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Global jungle cat range

Synonyms[2]

List

Felis
Felis
catolynx Pallas, 1811 F. erythrotus Hodgson, 1836 F. rüppelii von Brandt, 1832 F. jacquemontii Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1844 F. shawiana Blanford, 1876 Lynx
Lynx
chrysomelanotis (Nehring, 1902)

The jungle cat ( Felis
Felis
chaus), also called the reed cat or swamp cat, is a medium-sized cat native to the Middle East, South and Southeast Asia and southern China. It is listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN Red List.[1] It is a member of the genus Felis
Felis
and was first described by Johann Anton Güldenstädt in 1776. Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
gave the jungle cat its present binomial name and is therefore generally considered as binomial authority. Three subspecies are recognised at present.[3] The jungle cat is a large, long-legged cat; it stands nearly 36 cm (14 in) at shoulder and weighs 2–16 kg (4.4–35.3 lb). Its sandy, reddish-brown or grey coat is uniformly coloured and without spots; melanistic and albino individuals are also known. Moults occur biannually. Typically diurnal, the jungle cat hunts throughout the day. Solitary in nature, jungle cats do not interact appreciably except in the mating season. The only prominent interaction is the mother-kitten bond. Territories are maintained by urine spraying and scent marking. The cat is primarily a carnivore, and prefers small mammals (gerbils, hares and rodents) and birds. It hunts by stalking its prey, followed by a sprint or a leap; the sharp ears help in pinpointing the location of prey. Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are a year old; females enter oestrus from January to March. Mating behaviour is similar to that in the domestic cat: the male pursues the female in oestrus, seizes her by the nape of her neck and mounts her. Gestation lasts nearly two months. Births take place between December and June, though this might vary geographically. Kittens begin to catch their own prey at around six months and leave the mother after eight or nine months. The jungle cat is a habitat generalist; it inhabits places with adequate water and dense vegetation, such as swamps, wetlands and riparian areas. Despite its name, the jungle cat shuns rainforests and woodlands. The jungle cat is listed as Least Concern
Least Concern
on the IUCN Red List and is mainly threatened by destruction of wetlands, trapping and poisoning. The status of the cat in the wild needs further study, though populations are thought to be declining.

Contents

1 Taxonomy and phylogeny

1.1 Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
tree 1.2 Taxonomic history 1.3 Classification

2 Characteristics 3 Distribution and habitat 4 Ecology and behaviour

4.1 Diet and hunting 4.2 Reproduction

5 Threats 6 Conservation 7 References 8 External links

Taxonomy and phylogeny[edit] Phylogenetic
Phylogenetic
tree[edit] In 2006, the phylogenetic relationship of the jungle cat was described as follows:[4][5]

Cheetah
Cheetah
( Acinonyx
Acinonyx
jubatus)

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(P. yagouaroundi)

Felis

Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus)

Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes)

Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita)

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris silvestris)

Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti)

African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. silvestris lybica)

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
( Otocolobus
Otocolobus
manul)

Prionailurus

The jungle cat is a member of the genus Felis
Felis
within the Felidae family.[2] Results of an mtDNA analysis of 55 jungle cats from various biogeographic zones in India indicate a high genetic variation and a relatively low differentiation between populations. It appears that the central Indian F. c. kutas population separates the Thar F. c. prateri populations from the rest and also the south Indian F. c. kelaarti populations from the north Indian F. c. affinis ones. The central Indian populations are genetically closer to the southern than to the northern populations.[6] Taxonomic history[edit]

