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CARL GUSTAV JUNG (/jʊŋ/ ; Swiss
Swiss
German pronunciation: ; 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss
Swiss
psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology . His work has been influential not only in psychiatry but also in anthropology, archaeology, literature, philosophy, and religious studies. As a notable research scientist based at the famous Burghölzli
Burghölzli
hospital, under Eugen Bleuler
Eugen Bleuler
, he came to the attention of the Viennese founder of psychoanalysis , Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
. The two men conducted a lengthy correspondence and collaborated on an initially joint vision of human psychology. Freud saw in the younger man the potential heir he had been seeking to carry on his "new science" of psychoanalysis. Jung's researches and personal vision, however, made it impossible for him to bend to his older colleague's doctrine and a breach became inevitable. This break was to have historic as well as painful personal repercussions that have lasted to this day. Jung was also an artist, craftsman and builder as well as a prolific writer. Many of his works were not published until after his death and some are still awaiting publication.

Among the central concepts of analytical psychology is individuation —the lifelong psychological process of differentiation of the self out of each individual's conscious and unconscious elements. Jung considered it to be the main task of human development. He created some of the best known psychological concepts, including synchronicity , archetypal phenomena , the collective unconscious , the psychological complex , and extraversion and introversion .

CONTENTS

* 1 Biography

* 1.1 Early years

* 1.1.1 Childhood family * 1.1.2 Childhood memories * 1.1.3 University studies and early career * 1.1.4 Wartime army service * 1.1.5 Marriage

* 2 Relationship with Freud

* 2.1 Meeting and collaboration * 2.2 Divergence and break

* 2.3 Midlife isolation

* 2.3.1 London 1913–14 * 2.3.2 The Red Book

* 3 Travels

* 3.1 England (1920, 1923, 1925) * 3.2 United States
United States
1924–25, 1936–37 * 3.3 East Africa
East Africa
* 3.4 India

* 4 Final publications and death

* 5 Thought

* 5.1 Key concepts * 5.2 Extraversion and Introversion * 5.3 Persona
Persona
* 5.4 Spirituality
Spirituality
* 5.5 Interpretation of quantum mechanics * 5.6 Alchemy
Alchemy
* 5.7 Art therapy
Art therapy

* 5.8 Political views

* 5.8.1 Views on the state * 5.8.2 Germany, 1933 to 1939 * 5.8.3 Anti-Semitism and Nazism
Nazism

* 6 Legacy

* 7 In popular culture

* 7.1 Literature
Literature
* 7.2 Art * 7.3 Music * 7.4 Theatre, film and television * 7.5 Video games

* 8 Bibliography * 9 See also * 10 Notes * 11 References * 12 Further reading * 13 External links

BIOGRAPHY

EARLY YEARS

Childhood Family

The clergy house in Kleinhüningen, Basel
Basel
where Jung grew up

Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
was born in Kesswil
Kesswil
, in the Swiss
Swiss
canton of Thurgau
Thurgau
, on 26 July 1875 as the second and first surviving son of Paul Achilles Jung (1842–1896) and Emilie Preiswerk (1848–1923). Their first child, born in 1873, was a boy named Paul who survived only a few days. Being the youngest son of a noted Basel
Basel
physician of German descent, also called Karl Gustav Jung (de) (1794–1864), whose hopes of achieving a fortune never materialised, Paul Jung did not progress beyond the status of an impoverished rural pastor in the Swiss
Swiss
Reformed Church ; his wife had also grown up in a large family, whose Swiss
Swiss
roots went back five centuries. Emilie was the youngest child of a distinguished Basel
Basel
churchman and academic, Samuel Preiswerk (de) (1799–1871), and his second wife. Preiswerk was antistes , the title given to the head of the Reformed clergy in the city, as well as a Hebraist , author and editor, who taught Paul Jung as his professor of Hebrew at Basel
Basel
University .

When Jung was six months old, his father was appointed to a more prosperous parish in Laufen , but the tension between his parents was growing. Emilie Jung was an eccentric and depressed woman; she spent considerable time in her bedroom where she said that spirits visited her at night. Although she was normal during the day, Jung recalled that at night his mother became strange and mysterious. He reported that one night he saw a faintly luminous and indefinite figure coming from her room with a head detached from the neck and floating in the air in front of the body. Jung had a better relationship with his father.

Jung's mother left Laufen for several months of hospitalization near Basel
Basel
for an unknown physical ailment. His father took the boy to be cared for by Emilie Jung's unmarried sister in Basel, but he was later brought back to his father's residence. Emilie Jung's continuing bouts of absence and often depressed mood influenced her son's attitude towards women—one of "innate unreliability". This was a view that he later called the "handicap I started off with". He believed it contributed to his sometimes patriarchal views of women, but these were common in the society of his time. After three years of living in Laufen, Paul Jung requested a transfer; he was called to Kleinhüningen, next to Basel
Basel
in 1879. The relocation brought Emilie Jung closer into contact with her family and lifted her melancholy. When he was nine years old, Jung's sister Johanna Gertrud (1884–1935) was born. Known in the family as "Trudi", she later became a secretary to her brother.

Childhood Memories

Jung was a solitary and introverted child. From childhood, he believed that, like his mother, he had two personalities—a modern Swiss
Swiss
citizen and a personality more suited to the 18th century. "Personality Number 1", as he termed it, was a typical schoolboy living in the era of the time. "Personality Number 2" was a dignified, authoritative and influential man from the past. Although Jung was close to both parents, he was disappointed by his father's academic approach to faith.

A number of childhood memories made lifelong impressions on him. As a boy, he carved a tiny mannequin into the end of the wooden ruler from his pencil case and placed it inside the case. He added a stone, which he had painted into upper and lower halves, and hid the case in the attic. Periodically, he would return to the mannequin, often bringing tiny sheets of paper with messages inscribed on them in his own secret language. He later reflected that this ceremonial act brought him a feeling of inner peace and security. Years later, he discovered similarities between his personal experience and the practices associated with totems in indigenous cultures , such as the collection of soul-stones near Arlesheim
Arlesheim
or the tjurungas of Australia. He concluded that his intuitive ceremonial act was an unconscious ritual, which he had practiced in a way that was strikingly similar to those in distant locations which he, as a young boy, knew nothing about. His observations about symbols, archetypes , and the collective unconscious were inspired, in part, by these early experiences combined with his later research.

At the age of 12, shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, Jung was pushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he momentarily lost consciousness. (Jung later recognized that the incident was his fault, indirectly.) A thought then came to him—"now you won't have to go to school anymore." From then on, whenever he walked to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking hurriedly to a visitor about the boy's future ability to support himself. They suspected he had epilepsy . Confronted with the reality of his family's poverty, he realized the need for academic excellence. He went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar
Latin grammar
. He fainted three more times but eventually overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is."

University Studies And Early Career

Jung did not plan to study psychiatry since it was not considered prestigious at the time. But, studying a psychiatric textbook, he became very excited when he discovered that psychoses are personality diseases. His interest was immediately captured—it combined the biological and the spiritual, exactly what he was searching for. In 1895 Jung began to study medicine at the University of Basel
University of Basel
. Barely a year later in 1896, his father Paul died and left the family near destitute. They were helped out by relatives who also contributed to Jung's studies. During his student days, he entertained his contemporaries with the family legend, that his paternal grandfather was the illegitimate son of Wolfgang Goethe
Goethe
and his German great-grandmother, Sophie Ziegler. In later life, he pulled back from this tale, saying only that Sophie was a friend of Goethe's niece.

