Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22,
1969) was an American singer, actress, dancer and vaudevillian. She
began performing as a child and her singing and acting abilities
gained her international stardom, spanning the rest of her life as a
performer in both musical and dramatic roles, and through many live
concerts and acclaimed albums.
Garland began performing in vaudeville with her two older sisters and
was signed to
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer as a teenager. She made more than
two dozen films with MGM, including nine with Mickey Rooney. Garland
had several well-remembered film appearances. At age seventeen, she
played her most famous role, that of
Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz
(1939). In the height of her film career, Garland was starring in
three to four pictures every year for MGM, with roles in film classics
Meet Me in St. Louis
Meet Me in St. Louis (1944),
The Harvey Girls
The Harvey Girls (1946), Easter
Parade (1948) and
Summer Stock (1950). After 15 years, she was
released from her contract with the studio and made record-breaking
concert appearances, had a successful recording career and her own
Emmy-nominated television series. Garland had fewer film appearances
in the later years of her career, but she did appear in two Academy
Award-nominated performances in A Star Is Born (1954) and Judgment at
Garland received a Golden Globe Award, a Juvenile Academy Award, and a
Special Tony Award. At age 39, she became the youngest and first
female recipient of the
Cecil B. DeMille Award
Cecil B. DeMille Award for lifetime
achievement in the film industry. She was the first woman to win a
Grammy for Album of the Year for her live recording of Judy at
Carnegie Hall. In 1997, Garland was posthumously awarded a Grammy
Lifetime Achievement Award. Several of her recordings have been
inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame. In 1999, the American Film
Institute placed her among the 10 greatest female stars of classic
Despite profound professional success, Garland struggled largely in
her personal life from an early age. The pressures of adolescent
stardom affected her physical and mental health from the time she was
a teenager; her self-image was influenced and constantly criticized by
film executives who believed that she was physically unattractive.
Those same executives manipulated her onscreen physical appearance.
She was plagued into her adulthood by alcohol and substance abuse as
well as financial instability; she often owed hundreds of thousands of
dollars in back taxes. Her lifelong addiction to drugs and alcohol
ultimately led to her death in England from a barbiturate overdose at
1 Early life
2 Early career
2.1 The Gumm Sisters
2.2 Signed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
2.3 The Wizard of Oz
3 Adult stardom
4 Leaving MGM
5 Later career
5.1 Appearances on Bing Crosby's radio show
5.2 Renewed stardom on the stage
5.3 Hollywood comeback
5.4 Television, concerts, and Carnegie Hall
Judy Garland Show
5.6 Political views
6 Final years
9 Public image and reputation
10.1 Gay icon
10.2 Portrayals in fiction
11 See also
14 Further reading
15 External links
Garland's birthplace in Grand Rapids, Minnesota, is now a museum
Garland was born Frances Ethel Gumm on June 10, 1922, in Grand Rapids,
Minnesota. She was the youngest child of Ethel Marion (née Milne) and
Francis Avent "Frank" Gumm. Her parents were vaudevillians who settled
in Grand Rapids to run a movie theater that featured vaudeville acts.
She was of Irish, English, and Scottish ancestry, named after
both of her parents and baptized at a local Episcopal church.
"Baby" (as she was called by her parents and sisters) shared her
family's flair for song and dance. Her first appearance came at the
age of two-and-a-half, when she joined her older sisters Mary Jane
"Suzy/Suzanne" Gumm and Dorothy Virginia "Jimmie" Gumm on the stage of
her father's movie theater during a Christmas show and sang a chorus
of "Jingle Bells". The Gumm Sisters performed there for the next
few years, accompanied by their mother on piano.
The family relocated to Lancaster, California, in June 1926, following
rumors that Frank Gumm had made sexual advances towards male
ushers. Frank purchased and operated another theater in Lancaster,
and Ethel began managing her daughters and working to get them into
motion pictures. Garland attended
Hollywood High School
Hollywood High School and later
graduated from University High School.