Illustration of the jungle cat, 1874

Illustration, 1904

The Baltic-German naturalist Johann Anton Güldenstädt was the first scientist who observed a jungle cat in the southern frontier of the Russian empire during his travels in 1768–1775 undertaken at the behest of Catherine II of Russia.[7] He described the animal in 1776 under the name "chaus".[8][9] In 1778, Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber
used chaus as the species name and is therefore considered the binomial authority.[2][10] Paul Matschie
Paul Matschie
in 1912 and Joel Asaph Allen
Joel Asaph Allen
in 1920 challenged the validity of Güldenstädt's nomenclature, arguing that the name Felis
Felis
auriculis apice nigro barbatis was not a binomen and therefore improper, and that "chaus" was used as a common name rather than as part of the scientific name.[11] In the 1820s, Eduard Rüppell
Eduard Rüppell
collected a female jungle cat near Lake Manzala in the Nile Delta.[12] Thomas Hardwicke’s collection of illustrations of Indian wildlife comprises the first drawing of an Indian jungle cat, named the "allied cat" ( Felis
Felis
affinis) by John Edward Gray in 1830.[13] Two years later, Johann Friedrich von Brandt proposed a new species under the name Felis
Felis
rüppelii, recognising the distinctness of the Egyptian jungle cat.[14] The same year, a stuffed cat was presented at a meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal
Asiatic Society of Bengal
that had been caught in the jungles of Midnapore
Midnapore
in West Bengal, India. J. T. Pearson, who donated the specimen, proposed the name Felis
Felis
kutas, noting that it differed in colouration from Felis
Felis
chaus.[15] Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire described a jungle cat from the area of Dehra Dun in northern India in 1844 under the name Felis
Felis
jacquemontii in memory of Victor Jacquemont.[16] In 1836, Brian Houghton Hodgson
Brian Houghton Hodgson
proclaimed the red-eared cat commonly found in Nepal
Nepal
to be a lynx and therefore named it Lynchus erythrotus;[17] Edward Frederick Kelaart described the first jungle cat skin from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
in 1852 and stressed upon its close resemblance to Hodgson's red cat.[18] William Thomas Blanford
William Thomas Blanford
pointed out the lynx-like appearance of cat skins and skulls from the plains around Yarkant County
Yarkant County
and Kashgar when he described Felis
Felis
shawiana in 1876.[19] Nikolai Severtzov
Nikolai Severtzov
proposed the generic name Catolynx in 1858,[20] followed by the suggestion of Chaus catolynx by Leopold Fitzinger
Leopold Fitzinger
for the "swamp lynx" in 1869.[21] In 1898, William Edward de Winton proposed to subordinate the specimens from the Caucasus, Persia and Turkestan
Turkestan
to Felis
Felis
chaus typica, and regrouped the lighter built specimens from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
to F. c. affinis. He renamed the Egyptian jungle cat as F. c. nilotica because Felis
Felis
rüppelii was already applied to a different cat. A skin collected near Jericho
Jericho
in 1864 led him to describe a new subspecies, F. c. furax, as this skin was smaller than other Egyptian jungle cat skins.[22] A few years later, Alfred Nehring also described a jungle cat skin collected in Palestine, which he named Lynx
Lynx
chrysomelanotis.[23] Reginald Innes Pocock reviewed the nomenclature of felids in 1917 and classified the jungle cat group as part of the genus Felis.[24] In the 1930s, Pocock reviewed the jungle cat skins and skulls from British India
British India
and adjacent countries. Based mainly on differences in fur length and colour he subordinated the specimens from Turkestan
Turkestan
to Balochistan to F. c. chaus, the Himalayan ones to F. c. affinis, the ones from Cutch to Bengal
Bengal
under F. c. kutas, and the tawnier ones from Burma under F. c. fulvidina. He newly described six larger skins from Sind
Sind
as F. c. prateri, and skins with shorter coats from Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and southern India as F. c. kelaarti.[25] Classification[edit] In 2005, the authors of Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World recognized 10 subspecies as valid taxa.[2] Since 2017, the Cat
Cat
Specialist Group considers only three subspecies as valid. Geographical variation of the jungle cat is not yet well understood and needs to be examined.[3] The following table is based on the classification of the species provided in Mammal
Mammal
Species of the World. It also shows the synonyms used in the revision of the Cat
Cat
Classification Task Force:

Subspecies Synonymous with Distribution

F. c. chaus Schreber, 1777

F. c. furax de Winton, 1898 F. c. nilotica de Winton, 1898 F. c. maimanah Zukowsky, 1915 F. c. oxiana Heptner, 1969

Caucasus, Turkestan, Iran, Baluchistan
Baluchistan
and Yarkand, Chinese Turkestan, Palestine, southern Syria, Iraq, Egypt;[26] northern Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and south of the Amu Darya River;[27] along the right tributaries of the Amu Darya River, in the lower courses of the Vakhsh River
Vakhsh River
ranging eastwards to the Gissar Valley and slightly beyond Dushanbe.[28]