In 1900 Jung began working at the Burghölzli
Burghölzli
psychiatric hospital in Zürich
Zürich
with Eugen Bleuler
Eugen Bleuler
. Bleuler was already in communication with the Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
. Jung's dissertation , published in 1903, was titled On the Psychology
Psychology
and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena. In 1906 he published Studies in Word Association, and later sent a copy of this book to Freud.

Eventually a close friendship and a strong professional association developed between the elder Freud and Jung, which left a sizeable correspondence . For six years they cooperated in their work. In 1912, however, Jung published Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido
Libido
(known in English as Psychology
Psychology
of the Unconscious ), which made manifest the developing theoretical divergence between the two. Consequently, their personal and professional relationship fractured—each stating that the other was unable to admit he could possibly be wrong. After the culminating break in 1913, Jung went through a difficult and pivotal psychological transformation, exacerbated by the outbreak of the First World War. Henri Ellenberger called Jung's intense experience a "creative illness" and compared it favorably to Freud's own period of what he called neurasthenia and hysteria .

Wartime Army Service

During World War I
World War I
Jung was drafted as an army doctor and soon made commandant of an internment camp for British officers and soldiers (The Swiss
Swiss
were neutral, and obliged to intern personnel from either side of the conflict who crossed their frontier to evade capture). Jung worked to improve the conditions of soldiers stranded in neutral territory and encouraged them to attend university courses.

Marriage

In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach , seven years his junior and the elder daughter of a wealthy industrialist in eastern Switzerland, Johannes Rauschenbach-Schenck, and his wife. Rauschenbach was the owner, among other concerns, of IWC Schaffhausen – the International Watch Company, manufacturers of luxury time-pieces. Upon his death in 1905, his two daughters and their husbands became owners of the business. Jung's brother-in-law became the principal proprietor, but the Jungs remained shareholders in a thriving business that ensured the family's financial security for decades. Emma Jung, whose education had been limited, evinced considerable ability and interest in her husband's research and threw herself into studies and acted as his assistant at Burghölzli. She eventually became a noted psychoanalyst in her own right. They had five children: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma's death in 1955.

During his marriage, Jung engaged in extramarital relationships. His alleged affairs with Sabina Spielrein and Toni Wolff
Toni Wolff
were the most widely discussed. Though it was mostly taken for granted that Jung's relationship with Spielrein included a sexual relationship, this assumption has been disputed, in particular by Henry Zvi Lothane .

RELATIONSHIP WITH FREUD

See also: Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

MEETING AND COLLABORATION

Jung was thirty when he sent his Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
in Vienna
Vienna
in 1906. The two men met for the first time the following year and Jung recalled the discussion between himself and Freud as interminable. He recalled that they talked almost unceasingly for thirteen hours. Six months later, the then 50-year-old Freud sent a collection of his latest published essays to Jung in Zurich
Zurich
. This marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted six years and ended in May 1913. At that time Jung resigned as the chairman of the International Psychoanalytical Association , a position to which he had been elected with Freud's support. Group photo 1909 in front of Clark University
Clark University
. Front row, Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
, G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
, Carl Jung. Back row, Abraham Brill
Abraham Brill
, Ernest Jones
Ernest Jones
, Sándor Ferenczi
Sándor Ferenczi
.

Jung and Freud influenced each other during the intellectually formative years of Jung's life. Jung had become interested in psychiatry as a student by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing . In 1900, Jung completed his degree, and started work as an intern (voluntary doctor) under the psychiatrist, Eugen Bleuler at Burghölzli
Burghölzli
Hospital. It was Bleuler who introduced him to the writings of Freud by asking him to write a review of The Interpretation of Dreams (1899). In 1905 Jung was appointed as a permanent 'senior' doctor at the hospital and also became a lecturer Privatdozent in the medical faculty of Zurich
Zurich
University. In that period psychology as a science was still in its early stages, but Jung became a qualified proponent of Freud's new "psycho-analysis." At the time, Freud needed collaborators and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. Burghölzli
Burghölzli
was a renowned psychiatric clinic in Zurich
Zurich
and Jung's research had already gained him international recognition. Preceded by a lively correspondence, Jung met Freud for the first time, in Vienna
Vienna
on 3 March 1907. In 1908, Jung became an editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research.

in 1909, Jung traveled with Freud and the Hungarian psychoanalyst Sándor Ferenczi
Sándor Ferenczi
to the United States; they took part in a conference at Clark University
Clark University
in Worcester , Massachusetts
Massachusetts
. The conference at Clark University
Clark University
was planned by the psychologist G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
and included twenty-seven distinguished psychiatrists, neurologists and psychologists. It represented a watershed in the acceptance of psychoanalysis in North America. This forged welcome links between Jung and influential Americans. Jung returned to the United States the next year for a brief visit.

In 1910, Jung became Chairman for Life of the International Psychoanalytical Association with Freud's support. Freud would come to call Jung "his adopted eldest son, his crown prince and successor".

DIVERGENCE AND BREAK

Jung outside Burghölzli
Burghölzli
in 1910.

While Jung worked on his Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido ( Psychology
Psychology
of the Unconscious), tensions became manifest between him and Freud because of their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion. Jung de-emphasized the importance of sexual development and focused on the collective unconscious: the part of the unconscious that contains memories and ideas that Jung believed were inherited from ancestors. While he did think that libido was an important source for personal growth, unlike Freud, Jung did not believe that libido alone was responsible for the formation of the core personality. Jung believed his personal development was influenced by factors he felt were unrelated to sexuality.

In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen
Kreuzlingen
without paying him a visit in nearby Zurich, an incident Jung referred to as "the Kreuzlingen
Kreuzlingen
gesture". Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled to the United States
United States
and gave the Fordham University lectures, a six-week series, which were published as The Theory of Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
(1912). While they contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting view on the libido, they represent largely a "psychoanalytical Jung" and not the theory of analytical psychology, for which he became famous in the following decades.

Another primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as incomplete and unnecessarily negative and inelastic. According to Jung, Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository of repressed emotions and desires. Jung's observations overlap to an extent with Freud's model of the unconscious, what Jung called the "personal unconscious ", but his hypothesis is more about a process than a static model and he also proposed the existence of a second, overarching form of the unconscious beyond the personal, that he named the psychoid – a term borrowed from Driesch, but with a somewhat altered meaning. The collective unconscious , is not so much a 'geographical location', but a deduction from the alleged ubiquity of archetypes over space and time. Freud had actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche.

In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich
Munich
for a meeting among prominent colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals. At a talk about a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV
Amenhotep IV
, Jung expressed his views on how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement. While Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch.

Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913 for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and extraverted type in analytical psychology . This constituted the introduction of some of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in the next half century.

MIDLIFE ISOLATION

It was the publication of Jung's book Psychology
Psychology
of the Unconscious in 1912 that led to the break with Freud. Letters they exchanged show Freud's refusal to consider Jung's ideas. This rejection caused what Jung described in his 1962 autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections, as a "resounding censure". Everyone he knew dropped away except for two of his colleagues. Jung described his book as "an attempt, only partially successful, to create a wider setting for medical psychology and to bring the whole of the psychic phenomena within its purview." (The book was later revised and retitled Symbols of Transformation in 1922).

London 1913–14

Jung spoke at meetings of the Psycho-Medical Society in London in 1913 and 1914. His travels were soon interrupted by the war, but his ideas continued to receive attention in England primarily through the efforts of Constance Long who translated and published the first English volume of his collected writings.

