GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR ( Latin : CAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR, pronounced , 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), usually called JULIUS CAESAR, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire . He is also known as a notable author of Latin prose.
In 60 BC, Caesar, Crassus and
Pompey formed a political alliance that
Roman politics for several years. Their attempts to amass
Populares were opposed by the
Optimates within the Roman
Senate , among them
Cato the Younger with the frequent support of
These achievements granted him unmatched military power and threatened to eclipse the standing of Pompey, who had realigned himself with the Senate after the death of Crassus in 53 BC. With the Gallic Wars concluded, the Senate ordered Caesar to step down from his military command and return to Rome. Caesar refused the order and instead marked his defiance in 49 BC by crossing the Rubicon with the 13th Legion , leaving his province and illegally entering Roman Italy under arms. Civil war resulted and Caesar's victory in the war put him in an unrivalled position of power and influence.
After assuming control of government, Caesar began a programme of
social and governmental reforms, including the creation of the Julian
calendar . He centralised the bureaucracy of the Republic and was
eventually proclaimed "dictator in perpetuity ", giving him additional
authority. However, the underlying political conflicts had not been
resolved and on the
Ides of March (15 March) 44 BC Caesar was
assassinated by a group of rebellious senators led by Gaius Cassius
Marcus Junius Brutus and Decimus Junius Brutus . A new
series of civil wars broke out and the constitutional government of
the Republic was never fully restored. Caesar's adopted heir Octavian,
later known as
Much of Caesar's life is known from his own accounts of his military
campaigns and from other contemporary sources, mainly the letters and
* 1 Early life and career
* 2 Consulship and military campaigns
* 2.1 Conquest of
* 3 Dictatorship and assassination
* 3.1 Dictatorship
* 3.1.1 Political reforms
* 3.2 Assassination * 3.3 Aftermath of the assassination * 3.4 Deification
* 4 Personal life
* 4.1 Health and physical appearance
* 4.2 Name and family
* 4.2.1 The name Gaius
* 4.3 Rumors of homosexuality
* 5 Literary works
* 5.1 Memoirs
* 6 Legacy
* 6.1 Historiography * 6.2 Politics * 6.3 Depictions
* 7 Chronology of Caesar\'s life * 8 Notes * 9 See also
* 10 References
* 10.1 Primary sources
* 10.1.1 Own writings * 10.1.2 Ancient historians\' writings
* 10.2 Secondary sources
* 11 External links
EARLY LIFE AND CAREER
Main article: Early life and career of Julius Caesar Gaius Marius , Caesar's uncle
Caesar was born into a patrician family, the gens Julia , which
claimed descent from Iulus , son of the legendary Trojan prince Aeneas
, supposedly the son of the goddess Venus . The family originated
Alba Longa , twenty miles south of Rome. The cognomen "Caesar"
originated, according to
Pliny the Elder , with an ancestor who was
Despite their ancient pedigree, the Julii Caesares were not
especially politically influential, although they had enjoyed some
revival of their political fortunes in the early 1st century BC.
Caesar's father, also called Gaius
In 85 BC, Caesar's father died suddenly, so Caesar was the head of the family at 16. His coming of age coincided with a civil war between his uncle Gaius Marius and his rival Lucius Cornelius Sulla . Both sides carried out bloody purges of their political opponents whenever they were in the ascendancy. Marius and his ally Lucius Cornelius Cinna were in control of the city when Caesar was nominated to be the new high priest of Jupiter , and he was married to Cinna's daughter Cornelia . Following Sulla's final victory, though, Caesar's connections to the old regime made him a target for the new one. He was stripped of his inheritance, his wife's dowry, and his priesthood, but he refused to divorce Cornelia and was forced to go into hiding. The threat against him was lifted by the intervention of his mother's family, which included supporters of Sulla, and the Vestal Virgins . Sulla gave in reluctantly, and is said to have declared that he saw many a Marius in Caesar.