F. c. affinis Gray, 1830

F. c. kutas Pearson, 1832 F. c. kelaarti Pocock, 1939 F. c. prateri Pocock, 1939 F. c. valbalala Deraniyagala, 1955

South Asia: Himalayan region ranging from Kashmir
Kashmir
and Nepal
Nepal
to Sikkim, Bengal
Bengal
westwards to Kutch and Yunnan, southern India and Sri Lanka[26]

F. c. fulvidina Thomas, 1929

Southeast Asia: ranging from Myanmar
Myanmar
and Thailand
Thailand
to Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam[26]

Characteristics[edit]

A close view of a jungle cat F. c. affinis. Note the plain coat and the dark-tipped hairs.

The jungle cat is a large, long-legged cat; it is, in fact, the largest of the extant Felis
Felis
species.[29] The head-and-body length is typically between 59 and 76 centimetres (23 and 30 in). This cat stands nearly 36 centimetres (14 in) at shoulder and weighs 2–16 kilograms (4.4–35.3 lb).[30][31] A study found that body size showed a decrease from west (Israel) to east (India); this was attributed to greater competition from small cats in the east;[32] body size shows a similar decrease from the northern latitudes toward the tropics. Sexually dimorphic, females tend to be smaller and lighter than males.. The face is long and narrow, with a white muzzle. The large, pointed ears, 4.5–8 centimetres (1.8–3.1 in) in length and reddish brown on the back, are set close together; a small tuft of black hairs, nearly 15 millimetres (0.59 in) long, emerges from the tip of both ears. The eyes have yellow irides and elliptical pupils; white lines can be seen around the eye. Dark lines run from the corner of the eyes down the sides of the nose and a dark patch marks the nose.[30][31][33][34] The skull is fairly broad in the region of the zygomatic arch; hence the head of this cat appears relatively rounder.[28] The coat, sandy, reddish brown or grey, is uniformly coloured and lacks spots; melanistic and albino individuals have been reported from the Indian subcontinent. White cats observed in the coastline tracts of the southern Western Ghats
Western Ghats
lacked the red eyes typical of true albinos. A 2014 suggested that their colouration could be attributed to inbreeding.[35] Kittens are striped and spotted, and adults may retain some of the markings. Dark-tipped hairs cover the body, giving the cat a speckled appearance. The belly is generally lighter than the rest of the body and the throat is pale. The fur is denser on the back compared to the underparts. Two moults can be observed in a year; the coat is rougher and lighter in summer than in winter. The insides of the forelegs show four to five rings; faint markings may be seen on the outside. The black-tipped tail, 21–36 centimetres (8.3–14.2 in) long, is marked by two to three dark rings on the last third of the length.[31][33] The pawprints measure about 5 by 6 centimetres (2.0 in × 2.4 in); the cat can cover 29 to 32 centimetres (11 to 13 in) in one step.[28] There is a distinct spinal crest.[34] Because of its long legs, short tail and tuft on the ears, the jungle cat resembles a small lynx.[33] The caracal and the African wildcat
African wildcat
have a plain coat as the jungle cat's. The jungle cat is larger and slenderer in comparison to domestic cats.[36] Distribution and habitat[edit]

A jungle cat in the Sundarbans, India

The distribution of jungle cat is largely oriental; it occurs in the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, central and southeastern Asia, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and in southern China.[1][37][34] It is the most common small wild cat in India.[32] Thought to be absent from south of the Isthmus of Kra
Isthmus of Kra
in the Malayan peninsula, the possibility of its occurrence was reported from a highly fragmented forest in the Malaysian state of Selangor
Selangor
in 2010.[38] A habitat generalist, the jungle cat inhabits places with adequate water and dense vegetation, such as swamps, wetlands and riparian areas, grasslands and shrub. It is common in agricultural lands, such as fields of bean and sugarcane, across its range, and has often been sighted near human settlements. As reeds and tall grasses are typical of its habitat, it is known as "reed cat" or "swamp cat".[39][36] It can thrive even in areas of sparse vegetation, but does not adapt well to cold climates and is rare in areas where snowfall is common.[33] Historical records indicate that it occurs up to elevations of 2,310 m (7,580 ft) in the Himalayas.[25] It shuns rainforests and woodlands.[33][29][36] In Indochina, the jungle cat occurs mainly in deciduous forests rich in dipterocarp trees.[40][41] In Iran
Iran
the jungle cat inhabits a variety of habitat types from plains and agriculture lands to mountains at elevations ranging from 45 to 4,178 m (148 to 13,707 ft) in at least 23 of 31 provinces of Iran.[42] In Turkey, it has been recorded in wetlands near Manavgat
Manavgat
and in the Akyatan Lagoon on the southern coast and near Lake Eğirdir.[43][44] Although never truly domesticated, a small number of jungle cats have been found among the cat mummies of Ancient Egypt, dating to 3700 BC.[45] The vast majority of these are domestic cats, suggesting that they may have been used to help control rodent populations.[33] Ecology and behaviour[edit]