The Red Book

In 1913, at the age of thirty-eight, Jung experienced a horrible "confrontation with the unconscious". He saw visions and heard voices. He worried at times that he was "menaced by a psychosis" or was "doing a schizophrenia". He decided that it was valuable experience and, in private, he induced hallucinations or, in his words, "active imaginations ". He recorded everything he felt in small journals. Jung began to transcribe his notes into a large red leather-bound book, on which he worked intermittently for sixteen years.

Jung left no posthumous instructions about the final disposition of what he called the Liber Novus or the Red Book . Sonu Shamdasani , a historian of psychology from London, tried for three years to persuade Jung's resistant heirs to have it published. Up to mid-September 2008, fewer than two dozen people had seen it. Ulrich Hoerni, Jung's grandson who manages the Jung archives, decided to publish it to raise the additional funds needed when the Philemon Foundation was founded.

In 2007, two technicians for DigitalFusion, working with New York City publishers W. W. Norton ">

EAST AFRICA

In October 1925, Jung embarked on his most ambitious expedition, the "Bugishu Psychological Expedition" to East Africa
East Africa
. He was accompanied by Peter Baynes and an American associate, George Beckwith . On the voyage to Africa, they became acquainted with an English woman named Ruth Bailey, who joined their safari a few weeks later. The group traveled through Kenya and Uganda to the slopes of Mount Elgon
Mount Elgon
, where Jung hoped to increase his understanding of "primitive psychology" through conversations with the culturally isolated residents of that area. Later he concluded that the major insights he had gleaned had to do with himself and the European psychology in which he had been raised.

INDIA

In December 1937, Jung left Zurich
Zurich
again for an extensive tour of India with Fowler McCormick. In India, he felt himself "under the direct influence of a foreign culture" for the first time. In Africa, his conversations had been strictly limited by the language barrier, but in India he was able to converse extensively. Hindu philosophy became an important element in his understanding of the role of symbolism and the life of the unconscious, though he avoided a meeting with Ramana Maharshi
Ramana Maharshi
. He described Ramana as being absorbed in "the self", but admits to not understanding Ramana's self-realisation or what he actually did do. He also admits that his field of psychology is not competent in understanding the eastern insight of the Atman "the self". Jung became seriously ill on this trip and endured two weeks of delirium in a Calcutta hospital. After 1938, his travels were confined to Europe.

FINAL PUBLICATIONS AND DEATH

C. G. Jung Institute, Küsnacht
Küsnacht
, Switzerland

Jung continued to publish books until the end of his life, including Flying Saucers: A Modern Myth of Things Seen in the Skies (1959), which analyzed the archetypal meaning and possible psychological significance of the reported observations of UFOs . He also enjoyed a friendship with an English Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
priest, Father Victor White , who corresponded with Jung after he had published his controversial Answer to Job .

Jung died on 6 June 1961 at Küsnacht
Küsnacht
, after a short illness. He had been beset by circulatory diseases .

THOUGHT

Jung's thought was formed by early family influences, which on the maternal side were a blend of interest in the occult and in solid reformed academic theology. On his father's side were two important figures, his grandfather the physician and academic scientist, Karl Gustav Jung and the family's actual connection with Lotte Kestner, the niece of the German polymath , Johann Wolfgang Goethe' s "Löttchen". Although he was a practicing clinician and writer and as such founded analytical psychology , much of his life's work was spent exploring related areas such as physics, vitalism , Eastern and Western philosophy , alchemy , astrology , and sociology , as well as literature and the arts. Jung's interest in philosophy and the occult led many to view him as a mystic, although his preference was to be seen as a man of science.

KEY CONCEPTS

The major concepts of analytical psychology as developed by Jung include:

ARCHETYPE – a concept "borrowed" from anthropology to denote supposedly universal and recurring mental images or themes. Jung's definitions of archetypes varied over time and have been the subject of debate as to their usefulness.

ARCHETYPAL IMAGES – supposedly universal symbols that can mediate opposites in the psyche, often found in religious art, mythology and fairy tales across cultures

COMPLEX – the repressed organisation of images and experiences that governs perception and behaviour

EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION – personality traits of degrees of openness or reserve contributing to psychological type .

SHADOW – the repressed, therefore unknown, aspects of the personality including those often considered to be negative

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS – aspects of unconsciousness experienced by all people in different cultures

ANIMA – the contrasexual aspect of a man's psyche, his inner personal feminine conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image

ANIMUS – the contrasexual aspect of a woman's psyche, her inner personal masculine conceived both as a complex and an archetypal image

SELF – the central overarching concept governing the individuation process, as symbolised by mandalas, the union of male and female, totality, unity. Jung viewed it as the psyche's central archetype

INDIVIDUATION – the process of fulfilment of each individual "which negates neither the conscious or unconscious position but does justice to them both".

SYNCHRONICITY – an acausal principle as a basis for the apparently random simultaneous occurrence of phenomena.

EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION

Main article: Extraversion and introversion

Jung was one of the first people to define introversion and extraversion in a psychological context. In Jung’s Psychological Types, he theorizes that each person falls into one of two categories, the introvert and the extravert. These two psychological types Jung compares to ancient archetypes, Apollo
Apollo
and Dionysus
Dionysus
. The introvert is likened with Apollo, who shines light on understanding. The introvert is focused on the internal world of reflection, dreaming and vision. Thoughtful and insightful, the introvert can sometimes be uninterested in joining the activities of others. The extravert is associated with Dionysus, interested in joining the activities of the world. The extravert is focused on the outside world of objects, sensory perception and action. Energetic and lively, the extrovert may lose their sense of self in the intoxication of Dionysian pursuits. Jungian introversion and extraversion is quite different from the modern idea of introversion and extroversion. Modern theories often stay true to behaviourist means of describing such a trait (sociability, talkativeness, assertiveness etc.) whereas Jungian introversion and extraversion is expressed as a perspective: introverts interpret the world subjectively, whereas extraverts interpret the world objectively.

PERSONA

See also: persona (psychology)

In his psychological theory – which is not necessarily linked to a particular theory of social structure – the persona appears as a consciously created personality or identity fashioned out of part of the collective psyche through socialization , acculturation and experience. Jung applied the term persona , explicitly because, in Latin, it means both personality and the masks worn by Roman actors of the classical period , expressive of the individual roles played.

The persona, he argues, is a mask for the "collective psyche", a mask that 'pretends' individuality, so that both self and others believe in that identity, even if it is really no more than a well-played role through which the collective psyche is expressed. Jung regarded the "persona-mask" as a complicated system which mediates between individual consciousness and the social community: it is "a compromise between the individual and society as to what a man should appear to be". But he also makes it quite explicit that it is, in substance, a character mask in the classical sense known to theatre, with its double function: both intended to make a certain impression to others, and to hide (part of) the true nature of the individual. The therapist then aims to assist the individuation process through which the client (re)gains his "own self" – by liberating the self, both from the deceptive cover of the persona, and from the power of unconscious impulses.

Jung's theory has become enormously influential in management theory; not just because managers and executives have to create an appropriate "management persona" (a corporate mask) and a persuasive identity, but also because they have to evaluate what sort of people the workers are, in order to manage them (for example, using personality tests and peer reviews ).

SPIRITUALITY

Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential. Based on his study of Christianity
Christianity
, Hinduism
Hinduism
, Buddhism
Buddhism
, Gnosticism
Gnosticism
, Taoism
Taoism
, and other traditions, Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation , is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine
Divine
. Unlike Freud's objectivist worldview, Jung's pantheism may have led him to believe that spiritual experience was essential to our well-being, as he specifically identifies individual human life with the universe as a whole. Jung's ideas on religion gave a counterbalance to the Freudian scepticism of religion. Jung's idea of religion as a practical road to individuation has been quite popular and is still treated in modern textbooks on the psychology of religion , though his ideas have also been criticized.

