3 . * Zinkevičius, Zigmas (2008). _Mažosios Lietuvos indėlis į lietuvių kultūrą_. Vilnius: Mokslo ir enciklopedijų leidybos institutas . p. 286. ISBN 978-5-420-01621-3 .

Notes

* ^ Bradbury, Jim (2004). _Routledge Companion to Medieval Warfare_. p. 75. ISBN -0-203-64466-2 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Zieniukowa, J (2007). "On the History of Polish Language in Königsberg". _Acta Baltico-Slavica. Archeologia, Historia, Ethnographia, et Linguarum Scientia_. 31: 325–337. * ^ "THE STATUS OF THE KALININGRAD OBLAST UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW, LITHUANIAN QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ARTS AND SCIENCES". lituanus.org. Retrieved 2017-02-05. * ^ _The Monthly Review_, p. 609, at Google Books * ^ Biskup * ^ Koch, Hannsjoachim Wolfgang (1978). A history of Prussia. Longman P4 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Baedeker, p. 174 * ^ Seward, p. 107 * ^ Turnbull, p. 13 * ^ Christiansen, p. 205 * ^ _A_ _B_ Christiansen, p. 224 * ^ Christiansen, p. 222 * ^ Urban, pp. 225–226 * ^ Koch, p. 19 * ^ Christiansen, p. 243 * ^ Urban, p. 254 * ^ Koch, p. 33 * ^ Christiansen, p. 247 * ^ Koch, p. 34 * ^ Koch, p. 44 * ^ Kirby, _Northern Europe_, p. 8 * ^ Kirby, _Northern Europe_, p. 13 * ^ Koch, p. 46 * ^ _A_ _B_ Koch, Hannsjoachim Wolfgang (1978). _A history of Prussia_. Longman. p. 56. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Jasiński, Janusz (1994). _Historia Królewca: szkice z XIII-XX stulecia_. Książnica Polska. pp. 80, 103–104. ISBN 8385702032 . * ^ Clark, p. 53 * ^ Koch, p. 57 * ^ Holborn, _1648–1840_, p. 61 * ^ Clark, pp. 121–2 * ^ Kirby, _Northern Europe_, p. 352 * ^ Holborn, _1648–1840_, p. 245 * ^ Zammito, John H. (2002). _Kant, Herder, and the birth of anthropology_. University of Chicago Press. p. 392. ISBN 9780226978598 . * ^ For comparison: Berlin
Berlin
ca. 170,000, Cologne
Cologne
and Frankfurt
Frankfurt
ca. 50,000 each, and Munich
Munich
ca. 30,000. * ^ Koch, p. 160 * ^ Koch, p. 192 * ^ Holborn, _1648–1840_, p. 401 * ^ Clark, p. 361 * ^ Holborn, _1840–1945_, p. 8 * ^ Hauf, R (1980) The Prussian administration of the district of Königsberg, 1871-1920, Quelle & Meyer, Wiebelsheim P21 * ^ Clark, pp. 440–2 * ^ Clark, p. 476 * ^ Holborn, _1840–1945_, p. 51 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ "The Past...". Museum of the World Ocean. Retrieved 2011-01-01. * ^ Kirby, _The Baltic World_, p. 303 * ^ Kirby, _The Baltic World_, p. 205 * ^ Clark, p. 584 * ^ Anna Rosmus _Hitlers Nibelungen_, Samples Grafenau 2015, pp. 170f * ^ Janusz Jasinski, Historia Krolewca, 1994, page 251-252 * ^ Matull, Wilhelm (1973). "Ostdeutschlands Arbeiterbewegung: Abriß ihrer Geschichte, Leistung und Opfer" (PDF) (in German). Holzner Verlag. p. 350. * ^ Die aufrechten Roten von Königsberg
Königsberg
Spiegel.de, 28 June 2009 (in German) * ^ _A_ _B_ Janusz Jasinski, Historia Krolewca, 1994, page 249 * ^ Matull, page 357 * ^ GRC, p. 37 * ^ Anna Rosmus Hitlers Nibelungen, Samples Grafenau 2015, p. 171 * ^ _A_ _B_ Ostpreussen.net * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Janusz Jasinski, Historia Krolewca, 1994, page 256 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Janusz Jasinski, _Historia Krolewca_, 1994, p. 257. * ^ Gilbert, M (1989) Second World War, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, P582-3 * ^ _Berlin_ , Antony Beevor * ^ _A Writer at War_ Vasily Grossman, Edited & Translated by Antony Beevor and Luba Vinoradova, Pimlico, 2006 * ^ Gilbert, M (1989) _Second World War_, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, P291 * ^ Jukes.Stalin's Generals, p. 30 * ^ Beevor, A (2002) _Berlin: The Downfall 1945_ Penguin Books. p. 91. * ^ Gilbert, M (1989) _Second World War_, Weidenfeld and Nicolson, London, P660 * ^ Hastings, M (2005) 2nd ed _Armageddon: The Battle for Germany 1944-45_, Pan Macmillan, P291 * ^ "visitkaliningrad.com". visitkaliningrad.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12. * ^ de Zayas, Alfred-Maurice: A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the Eastern European Germans
Germans
1944–1950, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994 * ^ Michael Wieck: A Childhood Under Hitler
Hitler
and Stalin: Memoirs of a "Certified Jew," University of Wisconsin Press, 2003, ISBN 0-299-18544-3 , Hans Lehndorff: East Prussian Diary, A Journal of Faith, 1945–1947 London
London
1963 * ^ _Meyers Konversations-Lexikon_. 6th edition, vol. 11, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, p. 387 (in German). * ^ _Gemeindelexikon für das Königreich Preußen_. Heft 1, Verlag des Königlichen Statistischen Landesamtes, Berlin
Berlin
1907, p. 118 + 119 (in German). * ^ _Der Große Brockhaus_, 15th edition, vol. 10 (Leipzig 1931), p. 382 (in German). * ^ Reade, Cyril (2007). _Mendelssohn to Mendelsohn: Visual Case Studies of Jewish Life in Berlin_. Peter Lang. pp. 49–50. ISBN 3039105310 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Jasiński, Janusz (1994). _Historia Królewca: szkice z XIII-XX stulecia_. Olsztyn: Ksiaznica Polska. p. 172. ISBN 83-85702-03-2 . * ^ Danny, Isabel (2009). _The Fall of Hitler's Fortress City: The Battle for Königsberg, 1945_. Casemate Publishers. pp. 64–74. ISBN 1935149202 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Walenty Piłat (1998). _W kre̢gu kultur bałtyckich_. Wyższa Szkoła Pedagogiczna. p. 82. Retrieved 6 October 2012. * ^ Jerzy Oleksiński (1972). _Bard ziemi mazurskiej_. Nasza Księgarnia. Retrieved 6 October 2012. * ^ Janusz Małłek (1987). _Dwie części Prus: studia z dziejów Prus Książęcych i Prus Królewskich w XVI i XVII wieku_. Wydawn. Pojezierze. p. 193. ISBN 978-83-7002-302-7 . Retrieved 6 October 2012.

* ^ _A_ _B_ Harold Ellis; Sir Roy Calne; Christopher Watson (22 November 2011). _Lecture Notes: General Surgery_. John Wiley & Sons. p. 268. ISBN 978-1-118-29379-9 . Retrieved 6 October 2012.

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