Caesar felt that it would be much safer far away from
the Dictator change his mind, so he left
Hearing of Sulla's death in 78 BC, Caesar felt safe enough to return to Rome. He lacked means since his inheritance was confiscated, but he acquired a modest house in Subura , a lower-class neighbourhood of Rome. He turned to legal advocacy and became known for his exceptional oratory accompanied by impassioned gestures and a high-pitched voice, and ruthless prosecution of former governors notorious for extortion and corruption. Dictator Lucius Cornelius Sulla stripped Caesar of the priesthood
On the way across the Aegean Sea , Caesar was kidnapped by pirates and held prisoner. He maintained an attitude of superiority throughout his captivity. The pirates demanded a ransom of 20 talents of silver, but he insisted that they ask for 50. After the ransom was paid, Caesar raised a fleet, pursued and captured the pirates, and imprisoned them. He had them crucified on his own authority, as he had promised while in captivity —a promise that the pirates had taken as a joke. As a sign of leniency, he first had their throats cut. He was soon called back into military action in Asia, raising a band of auxiliaries to repel an incursion from the east.
On his return to Rome, he was elected military tribune , a first step
in a political career. He was elected quaestor for 69 BC, and during
that year he delivered the funeral oration for his aunt Julia , and
included images of her husband Marius in the funeral procession,
unseen since the days of Sulla. His wife Cornelia also died that year.
Caesar went to serve his quaestorship in Spain after her funeral, in
the spring or early summer of 69 BC. While there, he is said to have
encountered a statue of
Alexander the Great
In 63 BC, he ran for election to the post of
Pontifex Maximus , chief
priest of the Roman state religion. He ran against two powerful
senators. Accusations of bribery were made by all sides. Caesar won
comfortably, despite his opponents' greater experience and standing.
After serving as praetor in 62 BC, Caesar was appointed to govern
Caesar was acclaimed
Imperator in 60 and 45 BC. In the Roman
Republic, this was an honorary title assumed by certain military
commanders. After an especially great victory, army troops in the
field would proclaim their commander imperator, an acclamation
necessary for a general to apply to the Senate for a triumph .
However, he also wanted to stand for consul, the most senior
magistracy in the republic. If he were to celebrate a triumph, he
would have to remain a soldier and stay outside the city until the
ceremony, but to stand for election he would need to lay down his
command and enter
CONSULSHIP AND MILITARY CAMPAIGNS
Military campaigns of Julius Caesar and First
In 60 BC, Caesar sought election as consul for 59 BC, along with two other candidates. The election was sordid – even Cato , with his reputation for incorruptibility, is said to have resorted to bribery in favour of one of Caesar's opponents. Caesar won, along with conservative Marcus Bibulus .
Caesar was already in Crassus ' political debt, but he also made overtures to Pompey . Pompey and Crassus had been at odds for a decade, so Caesar tried to reconcile them. The three of them had enough money and political influence to control public business. This informal alliance, known as the First Triumvirate ("rule of three men"), was cemented by the marriage of Pompey to Caesar's daughter Julia . Caesar also married again, this time Calpurnia , who was the daughter of another powerful senator.
Caesar proposed a law for redistributing public lands to the poor—by force of arms, if need be—a proposal supported by Pompey and by Crassus, making the triumvirate public. Pompey filled the city with soldiers, a move which intimidated the triumvirate's opponents. Bibulus attempted to declare the omens unfavourable and thus void the new law, but he was driven from the forum by Caesar's armed supporters. His bodyguards had their ceremonial axes broken, two high magistrates accompanying him were wounded, and he had a bucket of excrement thrown over him. In fear of his life, he retired to his house for the rest of the year, issuing occasional proclamations of bad omens. These attempts proved ineffective in obstructing Caesar's legislation. Roman satirists ever after referred to the year as "the consulship of Julius and Caesar."
When Caesar was first elected, the aristocracy tried to limit his
future power by allotting the woods and pastures of Italy, rather than
the governorship of a province, as his military command duty after his
year in office was over. With the help of political allies, Caesar
later overturned this, and was instead appointed to govern Cisalpine
CONQUEST OF GAUL
Caesar was still deeply in debt, but there was money to be made as a
governor, whether by extortion or by military adventurism. Caesar had
four legions under his command, two of his provinces bordered on
unconquered territory, and parts of
In response to Caesar's earlier activities, the tribes in the
north-east began to arm themselves. Caesar treated this as an
aggressive move and, after an inconclusive engagement against the
united tribes, he conquered the tribes piecemeal. Meanwhile, one of
his legions began the conquest of the tribes in the far north,
directly opposite Britain . During the spring of 56 BC, the Triumvirs
held a conference, as
In 55 BC, Caesar repelled an incursion into
While Caesar was in Britain his daughter Julia, Pompey's wife, had
died in childbirth. Caesar tried to re-secure Pompey's support by
offering him his great-niece in marriage, but
Pompey declined. In 53
BC Crassus was killed leading a failed invasion of the east.