Jung recommended spirituality as a cure for alcoholism and he is considered to have had an indirect role in establishing Alcoholics Anonymous . Jung once treated an American patient (Rowland Hazard III ), suffering from chronic alcoholism . After working with the patient for some time and achieving no significant progress, Jung told the man that his alcoholic condition was near to hopeless, save only the possibility of a spiritual experience. Jung noted that occasionally such experiences had been known to reform alcoholics where all else had failed.

Hazard took Jung's advice seriously and set about seeking a personal spiritual experience. He returned home to the United States
United States
and joined a First-Century Christian evangelical movement known as the Oxford Group (later known as Moral Re-Armament). He also told other alcoholics what Jung had told him about the importance of a spiritual experience. One of the alcoholics he brought into the Oxford Group was Ebby Thacher , a long-time friend and drinking buddy of Bill Wilson , later co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous
Alcoholics Anonymous
(AA). Thacher told Wilson about the Oxford Group, and through them Wilson became aware of Hazard's experience with Jung. The influence of Jung thus indirectly found its way into the formation of Alcoholics Anonymous, the original twelve-step program .

The above claims are documented in the letters of Jung and Bill Wilson, excerpts of which can be found in Pass It On, published by Alcoholics Anonymous. Although the detail of this story is disputed by some historians, Jung himself discussed an Oxford Group member, who may have been the same person, in talks given around 1940. The remarks were distributed privately in transcript form, from shorthand taken by an attender (Jung reportedly approved the transcript), and later recorded in Volume 18 of his Collected Works, The Symbolic Life,

For instance, when a member of the Oxford Group comes to me in order to get treatment, I say, 'You are in the Oxford Group; so long as you are there, you settle your affair with the Oxford Group. I can't do it better than Jesus.

Jung goes on to state that he has seen similar cures among Roman Catholics .

INTERPRETATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

Jung influenced one philosophical interpretation (not the science) of quantum physics with the concept of synchronicity regarding some events as non-causal . That idea influenced the physicist Wolfgang Pauli (with whom, via a letter correspondence, he developed the notion of unus mundus in connection with the notion of nonlocality) and some other physicists .

ALCHEMY

The work and writings of Jung from the 1940s onwards focused on alchemy .

In 1944 Jung published Psychology
Psychology
and Alchemy
Alchemy
, in which he analyzed the alchemical symbols and came to the conclusion that there is a direct relationship between them and the psychoanalytical process. He argued that the alchemical process was the transformation of the impure soul (lead) to perfected soul (gold), and a metaphor for the individuation process.

In 1963 Mysterium Coniunctionis first appeared in English as part of The Collected Works of C. G. Jung
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung
. Mysterium Coniunctionis was Jung's last book and focused on the "Mysterium Coniunctionis" archetype, known as the sacred marriage between sun and moon. Jung argued that the stages of the alchemists, the blackening, the whitening, the reddening and the yellowing, could be taken as symbolic of individuation — his favourite term for personal growth (75).

ART THERAPY

Jung proposed that art can be used to alleviate or contain feelings of trauma, fear, or anxiety and also to repair, restore and heal. In his work with patients and in his own personal explorations, Jung wrote that art expression and images found in dreams could be helpful in recovering from trauma and emotional distress. He often drew, painted, or made objects and constructions at times of emotional distress, which he recognized as more than recreational.

POLITICAL VIEWS

Views On The State

Jung stressed the importance of individual rights in a person's relation to the state and society. He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it", and referred to the state as a form of slavery. He also thought that the state "swallowed up religious forces", and therefore that the state had "taken the place of God"—making it comparable to a religion in which "state slavery is a form of worship". Jung observed that "stage acts of state" are comparable to religious displays: "Brass bands, flags, banners, parades and monster demonstrations are no different in principle from ecclesiastical processions, cannonades and fire to scare off demons". From Jung's perspective, this replacement of God with the state in a mass society led to the dislocation of the religious drive and resulted in the same fanaticism of the church-states of the Dark Ages—wherein the more the state is 'worshipped', the more freedom and morality are suppressed; this ultimately leaves the individual psychically undeveloped with extreme feelings of marginalization.

Germany, 1933 To 1939

Jung had many friends and respected colleagues who were Jewish and he maintained relations with them through the 1930s when anti-semitism in Germany and other European nations was on the rise. However, until 1939, he also maintained professional relations with psychotherapists in Germany who had declared their support for the Nazi
Nazi
regime and there were allegations that he himself was a Nazi
Nazi
sympathizer.

In 1933, after the Nazis gained power in Germany, Jung took part in restructuring of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy (Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie), a German-based professional body with an international membership. The society was reorganized into two distinct bodies:

* A strictly German body, the Deutsche Allgemeine Ärztliche Gesellschaft für Psychotherapie, led by Matthias Göring , an Adlerian psychotherapist and a cousin of the prominent Nazi
Nazi
Hermann Göring ; * International General Medical Society for Psychotherapy, led by Jung. The German body was to be affiliated to the international society, as were new national societies being set up in Switzerland and elsewhere.

The International Society's constitution permitted individual doctors to join it directly, rather than through one of the national affiliated societies, a provision to which Jung drew attention in a circular in 1934. This implied that German Jewish doctors could maintain their professional status as individual members of the international body, even though they were excluded from the German affiliate, as well as from other German medical societies operating under the Nazis.

As leader of the international body, Jung assumed overall responsibility for its publication, the Zentralblatt für Psychotherapie. In 1933, this journal published a statement endorsing Nazi
Nazi
positions and Hitler's book Mein Kampf
Mein Kampf
. In 1934, Jung wrote in a Swiss
Swiss
publication, the Neue Zürcher Zeitung
Neue Zürcher Zeitung
, that he experienced "great surprise and disappointment" when the Zentralblatt associated his name with the pro- Nazi
Nazi
statement.

Jung went on to say "the main point is to get a young and insecure science into a place of safety during an earthquake". He did not end his relationship with the Zentralblatt at this time, but he did arrange the appointment of a new managing editor, Carl Alfred Meier of Switzerland. For the next few years, the Zentralblatt under Jung and Meier maintained a position distinct from that of the Nazis, in that it continued to acknowledge contributions of Jewish doctors to psychotherapy.

In the face of energetic German attempts to Nazify the international body, Jung resigned from its presidency in 1939, the year the Second World War started.

Anti-Semitism And Nazism

Jung's interest in European mythology and folk psychology has led to accusations of Nazi
Nazi
sympathies, since they shared the same interest. He became, however, aware of the negative impact of these similarities:

Jung clearly identifies himself with the spirit of German Volkstumsbewegung throughout this period and well into the 1920s and 1930s, until the horrors of Nazism
Nazism
finally compelled him to reframe these neopagan metaphors in a negative light in his 1936 essay on Wotan.

There are writings showing that Jung's sympathies were against, rather than for, Nazism. In his 1936 essay "Wotan", Jung described the influence of Hitler on Germany as "one man who is obviously 'possessed' has infected a whole nation to such an extent that everything is set in motion and has started rolling on its course towards perdition."

Jung would later say that:

Hitler seemed like the 'double' of a real person, as if Hitler the man might be hiding inside like an appendix, and deliberately so concealed in order not to disturb the mechanism ... You know you could never talk to this man; because there is nobody there ... It is not an individual; it is an entire nation.