The jungle cat rests during the hot midday hours.

The jungle cat is typically diurnal and hunts throughout the day. Its activity tends to decrease during the hot noon hours. It rests in burrows, grass thickets and scrubs. It often sunbathes on winter days. Jungle cats have been estimated to walk 3–6 kilometres (1.9–3.7 mi) at night, although this likely varies depending on the availability of prey. The behaviour of the jungle cat has not been extensively studied. Solitary in nature, it does not associate with conspecifics, except in the mating season. The only prominent interaction is the mother-kitten bond. Territories are maintained by urine spraying and scent marking; some males have been observed rubbing their cheeks on objects to mark them.[31][33] Bears, crocodiles, golden jackals, leopards and snakes are the main predators of the jungle cat.[28][31] The golden jackal, particularly, can be a major competitor to the cat.[46] When it encounters a threat, the jungle cat will vocalise before engaging in attack, producing sounds like small roars – a behavior uncommon for the other members of Felis. The meow of the jungle cat is also somewhat lower than that of a typical domestic cat.[28][31] The jungle cat can host parasites such as Haemaphysalis
Haemaphysalis
ticks and Heterophyes
Heterophyes
trematode species.[47] Diet and hunting[edit]

The posture in which the jungle cat stalks its prey

Primarily a carnivore, the jungle cat prefers small mammals such as gerbils, hares and rodents. It also hunts birds, fish, frogs, insects and small snakes. Its prey typically weighs less than 1 kg (2.2 lb), and occasionally includes mammals as large as young gazelles.[31][33] The jungle cat is unusual in that it is partially omnivorous: it eats fruits, especially in winter. In a study carried out in Sariska Tiger
Tiger
Reserve, rodents were found to comprise as much as 95% of its diet.[48] The jungle cat hunts by stalking its prey, followed by a sprint or a leap; the sharp ears help in pinpointing the location of prey. It uses different techniques to secure prey. The cat has been observed searching for musk rats in their holes. Like the caracal, the jungle cat can perform one or two high leaps into the air to grab birds.[33] It is an efficient climber as well.[28] The jungle cat has been clocked at 32 km/h (20 mph).[29][33] It is an efficient swimmer, and can swim up to 1.5 km (0.93 mi) in water and plunge into water to catch fish.[49] Reproduction[edit] Both sexes become sexually mature by the time they are one year old. Females enter oestrus lasting for about five days, from January to March. In males, spermatogenesis occurs mainly in February and March. In southern Turkmenistan, mating occurs from January to early February. The mating season is marked by noisy fights among males for dominance. Mating behaviour is similar to that in the domestic cat: the male pursues the female in oestrus, seizes her by the nape of her neck and mounts her. Vocalisations and flehmen are prominent during courtship. After a successful copulation, the female gives out a loud cry and reacts with aversion towards her partner. The pair then separate.[28][31] Gestation lasts nearly two months. Births take place between December and June, though this might vary geographically. Before parturition, the mother prepares a den of grass in an abandoned animal burrow, hollow tree or reed bed.[33] Litters comprise one to five kittens, typically two to three kittens. Females can raise two litters in a year.[28][31] Kittens weigh between 43 and 55 g (1.5 and 1.9 oz) at birth, tending to be much smaller in the wild than in captivity. Initially blind and helpless, they open their eyes at 10 to 13 days of age and are fully weaned by around three months. Males usually do not participate in the raising of kittens; however, in captivity, males appear to be very protective of their offspring. Kittens begin to catch their own prey at around six months and leave the mother after eight or nine months.[28][50] The lifespan of the jungle cat in captivity is 15 to 20 years; this is possibly higher than that in the wild.[31] Threats[edit]