Though the Gallic tribes were just as strong as the Romans
militarily, the internal division among the Gauls guaranteed an easy
victory for Caesar.
Vercingetorix 's attempt in 52 BC to unite them
against Roman invasion came too late. He proved an astute commander,
defeating Caesar in several engagements, but Caesar's elaborate
siege-works at the
Battle of Alesia finally forced his surrender.
Despite scattered outbreaks of warfare the following year,
Main article: Caesar\'s Civil War Caesar's soldiers (legionaries of this time did not wear lorica segmentata , as pictured, but rather lorica hamata )
In 50 BC, the Senate (led by
Pompey ) ordered Caesar to disband his
army and return to
Pompey managed to escape before Caesar could capture him. Heading for
Spain , Caesar left
In Rome, Caesar was appointed dictator , with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in command); Caesar presided over his own election to a second consulship and then, after 11 days, resigned this dictatorship. Caesar then pursued Pompey to Egypt, arriving soon after the murder of the general. There, Caesar was presented with Pompey's severed head and seal-ring, receiving these with tears. He then had Pompey's assassins put to death.
Caesar then became involved with an Egyptian civil war between the
child pharaoh and his sister, wife, and co-regent queen,
Late in 48 BC, Caesar was again appointed dictator, with a term of
one year. After spending the first months of 47 BC in Egypt, Caesar
went to the Middle East, where he annihilated the king of Pontus ; his
victory was so swift and complete that he mocked Pompey's previous
victories over such poor enemies. On his way to Pontus, Caesar
visited Tarsus from 27 to 29 May 47 BC (25–27 Maygreg. ), where he
met enthusiastic support, but where, according to
After this victory, he was appointed dictator for 10 years. Pompey's sons escaped to Spain; Caesar gave chase and defeated the last remnants of opposition in the Battle of Munda in March 45 BC. During this time, Caesar was elected to his third and fourth terms as consul in 46 BC and 45 BC (this last time without a colleague).
DICTATORSHIP AND ASSASSINATION
While he was still campaigning in Spain, the Senate began bestowing
honours on Caesar. Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead
pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to
him. Great games and celebrations were held in April to honour
Caesar’s victory at Munda.
Plutarch writes that many Romans found
the triumph held following Caesar's victory to be in poor taste, as
those defeated in the civil war had not been foreigners, but instead
fellow Romans. On Caesar's return to
During his early career, Caesar had seen how chaotic and dysfunctional the Roman Republic had become. The republican machinery had broken down under the weight of imperialism , the central government had become powerless, the provinces had been transformed into independent principalities under the absolute control of their governors, and the army had replaced the constitution as the means of accomplishing political goals. With a weak central government, political corruption had spiralled out of control, and the status quo had been maintained by a corrupt aristocracy, which saw no need to change a system that had made its members rich.
Between his crossing of the Rubicon in 49 BC, and his assassination in 44 BC, Caesar established a new constitution, which was intended to accomplish three separate goals. First, he wanted to suppress all armed resistance out in the provinces, and thus bring order back to the Republic. Second, he wanted to create a strong central government in Rome. Finally, he wanted to knit together all of the provinces into a single cohesive unit.
The first goal was accomplished when Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters. To accomplish the other two goals, he needed to ensure that his control over the government was undisputed, so he assumed these powers by increasing his own authority, and by decreasing the authority of Rome's other political institutions. Finally, he enacted a series of reforms that were meant to address several long-neglected issues, the most important of which was his reform of the calendar.
When Caesar returned to Rome, the Senate granted him triumphs for his
victories, ostensibly those over Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces , and Juba ,
rather than over his Roman opponents. Not everything went Caesar's
Arsinoe IV , Egypt's former queen, was paraded in chains,
the spectators admired her dignified bearing and were moved to pity.