In an interview with Carol Baumann in 1948, Jung denied rumors regarding any sympathy for the Nazi
Nazi
movement, saying:

It must be clear to anyone who has read any of my books that I have never been a Nazi
Nazi
sympathizer and I never have been anti-Semitic, and no amount of misquotation, mistranslation, or rearrangement of what I have written can alter the record of my true point of view. Nearly every one of these passages has been tampered with, either by malice or by ignorance. Furthermore, my friendly relations with a large group of Jewish colleagues and patients over a period of many years in itself disproves the charge of anti-Semitism.

Evidence contrary to Jung’s denials has been adduced with reference to his writings, correspondence and public utterances of the 1930s. Attention has been drawn to articles Jung published in the Zentralblatt fur Psychotherapie stating: “The Aryan unconscious has a greater potential than the Jewish unconscious” and "The Jew, who is something of a nomad, has never yet created a cultural form of his own and as far as we can see never will". His remarks on the superiority of the "Aryan unconscious" and the “corrosive character” of Freud’s “Jewish gospel” have been cited as evidence of an anti-semitism “fundamental to the structure of Jung’s thought”.

LEGACY

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular psychometric instrument , and the concepts of socionics were developed from Jung's theory of psychological types. Jung saw the human psyche as "by nature religious" and made this religiousness the focus of his explorations. Jung is one of the best known contemporary contributors to dream analysis and symbolization. His influence on popular psychology, the "psychologization of religion", spirituality and the New Age
New Age
movement has been immense. A Review of General Psychology
Psychology
survey, published in 2002, ranked Jung as the 23rd most cited psychologist of the 20th century.

IN POPULAR CULTURE

LITERATURE

* Laurens van der Post
Laurens van der Post
, Afrikaner
Afrikaner
author who claimed to have had a 16-year friendship with Jung, from which a number of books and a film were created about Jung's life. The accuracy of van der Post's claims about the closeness of his relationship to Jung has been questioned. * Hermann Hesse
Hermann Hesse
, author of works such as Siddhartha and Steppenwolf , was treated by Joseph Lang, a student of Jung. For Hesse this began a long preoccupation with psychoanalysis , through which he came to know Jung personally.

ART

Original statue of Jung in Mathew Street
Mathew Street
, Liverpool
Liverpool
, a half-body on a plinth captioned " Liverpool
Liverpool
is the pool of life"

* The visionary Swiss
Swiss
painter Peter Birkhäuser was treated by a student of Jung, Marie-Louise von Franz , and corresponded with Jung regarding the translation of dream symbolism into works of art. * American Abstract Expressionist Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
underwent Jungian psychotherapy in 1939 with Joseph Henderson. His therapist made the decision to engage him through his art, and had Pollock make drawings, which led to the appearance of many Jungian concepts in his paintings. * Contrary to some sources, Jung did not visit Liverpool
Liverpool
but recorded a dream in which he had, and of which he wrote " Liverpool
Liverpool
is the pool of life, it makes to live." As a result, a statue of Jung was erected in Mathew Street
Mathew Street
in 1987 but, being made of plaster , was vandalised and replaced by a more durable version in 1993.

MUSIC

* Musician David Bowie
David Bowie
described himself as Jungian in his relationship to dreams and the unconscious. Australian artist Tanja Stark extensively explored Jungian aspects of his work in her essay "Crashing Out with Sylvian: David Bowie, Carl Jung
Carl Jung
and the Unconscious". Bowie sang of Jung on his album Aladdin Sane
Aladdin Sane
(a word play on sanity) and attended the exhibition of The Red Book in New York with artist Tony Oursler
Tony Oursler
, who described Bowie as "... reading and speaking of the psychoanalyst with passion". Bowie's 1967 song "Shadow Man " poetically encapsulates a key Jungian concept, while in 1987 Bowie tellingly described the Glass Spiders of Never Let Me Down as Jungian mother figures around which he not only anchored a worldwide tour, but also created an enormous onstage effigy. * The Police released an album called Synchronicity
Synchronicity
influenced by the ideas of Jung. The album cover artwork features a photograph of lead singer Sting reading Jung's book Synchronicity
Synchronicity
, with text from this book overlaid across the image. * Progressive Metal band Tool have a song, Forty Six border:solid #aaa 1px">

* Psychiatry
Psychiatry
portal * Psychology
Psychology
portal

TOPICS

* Anima and animus * Archetypal literary criticism * Archetypal pedagogy * Archetypal psychology * Art therapy
Art therapy
* Bollingen Tower
Bollingen Tower
* The Collected Works of C. G. Jung
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung
* Collective unconscious
Collective unconscious
* Cryptomnesia * Jungian interpretation of religion * Jungian Type Index * Jung Type Indicator * Keirsey Temperament Sorter * Logos
Logos
* Logotherapy * Neo-Freudian * Nekyia
Nekyia
* Participation mystique * Personality test * Psychodynamics
Psychodynamics
* The Red Book * Reincarnation
Reincarnation
* Synchronicity
Synchronicity
* Synesthesia
Synesthesia
* The Sekhmet Hypothesis – archetypal symbolism presented by youth trends * Unus mundus * Wounded healer

PEOPLE

* Otto Gross
Otto Gross
– colleague, analysand and influence on Jung * R. F. C. Hull – translator of Jung's writings into English * Hugh Crichton-Miller – friend and founder of the Tavistock Clinic * Gerhard Adler – friend and co-editor of the Collected Works in English * Irene Claremont de Castillejo – analytical psychologist and author on the feminine * Martin Buber
Martin Buber
– see the Buber-Jung disputations * Victor White – Catholic convert and priest who corresponded with Jung * Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Pauli
– theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate who corresponded with Jung * Michael Fordham – co-editor of the Collected Works in English and developer of Jungian child theory; founder of 'the London School' * Carl Kerenyi – Hungarian scholar of Greek mythology, colleague and influence on Jung * Joseph Campbell
Joseph Campbell
– mythologist, populariser of Jungian ideas * Linda Fierz-David – one of the earliest Jungian analysts in Zurich * Mary Esther Harding – British doctor who became one of the earliest Jungian analysts in the United States
United States
* Margaret Lowenfeld
Margaret Lowenfeld
– British doctor and creator of sandplay and tutor of the Swiss
Swiss
Jungian, Dora Kalff, who developed sandplay as a diagnostic tool * Frances Wickes – early American Jungian child therapist, lecturer, author and friend of Jung * Erich Neumann – developer of matriarchal mythological adaptations of Jungian thought * Richard Noll
Richard Noll
– controversial critic of Jung's work * Anthony Stevens – analytical psychologist, psychiatrist and author * Winifred Rushforth – Edinburgh doctor and clinic founder who corresponded with Jung * John Beebe – Jungian analyst, typologist and commentator on Jungian ideas * Andrew Samuels – Analytical psychologist, academic and moderniser of Jungian ideas * Joel Ryce-Menuhin – proponent of sandplay therapy * Herbert Silberer Early colleague and influence on Jung * D. T. Suzuki
D. T. Suzuki
– see An Introduction to Zen Buddhism
Buddhism
, for which C. G. Jung wrote a preface * Richard Wilhelm – Translator of the I Ching
I Ching

ORGANIZATIONS

* International Association for Analytical Psychology
Psychology
* International Association for Jungian Studies

JUNG IN WORKS OF FICTION

* Possessing the Secret of Joy * The Interpretation of Murder * A Dangerous Method * Pilgrim

NOTES

* ^ As a university student Jung changed the modernized spelling of Karl to the original family form of Carl. Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. New York: Back Bay Books. pp. 7, 53. ISBN 0-316-15938-7 .