The Gumm Sisters
The Gumm Sisters, also known as the Garland Sisters, circa 1935: Top
row: Mary Jane and Dorothy Virginia Gumm; bottom center: Frances Ethel
(Judy Garland) Gumm
In 1928, the Gumm Sisters enrolled in a dance school run by Ethel
Meglin, proprietress of the
Meglin Kiddies dance troupe. They appeared
with the troupe at its annual Christmas show. Through the Meglin
Kiddies, they made their film debut in a 1929 short subject called The
Big Revue, where they performed a song-and-dance number called "That's
the good old sunny south". This was followed by appearances in two
Vitaphone shorts the following year: A Holiday in Storyland (featuring
Garland's first on-screen solo) and The Wedding of Jack and Jill. They
next appeared together in Bubbles. Their final on-screen appearance
came in 1935, in an MGM
Technicolor short entitled La Fiesta de Santa
The trio had been touring the vaudeville circuit as "The Gumm Sisters"
for many years when they performed in Chicago at the Oriental Theater
with George Jessel in 1934. He encouraged the group to choose a more
appealing name after "Gumm" was met with laughter from the audience.
According to theater legend, their act was once erroneously billed at
a Chicago theater as "The Glum Sisters".
Several stories persist regarding the origin of the name "Garland".
One is that it was originated by Jessel after Carole Lombard's
character Lily Garland in the film Twentieth Century, which was then
playing at the Oriental; another is that the girls chose the surname
after drama critic Robert Garland. Garland's daughter Lorna Luft
stated that her mother selected the name when Jessel announced that
the trio "looked prettier than a garland of flowers". A TV special
was filmed in Hollywood at the Pantages Theatre premiere of A Star Is
Born on September 29, 1954, in which Jessel stated:
I think that I ought to tell the folks that it was I who named Judy
Garland, Judy Garland. Not that it would have made any
difference – you couldn't have hid[den] that great talent if
you'd called her "Tel Aviv Windsor Shell", you know, but her name when
I first met her was Frances Gumm and it wasn't the kind of a name that
so sensitive a great actress like that should have; ... and so we
called her Judy Garland, and I think she's a combination of Helen
Hayes and Al Jolson, and maybe
Jenny Lind and Sarah Bernhardt.
A later explanation surfaced when Jessel was a guest on Garland's
television show in 1963. He said that he had sent actress Judith
Anderson a telegram containing the word "garland" and it stuck in his
mind. However, Garland asked Jessel just moments later if this
story was true, and he blithely replied "No".
By late 1934, the Gumm Sisters had changed their name to the Garland
Sisters. Frances changed her name to "Judy" soon after, inspired
by a popular
Hoagy Carmichael song. The group broke up by August
1935, when Suzanne Garland flew to Reno, Nevada, and married musician
Lee Kahn, a member of the Jimmy Davis orchestra playing at Cal-Neva
Lodge, Lake Tahoe.
Signed at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Mickey Rooney in
Love Finds Andy Hardy
Love Finds Andy Hardy (1938)
In September 1935,
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer asked songwriter
Burton Lane to go
to the Orpheum Theater in downtown
Los Angeles to watch the Garland
Sisters' vaudeville act and to report to him. A few days later, Judy
and her father were brought for an impromptu audition at
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios in Culver City. Garland performed "Zing!
Went the Strings of My Heart" and "Eli, Eli", a Yiddish song written
in 1896 and very popular in vaudeville. They immediately signed
Garland to a contract with MGM, presumably without a screen test,
though she had made a test for the studio several months earlier. The
studio did not know what to do with her, as at age thirteen, she was
older than the traditional child star, but too young for adult
Her physical appearance was a dilemma for MGM. She was only
4 feet 11.5 inches (151.1 cm), and her "cute" or
"girl-next-door" looks did not exemplify the most glamorous persona
required of leading ladies of the time. She was self-conscious and
anxious about her appearance. "Judy went to school at Metro with Ava
Gardner, Lana Turner, Elizabeth Taylor, real beauties", said Charles
Walters, who directed her in a number of films. "Judy was the big
money-maker at the time, a big success, but she was the ugly
duckling ... I think it had a very damaging effect on her
emotionally for a long time. I think it lasted forever, really."
Her insecurity was exacerbated by the attitude of studio chief Louis
B. Mayer, who referred to her as his "little hunchback".
During her early years at the studio, they photographed and dressed
her in plain garments or frilly juvenile gowns and costumes to match
the "girl-next-door" image created for her. They had her wear
removable caps on her teeth and rubberized discs to reshape her
Garland performed at various studio functions and was eventually cast
Deanna Durbin in the musical-short Every Sunday. The film
contrasted her vocal range and swing style with Durbin's operatic
soprano and served as an extended screen test for the pair, as studio
executives were questioning the wisdom of having two girl singers on
the roster. Mayer finally decided to keep both actresses, but by
that time, Durbin's option had lapsed and she was signed by Universal
On November 16, 1935, Garland learned her father had been hospitalized
with meningitis and had taken a turn for the worse while she was in
the midst of preparing for a radio performance on the Shell Chateau
Hour. Frank Gumm died the following morning at age forty-nine, leaving
her devastated at age thirteen. Her song for the
Shell Chateau Hour
was her first professional rendition of "Zing! Went the Strings of My
Heart", a song which became a standard in many of her concerts.