Triumphal games were held, with beast-hunts involving 400 lions, and
gladiator contests . A naval battle was held on a flooded basin at the
Field of Mars . At the
After the triumph, Caesar set out to pass an ambitious legislative agenda. He ordered a census be taken, which forced a reduction in the grain dole, and decreed that jurors could only come from the Senate or the equestrian ranks. He passed a sumptuary law that restricted the purchase of certain luxuries. After this, he passed a law that rewarded families for having many children, to speed up the repopulation of Italy. Then, he outlawed professional guilds, except those of ancient foundation, since many of these were subversive political clubs. He then passed a term-limit law applicable to governors. He passed a debt-restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed.
The Forum of Caesar , with its Temple of Venus Genetrix , was then built, among many other public works. Caesar also tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain and reduced the number of recipients to a fixed number, all of whom were entered into a special register. From 47 to 44 BC, he made plans for the distribution of land to about 15,000 of his veterans.
The most important change, however, was his reform of the calendar. The calendar was then regulated by the movement of the moon, and this had left it in a mess. Caesar replaced this calendar with the Egyptian calendar, which was regulated by the sun. He set the length of the year to 365.25 days by adding an intercalary/leap day at the end of February every fourth year.
To bring the calendar into alignment with the seasons, he decreed
that three extra months be inserted into 46 BC (the ordinary
intercalary month at the end of February, and two extra months after
November). Thus, the
Shortly before his assassination, he passed a few more reforms. He
established a police force, appointed officials to carry out his land
reforms, and ordered the rebuilding of
He also wanted to convert Ostia to a major port, and cut a canal
Isthmus of Corinth
He was granted further honours, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch: coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings. He was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular cult , with Mark Antony as his high priest .
The history of Caesar's political appointments is complex and uncertain. Caesar held both the dictatorship and the tribunate , but alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship . His powers within the state seem to have rested upon these magistracies. He was first appointed dictator in 49 BC, possibly to preside over elections, but resigned his dictatorship within 11 days. In 48 BC, he was reappointed dictator, only this time for an indefinite period, and in 46 BC, he was appointed dictator for 10 years.
In 48 BC, Caesar was given permanent tribunician powers, which made his person sacrosanct and allowed him to veto the Senate, although on at least one occasion, tribunes did attempt to obstruct him. The offending tribunes in this case were brought before the Senate and divested of their office. This was not the first time Caesar had violated a tribune's sacrosanctity. After he had first marched on Rome in 49 BC, he forcibly opened the treasury, although a tribune had the seal placed on it. After the impeachment of the two obstructive tribunes, Caesar, perhaps unsurprisingly, faced no further opposition from other members of the Tribunician College.
When Caesar returned to
In 46 BC, Caesar gave himself the title of " Prefect of the Morals", which was an office that was new only in name, as its powers were identical to those of the censors . Thus, he could hold censorial powers, while technically not subjecting himself to the same checks to which the ordinary censors were subject, and he used these powers to fill the Senate with his own partisans. He also set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honours upon him. He was, for example, given the title of "Father of the Fatherland" and "imperator ".
Coins bore his likeness, and he was given the right to speak first during Senate meetings. Caesar then increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, which created a large pool of experienced magistrates, and allowed Caesar to reward his supporters.
Caesar even took steps to transform
In February 44 BC, one month before his assassination, he was
appointed dictator for life. Under Caesar, a significant amount of
authority was vested in his lieutenants, mostly because Caesar was
frequently out of Italy. In October 45 BC, Caesar resigned his
position as sole consul, and facilitated the election of two
successors for the remainder of the year, which theoretically restored
the ordinary consulship, since the constitution did not recognise a
single consul without a colleague.
Near the end of his life, Caesar began to prepare for a war against
See also: Assassination of Julius Caesar
Ides of March (15 March; see
According to Plutarch , as Caesar arrived at the Senate, Tillius Cimber presented him with a petition to recall his exiled brother. The other conspirators crowded round to offer support. Both Plutarch and Suetonius say that Caesar waved him away, but Cimber grabbed his shoulders and pulled down Caesar's tunic . Caesar then cried to Cimber, "Why, this is violence!" ("Ista quidem vis est!"). The senators encircle Caesar, a 19th-century interpretation of the event by Carl Theodor von Piloty
At the same time, Casca produced his dagger and made a glancing thrust at the dictator's neck. Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm. According to Plutarch, he said in Latin, "Casca, you villain, what are you doing?" Casca, frightened, shouted, "Help, brother!" in Greek ("ἀδελφέ, βοήθει", "adelphe, boethei"). Within moments, the entire group, including Brutus, was striking out at the dictator. Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico. According to Eutropius , around 60 men participated in the assassination. He was stabbed 23 times.