* ^ 'For Jung, alchemy is not only part of the pre-history of chemistry, that is, not only laboratory work, but also an essential part of the history of psychology as the history of the discovery of the deep structure of the psyche and its unconscious. Jung emphasized the significance of the symbolic structure of alchemical texts, a structure that is understood as a way independent of laboratory research, as a structure per se.' Calian, George Florin (2010). Alkimia Operativa and Alkimia Speculativa. Some Modern Controversies on the Historiography of Alchemy. Budapest: Annual of Medieval Studies at CEU. pp. 167–168. * ^ C. G. Jung, Die Beziehungen zwishen dem Ich und dem Unbewußten, chapter one, second section, 1928. Also, C. G. Jung, Aufsatze zur Zeitgeschichte, 1946. Speeches made in 1933, 1937 are excerpted. He was protesting the "slavery by the government" and the "chaos and insanity" of the mob, because of the very fact that they were the part of the mob and were under its strong influence. He wrote that because of the speeches he delivered he was blacklisted by the Nazis. They eliminated his writings. * ^ A full response from Jung discounting the rumors can be found in C. G Jung Speaking, Interviews and Encounters, Princeton University Press, 1977.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B Polly Young-Eisendrath. The Cambridge Companion To Jung. Cambridge University, 2010. pp. 24–30. * ^ Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung: A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury, Dorset: Shambhala. p. 9. ISBN 0-87773-455-0 . * ^ Brome, Vincent (1978). Jung (1 ed.). New York: Atheneum. p. 28.

* ^ Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung: A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury, Dorset: Shambhala. pp. 17–19. ISBN 0-87773-455-0 . * ^ A B Memories, Dreams, Reflections. p. 18. * ^ Dunne, Claire (2002). Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul: An Illustrated Biography. Continuum. p. 5. * ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections, p. 8. * ^ A B C D Corbett, Sara (16 September 2009). "The Holy Grail of the Unconscious". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-20. * ^ Bair, p. 25. * ^ Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung: A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury, Dorset: Shambhala. p. 349. ISBN 0-87773-455-0 . * ^ Stepp, G. "Carl Jung: Forever Jung". Vision Journal. Retrieved 19 December 2011. * ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 33–34. * ^ Wehr records that Paul Jung's chosen career path was to achieve a doctorate in philology. He was an Arabist; but the family money ran out for his studies. Relief came from a family legacy, however, a condition of the will was that it should only be offered to a family member who intended to study theology and become a pastor. Paul Jung therefore had his career determined by a will, not his will. See page 20. * ^ A B C Malchiodi, Cathy A. (2006). The Art Therapy Sourcebook. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-07-146827-5 . * ^ Memories, Dreams, Reflections. pp. 22–23. * ^ Wehr, G. p. 144 * ^ " Carl Jung
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Retrieved on 2009-3-7 * ^ Wehr, G. p. 57. * ^ Wehr, Gerhard (1987). Jung: A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury, Dorset: Shambhala. p. 14. ISBN 0-87773-455-0 . * ^ See section Relationship with Freud . * ^ Crowley, Vivianne (1999). Jung: A Journey of Transformation. Quest Books. p. 56. ISBN 0-8356-0782-8 . * ^ "C. G. JUNG: Experiences". IWC Schaffhausen. Retrieved 2015-09-07. * ^ Wehr, G. p. 423 * ^ Hayman, Ronald (1999). A Life of Jung. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 84–5, 92, 98–9, 102–7, 121, 123, 111, 134–7, 138–9, 145, 147, 152, 176, 177, 184, 185, 186, 189, 194, 213–4. ISBN 0-393-01967-5 . * ^ A Life of Jung. pp. 184–8, 189, 244, 261, 262. * ^ Carotenuto, A. A secret symmetry. Sabina Spielrien between Jung and Freud. Tran. Arno Pomerans , John Shepley, Krishna Winston. New York : Pantheon Books, 1982 * ^ Lothane. Z. Tender love and transference. Unpublished letters of C G Jung and Sabina Spielrein. International Journal of Psychoanalysis'. 80, 1999, 1189–1204; Lothane, Z. (2007b). The snares of seduction in life and in therapy, or what do young girls (Spielrein) seek in their Aryan heroes (Jung), and vice versa? International Forum of Psychoanalysis, 16:12–27, 81–94 * ^ Peter Gay, Freud: A life for Our Time (London, 1988) p. 202. * ^ McGuire, W. 1974. The correspondence between Sigmund Freud
Sigmund Freud
and C.G. Jung. Translated by Ralph Manheim and R.F.C. Hull. Princeton: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691098906 * ^ Wehr, Gerhard. (1987). Jung – A Biography. Boston/Shaftesbury: Shambhala. ISBN 0 87773 455 0 . pp. 77 * ^ Wehr, pp. 79–85. * ^ Wehr, p.105-6. * ^ Rosenzwieg, Saul (1992). Freud, Jung and Hall the King-Maker. ISBN 0-88937-110-5 . * ^ Ellenberger, Henri, The Discovery of the Unconscious : The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry. New York: Basic Books. Hardcover edition: 1970, ISBN 0-465-01672-3 . Paperback edition: 1981, ISBN 0-465-01673-1 . * ^ Jung, Carl (1963). Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Pantheon Books. p. 206. * ^ Carlson, Heth (2010). Psychology: The Science of Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. p. 434. ISBN 978-0-205-64524-4 . * ^ Mary Williams, “The Indivisibility of the Personal and Collective Unconscious”, Journal of Analytical Psychology
Psychology
8.1, January 1963. See also: Jung, Collected Works vol. 9.I (1959), "The Concept of the Collective Unconscious" (1936), ¶91 (p. 43). * ^ Vernon, Mark (2011-06-06). "Carl Jung, part 2: A troubled relationship with Freud – and the Nazis". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 2017-07-19. * ^ Addison, Ann (2009). "Jung, vitalism and the psychoid: an historical reconstruction". 54, no.1. Journal of Analytical Psychology: 123. * ^ Jones, Ernest, ed. Lionel Trilling and Steven Marcus. The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, New York: Anchor Books, 1963. * ^ A B Vernon, Mark (6 June 2011). "Carl Jung, part 2: A troubled relationship with Freud – and the Nazis". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2015. * ^ McGuire, William. (1995), 'Firm Affinities: Jung's relations with Britain and the United States' in Journal of analytical Psychology, 40, p. 301-326. * ^ Jung, C. G. (1916). Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology. Dr. Constance E. Long. Bailliere, Tindall and Cox. * ^ A B "The Red Book of C. G. Jung". Rubin Museum of Art. Archived from the original on 11 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-20. * ^ A B McGuire, William (1995). "Firm Affinities: Jung's relations with Britain and the United States". Journal of Analytical Psychology. 40 (3): 301–326. doi :10.1111/j.1465-5922.1995.00301.x . * ^ Fadul, Jose A. (2014). Encyclopedia of Theory & Practice in Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy
& Counseling. Raleigh, NC: Lulu Press Inc. p. 229. ISBN 978-1-312-07836-9 . * ^ Duvall, John N. (2008). Race and White Identity in Southern Fiction: From Faulkner to Morrison. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 165. ISBN 9780230611825 . * ^ Burleson, Blake W. (2005). Jung in Africa. ISBN 0-8264-6921-3 .

* ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung: A Biography. pp. 417–430. ISBN 0-316-07665-1 . * ^ The Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Page = 152, by Siegfried M. Clemens, Carl Gustav Jung, 1978. * ^ In Psychology
Psychology
and Religion, v.11, Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Princeton. It was first published as Antwort auf Hiob, Zurich, 1952 and translated into English in 1954, in London. * ^ Hayman, Ronald (2001). A Life of Jung. New York: W.W. Norton. p. 450. ISBN 0-393-01967-5 . * ^ Bair, Deirdre (2003). Jung. Boston: Little, Brown. pp. 622–3. ISBN 0-316-07665-1 . * ^ https://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0726.html * ^ Wehr, Gerhard. p.14. * ^ Lachman, Gary (2010). Jung the Mystic. New York: Tarcher/Penguin. p. 258. ISBN 978-1-58542-792-5 . * ^ Anthony Stevens (1991) On Jung London: Penguin Books, pp. 27–53 * ^ Dicks-Mireaux, M. J. (1964). "Extraversion-Introversion in Experimental Psychology: Examples of Experimental Evidence and their Theoretical Explanations", Journal of Analytical Psychology, 9, 2. * ^ Anthony Stevens (1991) On Jung London: Penguin Books, p. 199. * ^ Bright, George. (1997) " Synchronicity
Synchronicity
as a basis of analytic attitude", Journal of Analytical Psychology, 42, 4 * ^ C.G. Jung. Psychological Types. Princeton University Press, 1971. pp. 136–147. * ^ Stepp, G. "People: Who Needs Them". Vision Journal. Retrieved 19 December 2011. * ^ Arild, Sigurd (19 April 2014). "5 Basic Facts about Jung and Types". CelebrityTypes. CelebrityTypes International. p. 1. Retrieved 9 June 2015. * ^ Jolande Székács Jacobi, Masks of the Soul. William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1977; Robert H. Hopcke, Persona. Berkeley: Shambhala Publications, 1995. * ^ Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
", The Relations between the Ego and the Unconscious", in: Joseph Campbell
Joseph Campbell
(ed.), The Portable Jung. New York: Viking Press, 1971, p. 106. * ^ Carl Gustav Jung
Carl Gustav Jung
, Two Essays on Analytical Psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2nd ed. 1977, p. 157. * ^ Joann S. Lublin, "How to Look and Act Like a Leader", Wall Street Journal, 12 September 2011. * ^ Kees van der Pijl , "May 1968 and the Alternative Globalist Movement – Cadre Class Formation and the Transition to Socialism". In: Angelika Ebbinghaus et al. (ed.), 1968: A View of the Protest Movements 40 Years after, from a Global Perspective. 43rd International Conference of Labour and Social History 2008. Vienna: Akademische Verlagsanstalt, 2009, pp. 192, 193, 194. * ^ Aniela Jaffe, foreword to Memories, Dreams, Reflections * ^ Dunne, Clare (2002). "Prelude". Carl Jung: Wounded Healer of the Soul: An Illustrated Biography. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-8264-6307-4 . * ^ Frick, Eckhard; Lautenschlager, Bruno (2007). Auf Unendliches bezogen – Spirituelle Entdeckungen bei C. G. Jung. Munich: Koesel. p. 204. ISBN 978-3-466-36780-1 . * ^ Crowley, Vivianne (2000). Jung: A Journey of Transformation: Exploring His Life and Experiencing His Ideas. Wheaton Illinois: Quest Books. ISBN 978-0-8356-0782-7 . * ^ Andrew Reid Fuller, " Psychology
Psychology
and Religion: Eight Points of View", 2002, p. 111 * ^ Wulff 1991 , p. 411-466. * ^ Levin, Jerome David (1995). "Other Etiological Theories of Alcoholism". Introduction to Alcoholism
Alcoholism
Counseling. Taylor & Francis. p. 167. ISBN 978-1-56032-358-7 . * ^ Alcoholics Anonymous
Alcoholics Anonymous
World Services, Inc. (1984) Pass It On: The Story of Bill Wilson and How the A.A. Message Reached the World. New York: Alcoholics Anonymous
Alcoholics Anonymous
World Services, Inc. ISBN 0-916856-12-7 , page. 381–386. * ^ Jung, C. G.; Adler, G. and Hull, R. F. C., eds. (1977), Collected Works of C. G. Jung, Volume 18: The Symbolic Life: Miscellaneous Writings Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, ISBN 978-0-691-09892-0 , p. 272, as noted 2007-08-26 at http://www.stellarfire.org/additional.html * ^ Jung, C. G. and Wolfgang Pauli
Wolfgang Pauli
, The Interpretation of Nature and Psyche, New York: Pantheon Books, 1955. * ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. pp. 15–16. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ C. G. Jung, Die Beziehungen zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbewußten, chapter one, second section, 1928. Also, C. G. Jung Aufsätze zur Zeitgeschichte, 1946. Speeches made in 1933 and 1937 are excerpted. * ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 14. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ A B Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. pp. 23–24. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ Jung, Carl (1960). Psychology
Psychology
and Religion. The Vail-Ballou Press ic. p. 59. ISBN 978-0-300-16650-7 . * ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 23. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 25. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 24. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ Jung, Carl (2006). The Undiscovered Self: The Problem of the Individual in Modern Society. New American Library. p. 14 & 45. ISBN 0-451-21860-4 . * ^ Lifton, Robert Jay (27 January 1985) " Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy
in the Third Reich" New York Times * ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-12515-2 ; pp. 79–80. * ^ An English translation of the circular is in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0-7100-1640-9 ; pp. 545–546. * ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-12515-2 ; p. 82. * ^ Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G.Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-12515-2 ; p. 80. * ^ Mark Medweth. "Jung and the Nazis", in Psybernetika, Winter 1996. * ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0-7100-1640-9 ; p. 538. * ^ Article republished in English in Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0-7100-1640-9 ; p. 538. See also Stevens, Anthony, Jung: a very short introduction, Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-285458-5 * ^ A B Jaffé, Aniela (1972); From the Life and Work of C. G. Jung; Hodder and Stoughton, London. ISBN 0-340-12515-2 ; p. 83. * ^ Noll, Richard (1994). The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (1st ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 336. * ^ Grossman 1979 . * ^ Noll, Richard (1994). The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (1st ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 134. * ^ Sherry, Jay (2010). Carl Gustav Jung: Avant-Garde Conservative. Palgrave Macmillan. * ^ Jung, Carl G. (1970); Collected Works, Volume 10; Routledge and Kegan Paul, London; ISBN 0-7100-1640-9 ; p. 185. * ^ C. G. Jung Speaking: Interviews and Encounters, eds William McGuire and R. F. C. Hull (London: Thames and Hudson, 1978), pp. 91–93, 115–135, 136–40. * ^ Interview with Carol Baumann, published in the Bulletin of Analytical Psychology
Psychology
Club of New York, December 1949. * ^ Clark, R.W (1980) Freud: the Man and the Cause. London: Cape, pp. 492–3 * ^ Falk, A Anti-Semitism A History and Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis
of Contemporary Hatred Westport Connecticut: Praeger, 2008, pp. 110–111 * ^ Samuels, Andrew . (1997), Institute of Historical Research, University of London e-seminar.“Jung and Anti-Semitism”, Also published in the Jewish Quarterly, Spring 1994. * ^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi :10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139 . CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link ) * ^ "Laurens van der Post". Retrieved 2007-12-02. * ^ Jones, J.D.F. (2001). Storyteller: The Many Lives of Laurens van der Post. ISBN 0-7867-1031-4 . * ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Hermann Hesse". Books and Writers (kirjasto.sci.fi). Finland: Kuusankoski
Kuusankoski
Public Library. Archived from the original on 4 December 2007. * ^ Birkhäuser, Peter; Marie-Louise von Franz, Eva Wertanschlag and Kaspar Birkhäuser (1980–1991). Light from the Darkness: The Paintings of Peter Birkhäuser. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser Verlag. ISBN 3-7643-1190-8 . * ^ Abstract Expressionism, Jackson Pollock\'s "Psychoanalytic Drawings" Paintings" Retrieved 24 July 2010 * ^ Stockstad, Marilyn (2005). Art History. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0-13-145527-3 . * ^ Grant, Linda (2003-06-05). "History broke Liverpool, and it broke my heart". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2010-02-24. * ^ Cavanagh, Terry (1997). Public sculpture of Liverpool. Liverpool
Liverpool
University Press. ISBN 978-0-85323-711-2 . Retrieved 23 May 2012. * ^ Stark, Tanja, (2015) “Crashing Out with Sylvian: David Bowie, Carl Jung
Carl Jung
and the Unconscious” in Deveroux, E., M.Power and A. Dillane (eds) David Bowie: Critical Perspectives: Routledge Press Contemporary Music Series. (chapter 5) * ^ Bondanella, Peter E. The Films of Federico Fellini. p. 94. ISBN 0-521-57573-7 . * ^ " BBC
BBC
interview". 19 February 2011. * ^ The Kubrick Site: Full Metal Jacket. * ^ Megami Ibunroku Persona
Persona
Digital Collection: Persona
Persona
World (in Japanese). ASCII Media Works
ASCII Media Works
. 1998. pp. 6–11. ISBN 978-4757200142 . Translated scans * ^ Valentine, Digi (13 July 2007). "A Yuji Naka Interview". Nights into Dreams. Sonic Retro. Archived from the original on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 29 November 2015.

