HOME
        TheInfoList






Jujuy (Spanish pronunciation: [xuˈxuj]) is a province of Argentina, located in the extreme northwest of the country, at the borders with Chile and Bolivia. The only neighbouring Argentine province is Salta to the east and south.

Geography and climate

Quebrada de Humahuaca

There are three main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplano, a plateau 3,500 meters high with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region. The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.

The terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic across the different areas, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitation is scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River.

The Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana Rivers flow to the Pilcomayo River.

History

Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress" (word also used for the Argentine combat aircraft Pucara). Omaguacas and Ocloyas were later conquered by the Incas during their expansion period.

A view of Jujuy at the end of the 19th century. Clearly highlights the bell tower of Iglesia Matriz

In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.

At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy.

With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.

During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Eventually the Spanish surrendered, but the war had seriously affected the economy of the area.

After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the 20th century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, and La Paz, Bolivia.

In 1945, heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.

The Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport has operated since 1967.

Indigenous people

The Colla people are indigenous people who have been living in Jujuy for centuries, practising subsistent living and farming with llamas and goats. A group of small producers from Suqueños have been fighting in defense of Pachamama and their rights as members of Atacama people.[3] Thirty-three villages have united to oppose the lithium extraction as it requires much water which the region has very little of. As of 2019, at a single salt lake 10 billion liters of water were being pumped up from 450 meter depth into solar ponds. They also claim that lithium operations have contaminated the air with residuals of chemicals used to extract lithium like lye, hydrated sodium carbonate and others. The dust irritates the eyes of llamas and can cause blindness.[4]

Economy

Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet very diversified. Its 2006 economy was an estimated US$2.998 billion, or, US$4,899 per capita (over 40% below the national average).[5]

Agriculture

Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not particularly agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane. Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer.

Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale, mainly for local dairies, and llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool.

Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill.

Mining

Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.

Argentina is the world's second largest lithium brine producer[6] which is located in Jujuy. The so-called Lithium Triangle, consisting of NW Argentina, Bolivia and NE Chile holds more than half the world's supply.[7]

Tourism

An important activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists (80%), tourists from other South American countries (12%) and Europeans (7%). Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province, or combine a visit with Salta province. Horacio Guzmán airport (JUJ), 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires and Córdoba.

In addition to the rugged landscapes which include colourful rock formations, tourists are attracted by the strong indigenous culture of the province. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.

Most tourists who come to Jujuy visit the Quebrada de Humahuaca including Cerro de los Siete Colores at Purmamarca and the pre-Incan ruins at Pucará de Tilcara. Heading west from Purmamarca, another popular attraction are the salt flats Salinas Grandes, on the road towards the Chilean border[8]. Other less frequently visited destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca on the Bolivian border, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.

Government

The provincial government is divided into the usual three branches: the executive, headed by a popularly elected governor, who appoint the cabinet; the legislative; and the judiciary, headed by the Supreme Court.

The Constitution of Jujuy Province forms the formal law of the province.

In Argentina, the most important law enforcement organization is the Argentine Federal Police but the additional work is carried out by the Jujuy Provincial Police. <

There are three main areas in Jujuy; the Altiplano, a plateau 3,500 meters high with peaks of 5,000 meters, covers most of the province. The Río Grande of Jujuy cuts through the Quebrada de Humahuaca canyon, of heights between 1,000 and 3,500 meters. To the southeast, the sierras descends to the Gran Chaco region. The vast difference in height and climate produces desert areas such as the Salinas Grandes salt mines, and subtropical Yungas jungle.

The terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic across the different areas, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitation is scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River.

The Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana Rivers flow to the Pilcomayo River.

History

Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress" (word also used for the Argentine combat aircraft Pucara). Omaguacas and Ocloyas were later conquered by the Incas during their expansion period.

A view of Jujuy at the end of the 19th century. Clearly highlights the bell tower of Iglesia Matriz

In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.

At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy.

With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.

During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the The terrain of the province is mainly arid and semi-desertic across the different areas, except for the El Ramal valley of the San Francisco River. Temperature difference between day and night is wider in higher lands, and precipitation is scarce outside the temperate area of the San Francisco River.

The Grande River and the San Francisco River flow to the Bermejo River. The San Juan, La Quiaca, Yavi and Sansana Rivers flow to the Pilcomayo River.

Pre-Columbian inhabitants known as the Omaguacas and Ocloyas practiced agriculture and domesticated the guanaco. They had huts made of mud, and erected stone fortresses to protect their villages. An example of such fortresses is Pucará de Tilcara, Pucará meaning "fortress" (word also used for the Argentine combat aircraft Pucara). Omaguacas and Ocloyas were later conquered by the Incas during their expansion period.