According to Suetonius, a physician later established that only one wound, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. The dictator's last words are not known with certainty, and are a contested subject among scholars and historians alike. Suetonius reports that others have said Caesar's last words were the Greek phrase "καὶ σύ, τέκνον;" (transliterated as "Kai su, teknon?": "You too, child?" in English). However, for himself, Suetonius says Caesar said nothing.
Plutarch also reports that Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over
his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators. The version best
known in the English-speaking world is the
Latin phrase "Et tu, Brute?
" ("And you, Brutus?", commonly rendered as "You too, Brutus?");
this derives from Shakespeare's
According to Plutarch, after the assassination, Brutus stepped
forward as if to say something to his fellow senators; they, however,
fled the building. Brutus and his companions then marched to the
Capitol while crying out to their beloved city: "People of Rome, we
are once again free!" They were met with silence, as the citizens of
Caesar's body was cremated, and on the site of his cremation, the
Temple of Caesar was erected a few years later (at the east side of
the main square of the
Roman Forum ). Only its altar now remains. A
life-size wax statue of Caesar was later erected in the forum
displaying the 23 stab wounds. A crowd who had gathered there started
a fire, which badly damaged the forum and neighbouring buildings. In
the ensuing chaos, Mark Antony, Octavian (later
AFTERMATH OF THE ASSASSINATION
The result unforeseen by the assassins was that Caesar's death
precipitated the end of the Roman Republic. The Roman middle and
lower classes , with whom Caesar was immensely popular and had been
since before Gaul, became enraged that a small group of aristocrats
had killed their champion. Antony, who had been drifting apart from
Caesar, capitalised on the grief of the Roman mob and threatened to
unleash them on the
Optimates , perhaps with the intent of taking
The crowd at the funeral boiled over, throwing dry branches, furniture, and even clothing on to Caesar's funeral pyre, causing the flames to spin out of control, seriously damaging the Forum. The mob then attacked the houses of Brutus and Cassius, where they were repelled only with considerable difficulty, ultimately providing the spark for the civil war , fulfilling at least in part Antony's threat against the aristocrats. Antony did not foresee the ultimate outcome of the next series of civil wars, particularly with regard to Caesar's adopted heir. Octavian, aged only 18 when Caesar died, proved to have considerable political skills, and while Antony dealt with Decimus Brutus in the first round of the new civil wars, Octavian consolidated his tenuous position.
To combat Brutus and Cassius, who were massing an enormous army in Greece, Antony needed soldiers, the cash from Caesar's war chests, and the legitimacy that Caesar's name would provide for any action he took against them. With the passage of the lex Titia on 27 November 43 BC, the Second Triumvirate was officially formed, composed of Antony, Octavian, and Caesar's loyal cavalry commander Lepidus . It formally deified Caesar as Divus Iulius in 42 BC, and Caesar Octavian henceforth became Divi filius ("Son of a god").
Because Caesar's clemency had resulted in his murder, the Second
Mark Antony formed an alliance with Caesar's lover,
Cleopatra, intending to use the fabulously wealthy Egypt as a base to
dominate Rome. A third civil war broke out between Octavian on one
hand and Antony and
See also: Divus Julius and Caesar\'s Comet
HEALTH AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
Based on remarks by Plutarch, Caesar is sometimes thought to have suffered from epilepsy . Modern scholarship is sharply divided on the subject, and some scholars believe that he was plagued by malaria, particularly during the Sullan proscriptions of the 80s. Several specialists in headache medicine believe that instead of epilepsy, a more accurate diagnosis would be migraine headache. Other scholars contend his epileptic seizures were due to a parasitic infection in the brain by a tapeworm.
Caesar had four documented episodes of what may have been complex partial seizures. He may additionally have had absence seizures in his youth. The earliest accounts of these seizures were made by the biographer Suetonius, who was born after Caesar died. The claim of epilepsy is countered among some medical historians by a claim of hypoglycemia , which can cause epileptoid seizures.