FURTHER READING

INTRODUCTORY TEXTS

* Modern Man in Search of a Soul , a book of psychological essays by Jung collected in 1933 * Jung, Carl Gustav; Marie-Luise von Franz (1964). Man and His Symbols . Doubleday. ISBN 84-493-0161-0 . * Carl Gustav Jung, Analytical Psychology: Its Theory and Practice (The Tavistock Lectures) (Ark Paperbacks), 1990, ISBN 0-7448-0056-0 * Anthony Stevens , Jung. A Very Short Introduction, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1994, ISBN 0-19-285458-5 * Anthony Stevens, On Jung, Princeton University Press, 1990 (1999) * The Basic Writings of C. G. Jung, edited by V. S. de Laszlo (The Modern Library, 1959) * The Portable Jung, edited by Joseph Campbell
Joseph Campbell
(Viking Portable), ISBN 0-14-015070-6 * Edward F Edinger, Ego and Archetype, ( Shambhala Publications ), ISBN 0-87773-576-X * Robert Hopcke, A Guided Tour of the Collected Works of C. G. Jung, ISBN 1-57062-405-4 * Edward C. Whitmont, The Symbolic Quest: Basic Concepts of Analytical Psychology, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1969, 1979, ISBN 0-691-02454-5 * O'Connor, Peter A. (1985). Understanding Jung, understanding yourself. New York, NY: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-2799-7 . * The Cambridge Companion to Jung, second edition, eds Polly Young-Eisendrath and Terence Dawson, published in 2008 by Cambridge University Press

TEXTS IN VARIOUS AREAS OF JUNGIAN THOUGHT

* Robert Aziz, C. G. Jung's Psychology
Psychology
of Religion and Synchronicity (1990), currently in its 10th printing, is a refereed publication of State University of New York Press
State University of New York Press
. ISBN 0-7914-0166-9 * Robert Aziz, Synchronicity
Synchronicity
and the Transformation of the Ethical in Jungian Psychology
Psychology
in Carl B. Becker, ed., Asian and Jungian Views of Ethics. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999. ISBN 0-313-30452-1 * Robert Aziz, The Syndetic Paradigm: The Untrodden Path Beyond Freud and Jung (2007), a refereed publication of The State University of New York Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-6982-8 * Robert Aziz, Foreword in Lance Storm, ed., Synchronicity: Multiple Perspectives on Meaningful Coincidence. Pari, Italy: Pari Publishing, 2008. ISBN 978-88-95604-02-2 * Wallace Clift , Jung and Christianity: The Challenge of Reconciliation. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company, 1982. ISBN 0-8245-0409-7 * Edward F. Edinger, The Mystery of The Coniunctio, ISBN 0-919123-67-8 * Wolfgang Giegerich , The Soul's Logical Life, ISBN 3-631-38225-1 * James A Hall M.D., Jungian Dream Interpretation, ISBN 0-919123-12-0 * James Hillman , "Healing Fiction", ISBN 0-88214-363-8 * Montiel, Luis, "El rizoma oculto de la psicología profunda. Gustav Meyrink y Carl Gustav Jung", Frenia, 2012, ISBN 978-84-695-3540-0 * Catherine M Nutting, Concrete Insight: Art, the Unconscious, and Transformative Spontaneity, UVic Thesis 2007 214 * Andrew Samuels, Critical Dictionary of Jungian Analysis, ISBN 0-415-05910-0 * June Singer, Boundaries of the Soul, ISBN 0-385-47529-2 . On psychotherapy * Marion Woodman , The Pregnant Virgin: A Process of Psychological Transformation, ISBN 0-919123-20-1 * Simosko, Vladimir. Jung, Music, and Music Therapy: Prepared for the Occasion of the C.G. "Jung and the Humanities" Colloquium, 1987. Winnipeg, Man., The Author, 1987

ACADEMIC TEXTS

* Andrew Samuels, The Political Psyche (Routledge), ISBN 0-415-08102-5 * Lucy Huskinson, Nietzsche and Jung: The Whole Self
Self
in the Union of Opposites (Routledge), ISBN 1-58391-833-7 * Davydov, Andrey . From Carl Gustav Jung's Archetypes of the Collective Unconscious to Individual Archetypal Pattern. HPA Press, 2014. ISBN 9781311820082 * Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, C.G. Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality , Part 1: The Battle of the Giants. Pari Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-88-95604-12-1 * Remo, F. Roth: Return of the World Soul, Wolfgang Pauli, C.G. Jung and the Challenge of Psychophysical Reality , Part 2: A Psychophysical Theory. Pari Publishing, 2012, ISBN 978-88-95604-16-9

JUNG-FREUD RELATIONSHIP

* Kerr, John. A Most Dangerous Method: The Story of Jung, Freud, and Sabina Spielrein. Knopf, 1993. ISBN 0-679-40412-0 .

OTHER PEOPLE\'S RECOLLECTIONS OF JUNG

* van der Post, Laurens, Jung and the Story of Our Time, New York : Pantheon Books, 1975. ISBN 0-394-49207-2 * Hannah, Barbara, Jung, his life and work; a biographical memoir, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1976. SBN: 399-50383-8

CRITICAL SCHOLARSHIP

* Dohe, Carrie B. Jung's Wandering Archetype: Race and Religion in Analytical Psychology. London: Routledge, 2016. ISBN 978-1138888401 * Grossman, Stanley (1979). "C.G. Jung and National Socialism". Jung in Contexts: A Reader. ISBN 9780415205580 . * Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (1996). " New Age
New Age
Religion and Western Culture: Esotericism in the Mirror of Secular Thought". Leiden/New York/Koln: E.J. Brill. * Wulff, David M. (1991). " Psychology
Psychology
of Religion: Classic and Contemporary Views". New York: John Wiley & Sons. * Paul Bishop, Carl Jung
Carl Jung
(Critical Lives) (Reaktion Books, 2014) * Noll, Richard (1994). The Jung Cult: Origins of a Charismatic Movement (1st ed.). Princeton University Press. p. 336. * Richard Noll
Richard Noll
, The Aryan Christ: The Secret Life of Carl