Female at side of road near Thol Bird Sanctuary, Gujarat, India

A jungle cat in the Olmense Zoo, Belgium

Major threats to the jungle cat include habitat loss such as the destruction of wetlands, dam construction, environmental pollution, industrialisation and urbanisation. Illegal hunting is a threat in Turkey
Turkey
and Iran. Its rarity in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
is possibly due to high levels of hunting.[1] Since the 1960s, populations of the Caucasian jungle cat living along the Caspian Sea
Caspian Sea
and in the Caucasus
Caucasus
range states have been rapidly declining. Only small populations persist today. There has been no record in the Astrakhan Nature Reserve in the Volga Delta
Volga Delta
since the 1980s.[51] It is rare in the Middle East. In Jordan, it is highly affected by the expansion of agricultural areas around the river beds of Yarmouk and Jordan
Jordan
rivers, where farmers hunted and poisoned jungle cats in retaliation for attacking poultry.[52] It is also considered rare and threatened in Afghanistan.[53] India exported jungle cat skins in large numbers, until this was banned in 1979; some illegal trade, however, continues in the country, as well as in Egypt
Egypt
and Afghanistan.[1] In the 1970s, Southeast Asian jungle cats still used to be the most common wild cats near villages in certain parts of northern Thailand and occurred in many protected areas of the country.[40] However, since the early 1990s, jungle cats are rarely encountered and have suffered drastic declines due to hunting and habitat destruction. Today, their official status in the country is critically endangered.[54] In Cambodia, Laos
Laos
and Vietnam, jungle cats have been subject to extensive hunting. Skins are occasionally recorded in border markets, and live individuals, possibly taken from Myanmar
Myanmar
or Cambodia, occasionally turn up in the Khao Khieo and Chiang Mai
Chiang Mai
zoos of Thailand.[41] Conservation[edit] The jungle cat is listed under CITES
CITES
Appendix II. Hunting is prohibited in Bangladesh, China, India, Israel, Myanmar, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Thailand
Thailand
and Turkey. But it does not receive legal protection outside protected areas in Bhutan, Georgia, Laos, Lebanon, Nepal, Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Vietnam.[39] References[edit]