In 1593, a small settlement was erected in the Jujuy valley by the effort of Francisco de Argañaraz y Murguía. In spite of the attacks of the Calchaquíes and Omaguacas aborigines, the population and activity of the village consolidated and grew.

At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy.

With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.

During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish c

At the end of the 17th century, the customs to the Viceroyalty of Peru was transferred from Córdoba to Jujuy.

With the separation from Peru and the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, Jujuy lost its importance and its population started to diminish.

During the May Revolution and the battles for the independence of the United provinces of the South, many confrontations took place in Jujuy because the Spanish concentrated their forces in Peru. The people of Jujuy had to endure the Jujuy Exodus, a massive evacuation with a scorched earth policy, led by General Manuel Belgrano. Eventually the Spanish surrendered, but the war had seriously affected the economy of the area.

After a series of internal conflicts, the province declared its autonomy from Tucumán and Salta Provinces on November 18, 1834. Jujuy started a gradual process of economic and social improvement, and at the end of the 19th century the sugarcane industry arose. At the beginning of the 20th century, the railway connected the province with Buenos Aires, and La Paz, Bolivia.

In 1945, heavy industry first arrived in Jujuy at the hand of General Manuel Savio, a presidential economic advisor who, had Argentina's first modern steel mill installed in Jujuy. In 1969, Jujuy joined oil-rich neighboring Salta Province with the discovery of petroleum by the state-owned YPF.

The Gobernador Horacio Guzmán International Airport has operated since 1967.

The Colla people are indigenous people who have been living in Jujuy for centuries, practising subsistent living and farming with llamas and goats. A group of small producers from Suqueños have been fighting in defense of Pachamama and their rights as members of Atacama people.[3] Thirty-three villages have united to oppose the lithium extraction as it requires much water which the region has very little of. As of 2019, at a single salt lake 10 billion liters of water were being pumped up from 450 meter depth into solar ponds. They also claim that lithium operations have contaminated the air with residuals of chemicals used to extract lithium like lye, hydrated sodium carbonate and others. The dust irritates the eyes of llamas and can cause blindness.[4]

Economy

Jujuy's economy is moderate

Jujuy's economy is moderately underdeveloped, yet very diversified. Its 2006 economy was an estimated US$2.998 billion, or, US$4,899 per capita (over 40% below the national average).[5]

Agriculture<

Jujuy is, despite its rural profile, not particularly agrarian. Agriculture contributes about 10% to output and the main agricultural activity is sugarcane. Its processing represents more than half of the province's gross production, and 30% of the national sugar production. The second agricultural activity is tobacco, cultivated in the Southeastern valley, as a major national producer.

Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale, mainly for local dairies, and Other crops include beans, citrus and tomatoes, and other vegetables for local consumption. Cattle and goats are raised on a small scale, mainly for local dairies, and llamas, vicuñas and guanacos are raised in significant numbers for wool.

Manufacturing is more prominent in Jujuy than in some neighboring provinces, adding 15% to its economy. Jujuy is the second largest Argentine producer of iron, used by the Altos Hornos Zapla steel mill.

Other industrial activities include mining for construction material, petroleum extraction at Caimancito, salt production from Salinas Grandes salt basin, and paper production fed by the Jujuy's forests with 20% of the industrial product of the province.

Argentina is the world's second largest lithium brine producer[6] which is located in Jujuy. The so-called Lithium Triangle, consisting of NW Argentina, Bolivia and NE Chil

Argentina is the world's second largest lithium brine producer[6] which is located in Jujuy. The so-called Lithium Triangle, consisting of NW Argentina, Bolivia and NE Chile holds more than half the world's supply.[7]

An important activity, tourism in the area brings a number of Argentine tourists (80%), tourists from other South American countries (12%) and Europeans (7%). Most tourists head for San Salvador de Jujuy to start their exploration of the province, or combine a visit with Salta province. Horacio Guzmán airport (JUJ), 34 km from San Salvador, connects the province with Buenos Aires and Córdoba.

In addition to the rugged landscapes which include colourful rock formations, tourists are attracted by the strong indigenous culture of the province. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexi

In addition to the rugged landscapes which include colourful rock formations, tourists are attracted by the strong indigenous culture of the province. Aymará and Quechua cultures coexist in the area, and ruins of the Incas are well conserved.

Most tourists who come to Jujuy visit the Quebrada de Humahuaca including Cerro de los Siete Colores at Purmamarca and the pre-Incan ruins at Pucará de Tilcara. Heading west from Purmamarca, another popular attraction are the salt flats Salinas Grandes, on the road towards the Chilean border[8]. Other less frequently visited destinations include the Calilegua National Park in the Yungas jungle, La Quiaca on the Bolivian border, Laguna de Pozuelos, and Laguna Guayatayoc.

The provincial government is divided into the usual three branches: the executive, headed by a popularly elected governor, who appoint the cabinet; the legislative; and the judiciary, headed by the Supreme Court.