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The range of subfamily Engelhardioideae.

The range of subfamily Juglandoideae.

Synonyms[2]

Platycaryaceae Nakai ex Doweld Pterocaryaceae Nakai, nom. inval. Rhoipteleaceae Hand.-Mazz. 1932, nom. cons.

The Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
are a family, known as the walnut family, of trees, or sometimes shrubs, in the order Fagales. Various members of this family are native to the Americas, Eurasia, and Southeast Asia. Members of the walnut family have large, aromatic leaves that are usually alternate, but opposite in Alfaroa and Oreomunnea. The leaves are pinnately compound or ternate, and usually 20–100 cm long. The trees are wind-pollinated, and the flowers are usually arranged in catkins.

The nine or ten genera in the family have a total of ca 50 species,[3] and include the commercially important nut-producing trees walnut (Juglans), pecan (Carya illinoinensis), and hickory (Carya). The Persian walnut, Juglans
Juglans
regia, is one of the major nut crops of the world. Walnut, hickory, and gaulin are also valuable timber trees.

Contents

1 Taxonomy 2 Systematics 3 Fruits 4 References 5 External links

Taxonomy[edit]

Foliage and seed catkin of Platycarya
Platycarya
strobilacea

The known living genera are grouped into subfamilies, tribes, and subtribes as follows:[4]

Subfamily Rhoipteleoideae
Rhoipteleoideae
Reveal

Rhoiptelea
Rhoiptelea
Diels & Hand.-Mazz. 1932[5]

Subfamily Engelhardioideae Iljinskaya 1990

Alfaroa Standl. 1927—gaulin Engelhardia
Engelhardia
Lesch. ex Blume 1825–1826—cheo Oreomunnea Oerst. 1856

Subfamily Juglandoideae
Juglandoideae
Eaton 1836

Tribe Platycaryeae
Platycaryeae
Nakai 1933

Platycarya
Platycarya
Siebold & Zucc. 1843

Tribe Juglandeae
Juglandeae
Rchb. 1832

Subtribe Caryinae
Caryinae
D.E. Stone & P. S. Manos 2001

Carya Nutt. 1818—hickory and pecan Annamocarya
Annamocarya
A.Chev. 1941 (sometimes included in Carya)

Subtribe Juglandinae
Juglandinae
D.E. Stone & P. S. Manos 2001

Cyclocarya Iljinsk 1953—wheel wingnut Juglans
Juglans
L. 1753—walnut Pterocarya
Pterocarya
Kunth 1824—wingnut

Systematics[edit] Modern molecular phylogenetics suggest the following relationships:[6]

Myricaceae (outgroup)

Juglandaceae

Rhoipteleoideae

Rhoiptelea

Engelhardioideae

Engelhardia

Alfaroa

Oreomunnea

Juglandoideae

Carya

Annamocarya

Platycarya

Cyclocarya

Pterocarya

Juglans

Fruits[edit]

Nut of Juglans
Juglans
regia

Some fruits are borderline and difficult to categorize. Hickory
Hickory
nuts (Carya) and walnuts (Juglans) grow within an outer husk; these fruits are sometimes considered to be drupes or drupaceous nuts, rather than true botanical nuts. "Tryma" is a specialized term for such nut-like drupes.[7][8] The fruits of the Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
are often confused with drupes but are accessory fruit because the outer covering of the fruit is technically an involucre and thus not morphologically part of the carpel; this means it cannot be a drupe but is instead a drupe-like nut. These odd nuts fall into two different types: in the walnut genus (Juglans), it is a pseudodrupe and in the hickory genus (Carya), it is a tryma.[9] References[edit]

^ Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III" (PDF). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (2): 105–121. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2009.00996.x. Retrieved 2013-07-06.  ^ "Family: Juglandaceae
Juglandaceae
DC. ex Perleb, nom. cons". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2003-01-17. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ Christenhusz, M. J. M.; Byng, J. W. (2016). "The number of known plants species in the world and its annual increase". Phytotaxa. Magnolia Press. 261 (3): 201–217. doi:10.11646/phytotaxa.261.3.1.  ^ Manos, P. S.; D. E. Stone (2001). "Evolution, phylogeny and systematics of the Juglandaceae". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 88: 231–269. doi:10.2307/2666226.  ^ "GRIN Genera of Juglandaceae". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on 2015-09-24. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ Xiang X-G, Wang W, Li R-Q, Lin L, Liu Y, Zhou Z-K, Li Z-Y, Chen Z-D. (2014). "Large-scale phylogenetic analyses reveal fagalean diversification promoted by the interplay of diaspores and environments in the Paleogene". Perspectives in Plant
Plant
Ecology, Evolution and Systematics. 16: 101–110. doi:10.1016/j.ppees.2014.03.001. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Armstrong, W.P. "Identification Of Major Fruit Types". Wayne's World. Archived from the original on 2011-11-20. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ Armstrong, W.P. (2009-03-15). "Fruits Called Nuts". Wayne's World. Archived from the original on 2012-04-19. Retrieved 2011-11-17.  ^ John Derek Bewley, Michael Black, Peter Halmer (2006) The Encyclopedia of Seeds: Science, Technology And Uses

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Juglandaceae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Juglandaceae

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1920 Encyclopedia Americana
Encyclopedia Americana
article Juglandacæ.

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q216944 EoL: 4299 EPPO: 1JUGF FNA: 10460 FoC: 10460 Fossilworks: 54584 GBIF: 2499 GRIN: 595 ITIS: 19222 NCBI: 16714 Tropicos: 42000058 VASCAN: 149 Watson &

.