Garland next came to the attention of studio executives by singing a
special arrangement of "You Made Me Love You (I Didn't Want to Do It)"
Clark Gable at a birthday party held by the studio for the actor.
Her rendition was so well regarded, she performed the song in the
Broadway Melody of 1938
Broadway Melody of 1938 (1937), singing to a
photograph of him.
In Love Finds Andy Hardy
MGM hit on a winning formula when it paired Garland with Mickey Rooney
in a string of what were known as "backyard musicals". The duo
first appeared together as supporting characters in the 1937 B movie
Thoroughbreds Don't Cry. Garland was then put in the cast of the
fourth of the Hardy Family movies as a literal girl-next-door to
Rooney's character Andy Hardy, in Love Finds Andy Hardy, although
Hardy's love interest was played by Lana Turner. They teamed as lead
characters for the first time in Babes in Arms, ultimately appearing
in five additional films, including Hardy films Andy Hardy Meets
Debutante and Life Begins for Andy Hardy.
Garland stated Rooney, she, and other young performers were constantly
prescribed amphetamines to stay awake to keep with the frantic pace of
making one film after another, as well as barbiturates to take before
going to bed so they could sleep. This regular dose of drugs, she
said, led to addiction and a lifelong struggle, and contributed to her
eventual demise. She later resented the hectic schedule and felt MGM
stole her youth.
Garland was of a healthy weight, but the studio demanded she diet
constantly. They even went so far as to serve her only a bowl of soup
and a plate of lettuce when she ordered a regular meal. She was
plagued with self-doubt throughout her life, despite successful film
and recording careers, awards, critical praise, and her ability to
fill concert halls worldwide, and she required constant reassurance
she was talented and attractive. Some sources[who?] claim Garland
was taken advantage of by sexual predators in Hollywood during her
initial period of success and that she was seduced by
Spencer Tracy at
the age of fourteen.[better source needed]
Rooney, however, denied their childhood studio was responsible for her
Judy Garland was never given any drugs by
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer. Mr. Mayer didn't sanction anything for Judy. No
one on that lot was responsible for Judy Garland's death.
Unfortunately, Judy chose that path."
The Wizard of Oz
Garland holding Terry (as Toto) in The Wizard of Oz (1939)
In 1938, she was cast in her most memorable role, as the young Dorothy
Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939), a film based on the 1900 children's
book by L. Frank Baum. In this film, she sang the song with which she
would be identified, "Over the Rainbow". Although producers Arthur
Mervyn LeRoy had wanted her from the start, studio chief
Mayer first tried to borrow
Shirley Temple from 20th Century Fox, but
Deanna Durbin was then asked, but was unavailable,
resulting in Garland being cast.
Garland was initially outfitted in a blonde wig for the part, but
Freed and LeRoy decided against it shortly into filming. Her blue
gingham dress was chosen for its blurring effect on her figure, which
made her look younger. Shooting commenced on October 13, 1938,
and was completed on March 16, 1939, with a final cost of more
than US$2 million. With the conclusion of filming, MGM kept
Garland busy with promotional tours and the shooting of Babes in Arms,
directed by Busby Berkeley. Rooney and she were sent on a
cross-country promotional tour, culminating in the August 17 New York
City premiere at the Capitol Theater, which included a five-show-a-day
appearance schedule for the two stars. Garland was forced into a
strict diet during filming; she was given tobacco to suppress her
The Wizard of Oz was a tremendous critical success, though its high
budget and promotions costs of an estimated $4 million
(equivalent to $70.4 million in 2018), coupled with the lower revenue
generated by discounted children's tickets, meant that the film did
not make a profit until it was rereleased in the 1940s and in
subsequent rereleases. At the 1939 Academy Awards ceremony,
Garland received her only Academy Award, a Juvenile Award for her
performances in 1939, including The Wizard of Oz and Babes in
Arms. Following this recognition, she became one of MGM's most
bankable stars.