In 2003, psychiatrist Harbour F. Hodder published what he termed as the "Caesar Complex" theory, arguing that Caesar was a sufferer of temporal lobe epilepsy and the debilitating symptoms of the condition were a factor in Caesar's conscious decision to forgo personal safety in the days leading up to his assassination.
A line from Shakespeare has sometimes been taken to mean that he was deaf in one ear: Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf. No classical source mentions hearing impairment in connection with Caesar. The playwright may have been making metaphorical use of a passage in Plutarch that does not refer to deafness at all, but rather to a gesture Alexander of Macedon customarily made. By covering his ear, Alexander indicated that he had turned his attention from an accusation in order to hear the defence.
Francesco M. Galassi and Hutan Ashrafian suggest that Caesar's behavioral manifestations—headaches, vertigo, falls (possibly caused by muscle weakness due to nerve damage), sensory deficit, giddiness and insensibility—and syncopal episodes were the results of cerebrovascular episodes, not epilepsy. Pliny the Elder reports in his Natural History that Caesar's father and forefather died without apparent cause while putting on their shoes. These events can be more readily associated with cardiovascular complications from a stroke episode or lethal heart attack. Caesar possibly had a genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease.
Suetonius , writing more than a century after Caesar's death, describes Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes".
NAME AND FAMILY
The Name Gaius Julius Caesar
Main article: Gaius Julius Caesar (name)
Using the Latin alphabet of the period, which lacked the letters J and U, Caesar's name would be rendered GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR; the form CAIVS is also attested, using the older Roman representation of G by C. The standard abbreviation was C. IVLIVS CÆSAR, reflecting the older spelling. (The letterform Æ is a ligature of the letters A and E, and is often used in Latin inscriptions to save space.)
In Classical Latin, it was pronounced . In the days of the late
Roman Republic, many historical writings were done in Greek, a
language most educated Romans studied. Young wealthy Roman boys were
often taught by Greek slaves and sometimes sent to
Latin , the original diphthong first began to be
pronounced as a simple long vowel . Then, the plosive /k/ before front
vowels began, due to palatalization , to be pronounced as an affricate
, hence renderings like in Italian and in German regional
Latin , as well as the title of
Tsar . With the
evolution of the
Caesar's cognomen itself became a title; it was promulgated by the
Main article: Julio-Claudian family tree Julio-Claudian family tree Parents
* Father Gaius Julius Caesar the Elder (proconsul of Asia in 90s BC) * Mother Aurelia (one of the Aurelii Cottae )
* Julia Major * Julia Minor
* First marriage to Cornelia (Cinnilla) , from 84 BC until her death in 69 or 68 BC * Second marriage to Pompeia , from 67 BC until he divorced her around 61 BC over the Bona Dea scandal * Third marriage to Calpurnia , from 59 BC until Caesar's death
* Julia , by Cornelia, born in 83 or 82 BC
Marcus Junius Brutus (born 85 BC): The historian
that Caesar believed Brutus to have been his illegitimate son, as his
mother Servilia had been Caesar's lover during their youth. Caesar
would have been 15 years old when Brutus was born.
Junia Tertia (born ca. 60s BC), the daughter of Caesar's lover
Servilia was believed by
* Grandson from Julia and Pompey , dead at several days, unnamed.
Gaius Marius (married to his paternal aunt Julia )
Mark Antony (his relative through Antony's mother Julia )
RUMORS OF HOMOSEXUALITY
Roman society viewed the passive role during sexual activity , regardless of gender, to be a sign of submission or inferiority. Indeed, Suetonius says that in Caesar's Gallic triumph, his soldiers sang that, "Caesar may have conquered the Gauls, but Nicomedes conquered Caesar." According to Cicero, Bibulus , Gaius Memmius , and others (mainly Caesar's enemies), he had an affair with Nicomedes IV of Bithynia early in his career. The tales were repeated, referring to Caesar as the Queen of Bithynia, by some Roman politicians as a way to humiliate him. Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio , even under oath on one occasion. This form of slander was popular during this time in the Roman Republic to demean and discredit political opponents. A favorite tactic used by the opposition was to accuse a popular political rival as living a Hellenistic lifestyle based on Greek and Eastern culture, where homosexuality and a lavish lifestyle were more acceptable than in Roman tradition.