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Felis chaus (Schreber, 1777)". A Guide to the Mammals of China. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 394. ISBN 978-1-4008-3411-2.  ^ Sanil, R.; Shameer, T.T.; Easa, P.S. (2014). "Albinism in jungle cat and jackal along the coastline of the southern Western Ghats". Cat News. 61: 23–5.  ^ a b c Sunquist, F.; Sunquist, M. (2014). The Wild Cat
Cat
Book: Everything You Ever Wanted to Know about Cats. Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. pp. 239–41. ISBN 978-0-226-78026-9.  ^ Blanford, W.T. (1891). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 86–88.  ^ Sanei, A.; Zakaria, M. (2010). "Possible first jungle cat record from Malaysia". Cat
Cat
News. 53: 13–14.  ^ a b Nowell, K.; Jackson, P. (1996). " Jungle cat
Jungle cat
Felis
Felis
chaus". Wild Cats: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN Species Survival Commission Cat
Cat
Specialist Group. Archived from the original on 24 December 2005. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b Lekagul, B., McNeely, J.A. (1988). Mammals of Thailand. 2nd ed. Saha Karn Bhaet, Bangkok. ^ a b Duckworth, J. W.; Poole, C. M.; Tizard, R. J.; Walston, J. L.; Timmins, R. J. (2005-05-01). "The Jungle Cat
Cat
Felis
Felis
chaus in Indochina: a threatened population of a widespread and adaptable species". Biodiversity & Conservation. 14 (5): 1263–1280. doi:10.1007/s10531-004-1653-4. ISSN 0960-3115.  ^ Sanei, A., Mousavi, M., Rabiee, K., Khosravi, M. S., Julaee, L., Gudarzi, F., Jaafari, B., Chalani, M. (2016). Distribution, characteristics and conservation of the jungle cat in Iran. Catnews Special
Special
Issue 10: 51–55. ^ Avgan, B. (2009). "Sighting of a jungle cat and the threats of its habitat in Turkey". Cat
Cat
News 50: 16.  ^ Ogurlu, I., Gundogdu, E. and Yildirim, I. C. (2010). "Population status of jungle cat ( Felis
Felis
chaus) in Egirdir lake, Turkey". Journal of Environmental Biology (31): 179−183. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Linseele, V.; Van Neer, W.; Hendrickx, S. (2008). "Early cat taming in Egypt: a correction". Journal of Archaeological Science. 35 (9): 2672–2673. doi:10.1016/j.jas.2008.04.009.  ^ Majumder, A.; Sankar, K.; Qureshi, Q.; Basu, S. (2011). "Food habits and temporal activity patterns of the golden jackal Canis
Canis
aureus and the jungle cat Felis
Felis
chaus in Pench Tiger
Tiger
Reserve, Madhya Pradesh" (PDF). Journal of Threatened Taxa. 3 (11): 2221–2225. doi:10.11609/JoTT.o2713.2221-5.  ^ Hoogstraal, H.; Trapido, H. (1963). " Haemaphysalis
Haemaphysalis
silvafelis sp. n., a parasite of the jungle cat in southern India (Ixodoidea, Ixodidae)". The Journal of Parasitology. 49 (2): 346–349. doi:10.2307/3276012. JSTOR 3276012.  ^ Mukherjee, S.; Goyal, S.P.; Johnsingh, A.J.T.; Pitman, M.R.P.L. (2004). "The importance of rodents in the diet of jungle cat (Felis chaus), caracal ( Caracal
Caracal
caracal) and golden jackal ( Canis
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aureus) in Sariska Tiger
Tiger
Reserve, Rajasthan, India" (PDF). Journal of Zoology. 262 (4): 405–411. doi:10.1017/S0952836903004783.  ^ Hinde, G.; Hunter, L. (2005). Cats of Africa: Behaviour, Ecology, and Conservation. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers. p. 76. ISBN 978-1-77007-063-9.  ^ Schauenberg, P. (1979). "La reproduction du Chat des marais Felis chaus (Güldenstädt, 1776)" [Reproduction of swamp cat Felis
Felis
chaus (Güldenstädt, 1776)]. Mammalia (in French). 43 (2): 215–223. doi:10.1515/mamm.1979.43.2.215.  ^ Prisazhnyuk, B.E.; Belousova, A.E. (2007). "Красная Книга России: Кавкаэский Камышовый Кот Felis
Felis
chaus (подвид chaus)" (in Russian). Retrieved 21 April 2016.  ^ Abu-Baker, M.; Nassar, K.; Rifai, L.; Qarqaz, M.; Al-Melhim, W.; Amr, Z. (2003). "On the current status and distribution of the Jungle Cat, Felis
Felis
chaus, in Jordan
Jordan
(Mammalia: Carnivora)" (PDF). Zoology in the Middle East. 30: 5–10. doi:10.1080/09397140.2003.10637982.  ^ Habibi, K. (2003). Mammals of Afghanistan. Zoo Outreach Organisation with assistance from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Coimbatore, India. ^ Lynam, A.J., Round, P., Brockelman, W.Y. (2006). Status of birds and large mammals of the Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex, Thailand. Biodiversity Research and Training Program and Wildlife Conservation Society, Bangkok, Thailand.

External links[edit]

Data related to Felis
Felis
chaus at Wikispecies* Media related to Felis
Felis
chaus at Wikimedia Commons IUCN/SSC Cat
Cat
Specialist Group: Jungle cat
Jungle cat
Felis
Felis
chaus

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat
Domestic cat
(F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard
Leopard
cat (P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter civet
Otter civet
(C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal
Bengal
fox (V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

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Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q42623 ADW: Felis_chaus ARKive: felis-chaus EoL: 328671 Fauna Europaea: 305359 Fossilworks: 224047 GBIF: 2435066 iNaturalist: 41961 ITIS: 183802 IUCN: 8540 MSW: 14000032 NCBI: 61

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