Garland sings "The Trolley Song" in
Meet Me in St. Louis
Meet Me in St. Louis (1944)
In 1940, she starred in three films: Andy Hardy Meets Debutante,
Strike Up the Band, and Little Nellie Kelly. In the last, she played
her first adult role, a dual role of both mother and daughter. Little
Nellie Kelly was purchased from
George M. Cohan
George M. Cohan as a vehicle for her
to display both her audience appeal and her physical appearance. The
role was a challenge for her, requiring the use of an accent, her
first adult kiss, and the only death scene of her career. The kiss
was regarded as embarrassing by her costar, George Murphy. He said it
felt like "a hillbilly with a child bride." Nevertheless, the
success of these three films and a further three films in 1941 secured
her position at MGM as a major property.
During this time, Garland experienced her first serious adult
romances. The first was with bandleader Artie Shaw. She was deeply
devoted to him and was devastated in early 1940 when he eloped with
Lana Turner. Garland began a relationship with musician David
Rose, and on her 18th birthday, he gave her an engagement ring. The
studio intervened because at that time, he was still married to
actress and singer Martha Raye. They agreed to wait a year to allow
for his divorce to become final. During that time Garland had a brief
affair with songwriter Johnny Mercer. After her break-up with Mercer,
Garland and Rose were wed on July 27, 1941. "A true rarity" is
what media called it. Garland, who had aborted her pregnancy by
him in 1942, agreed to a trial separation in January 1943 and divorced
in 1944. She was noticeably thinner in her next film, For Me and
My Gal, alongside
Gene Kelly in his first screen appearance. She was
top-billed in the credits for the first time and effectively made the
transition from teenaged star to adult actress.
Promotional image for
Presenting Lily Mars
Presenting Lily Mars (1943)
At age 21, she was given the "glamor treatment" in Presenting Lily
Mars, in which she was dressed in "grown-up" gowns. Her lightened hair
was also pulled up in a stylish fashion. However, no matter how
glamorous or beautiful she appeared on screen or in photographs, she
was never confident in her appearance and never escaped the
"girl-next-door" image which had been created for her.
One of Garland's most successful films for MGM was Meet Me in St.
Louis (1944), in which she introduced three standards: "The Trolley
Song", "The Boy Next Door", and "Have Yourself a Merry Little
Christmas". This was one of the first films in her career that gave
her the opportunity to be the attractive leading lady, rather than the
dowdy girl next door.
Vincente Minnelli was assigned to direct, and he
requested that makeup artist Dorothy Ponedel be assigned to Garland.
Ponedel refined her appearance in several ways, including extending
and reshaping her eyebrows, changing her hairline, modifying her lip
line and removing her nose discs and dental caps. She appreciated the
results so much that Ponedel was written into her contract for all her
remaining pictures at MGM.
At this time, Garland had a brief affair with film director Orson
Welles, who was then married to Rita Hayworth. The affair ended in
early 1945, although they remained on good terms afterward.
During the filming of Meet Me in St. Louis, after some initial
conflict between them, Garland and Minnelli entered into a
relationship. They were married June 15, 1945, and on March 12,
1946, daughter Liza was born. They were divorced by 1951.
The Clock (1945) was Garland's first straight dramatic film, opposite
Robert Walker. Though the film was critically praised and earned a
profit, most movie fans expected her to sing. She did not act again in
a nonsinging dramatic role for many years. Garland's other films of
the 1940s include
The Harvey Girls
The Harvey Girls (1946), in which she introduced the
Academy Award-winning song "On the Atchison, Topeka, and the Santa
Till the Clouds Roll By
Till the Clouds Roll By (1946).
During filming for The Pirate in April 1947, Garland suffered a
nervous breakdown and was placed in a private sanitarium. She was
able to complete filming, but in July, she made her first suicide
attempt, making minor cuts to her wrist with a broken glass.
During this period, she spent two weeks in treatment at the Austen
Riggs Center, a psychiatric hospital in Stockbridge,
Massachusetts. The Pirate was released in 1948 and was the first
film in which Garland had starred since The Wizard of Oz to not make a
profit. The main reasons for its failure was not only its cost, but
also the increasing expense of the shooting delays while Garland was
ill, as well because the general public was not yet willing to accept
her in a sophisticated vehicle. Following her work on The Pirate, she
co-starred for the first and only time with
Fred Astaire (who replaced
Gene Kelly after Kelly had broken his ankle) in Easter Parade, which
became her top-grossing film at MGM and quickly re-established her as
one of MGM's primary assets.
Till the Clouds Roll By
Till the Clouds Roll By (1946)
Thrilled by the huge box-office receipts of Easter Parade, MGM
immediately teamed Garland and Astaire in The Barkleys of Broadway.
During the initial filming, Garland was taking prescription sleeping
medication along with illicitly obtained pills containing morphine.