Mark Antony charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favors. Suetonius described Antony's accusation of an affair with Octavian as political slander . Octavian eventually became the first Roman Emperor as Augustus.
Julii Caesaris quae exstant (1678)
During his lifetime, Caesar was regarded as one of the best orators
and prose authors in Latin—even
A 1783 edition of The Gallic Wars
Commentarii de Bello Gallico
Other works historically have been attributed to Caesar, but their authorship is in doubt:
* De Bello Alexandrino (On the Alexandrine War), campaign in Alexandria; * De Bello Africo (On the African War), campaigns in North Africa; and * De Bello Hispaniensi (On the Hispanic War), campaigns in the Iberian Peninsula .
These narratives were written and published annually during or just
after the actual campaigns, as a sort of "dispatches from the front."
They were important in shaping Caesar's public image and enhancing his
reputation when he was away from
The texts written by Caesar, an autobiography of the most important
events of his public life, are the most complete primary source for
the reconstruction of his biography. However, Caesar wrote those texts
with his political career in mind, so historians must struggle to
filter the exaggerations and bias contained in it. The Roman emperor
Many rulers in history became interested in the historiography of Caesar . Napoleon III wrote the scholarly work Histoire de Jules César , which was not finished. The second volume listed previous rulers interested in the topic. Charles VIII ordered a monk to prepare a translation of the Gallic Wars in 1480. Charles V ordered a topographic study in France, to place in Gallic Wars in context; which created forty high-quality maps of the conflict. The contemporary Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent catalogued the surviving editions of the Commentaries, and translated them to Turkish language. Henry IV and Louis XIII of France translated the first two commentaries and the last two respectively; Louis XIV retranslated the first one afterwards.
Main article: Caesarism
Main article: Cultural depictions of Julius Caesar
Bust in the Vatican Museums *
Bust in Naples National Archaeological Museum , photograph published in 1902 *
Bust in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples *
CHRONOLOGY OF CAESAR\'S LIFE
* ^ Caesar's titulary name was Imperator Gaius Iulius Gai(i) filius Gai(i) nepos Caesar Patris Patriae "Commander Gaius Julius Caesar, son of Gaius, grandson of Gaius, Father of his Country", pronounced (Suetonius, Divus Julius 76.1). Official name after deification in 42 BC: Divus Iulius ("The Divine Julius").
* ^ Dates in this article are given in the
* Dickinson College Commentaries: Selections from the Gallic War
* Forum Romanum Index to Caesar\'s works online in
* Works by
Ancient Historians\' Writings
* Appian, Book 13 (English translation)
* Cassius Dio, Books 37–44 (English translation)
Plutarch on Antony (English translation, Dryden edition)
* Plutarch: The Life of
Library resources about CAESAR -------------------------
* Online books * Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
* Online books * Resources in your library * Resources in other libraries
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* Abbott, Frank Frost (1901). A History and Description of Roman
Political Institutions. Elibron Classics. ISBN 0-543-92749-0 .
* Canfora, Luciano (2006). Julius Caesar: The People\'s Dictator.
Edinburgh University Press . ISBN 0-7486-1936-4 .
* Freeman, Philip (2008). Julius Caesar. Simon and Schuster. ISBN
* Fuller, J. F. C. (1965). Julius Caesar: Man, Soldier, and Tyrant.
New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
* Goldsworthy, Adrian (2006). Caesar: Life of a Colossus. Yale
University Press . ISBN 0-300-12048-6 .
* Grant, Michael (1969). Julius Caesar. New York: McGraw-Hill.
* Grant, Michael (1979). The Twelve Caesars. New York: Penguin
Books. ISBN 0-14-044072-0 .
* Griffin, Miriam, ed. (2009). A Companion to Julius Caesar. John
Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781444308457 .
* Holland, Tom (2003). Rubicon: The Last Years of the Roman Republic
. Anchor Books. ISBN 1-4000-7897-0 .
* Jiménez, Ramon L. (2000). Caesar Against Rome: The Great Roman
Civil War. Praeger. ISBN 0-275-96620-8 .
* Kleiner, Diana E. E. (2005).
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