Around this time, she also developed a serious problem with alcohol.
These, in combination with migraine headaches, led her to miss several
shooting days in a row. After being advised by her doctor that she
would only be able to work in four- to five-day increments with
extended rest periods between, MGM executive
Arthur Freed made the
decision to suspend her on July 18, 1948. She was replaced in the film
by Ginger Rogers. When her suspension was over, she was summoned
back to work and ultimately performed two songs as a guest in the
Rodgers and Hart biopic Words and Music, which was her last appearance
with Mickey Rooney. Despite the all-star cast, Words and Music barely
broke even at the box office. Having regained her strength, as well as
some needed weight during her suspension, Garland felt much better and
in the fall of 1948, she returned to MGM to replace a pregnant June
Allyson for the musical film
In the Good Old Summertime co-starring
Van Johnson. Although she was sometimes late arriving at the studio
during the making of this picture, she managed to complete it five
days ahead of schedule. Her daughter Liza made her film debut at the
age of two and a half at the end of the film. In The Good Old
Summertime was enormously successful at the box office.
Garland was then cast in the film adaptation of Annie Get Your Gun in
the title role of Annie Oakley. She was nervous at the prospect of
taking on a role strongly identified with Ethel Merman, anxious about
appearing in an unglamorous part after breaking from juvenile parts
for several years, and disturbed by her treatment at the hands of
director Busby Berkeley. Berkeley was staging all the musical numbers,
and was severe with Garland's lack of effort, attitude, and
enthusiasm. She complained to Mayer, trying to have Berkeley fired
from the feature. She began arriving late to the set and sometimes
failed to appear. At this time, she was also undergoing electroshock
therapy for depression. She was fired from the picture on
May 10, 1949, and was replaced by Betty Hutton, who stepped in
performing all the musical routines as staged by Berkeley.
Garland underwent an extensive hospital stay at Peter Bent Brigham
Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, in which she was weaned off her
medication, and after a while, was able to eat and sleep normally.
Garland returned to
Los Angeles heavier, and in the fall of 1949, was
Gene Kelly in Summer Stock. The film took six months to
complete. To lose weight, Garland went back on the pills and the
familiar pattern resurfaced. She began showing up late or not at all.
When principal photography on
Summer Stock was completed in the spring
of 1950, it was decided that Garland needed an additional musical
number. She agreed to do it provided the song should be "Get Happy".
In addition, she insisted that director
Charles Walters choreograph
and stage the number. By that time, Garland had lost 15 pounds
and looked more slender. "Get Happy" was the last segment of Summer
Stock to be filmed. It was her final picture for MGM. When it was
released in the fall of 1950,
Summer Stock drew big crowds and racked
up very respectable box-office receipts, but because of the costly
shooting delays caused by Garland, the film posted a loss of $80,000
to the studio.
Garland was cast in the film
Royal Wedding with
Fred Astaire after
June Allyson became pregnant in 1950. She failed to report to the set
on multiple occasions, and the studio suspended her contract on June
17, 1950. She was replaced by Jane Powell. Reputable biographies
following her death stated that after this latest dismissal, she
slightly grazed her neck with a broken glass, requiring only a
band-aid, but at the time, the public was informed that a despondent
Garland had slashed her throat. "All I could see ahead was more
confusion", Garland later said of this suicide attempt. "I wanted to
black out the future as well as the past. I wanted to hurt myself and
everyone who had hurt me." In September 1950, after 15 years with
the studio, Garland and MGM parted company.
Appearances on Bing Crosby's radio show
Garland was a frequent guest on Kraft Music Hall, hosted by her friend
Bing Crosby. Following Garland's second suicide attempt, Crosby,
knowing that she was depressed and running out of money, invited her
on to his radio show—the first of the new season—on October 11,
She was standing in the wings of it trembling with fear. She was
almost hysterical. She said, "I cannot go out there because they're
all gonna be looking to see if there are scars and it's gonna be
terrible." Bing said "What's going on?" and I told him what happened
and he walked out on stage and he said: "We got a friend here, she's
had a little trouble recently. You probably heard about it –
Everything is fine now, she needs our love. She needs our support.
She's here – let's give it to her, OK? Here's Judy." And she came
out and that place went crazy. And she just blossomed.
— Hal Kanter, Writer for Bing
Garland made eight appearances during the 1950–51 season of The Bing
Crosby – Chesterfield Show, which immediately reinvigorated her
career. Soon after, she toured for four months to sellout crowds in
Renewed stardom on the stage
Garland in a publicity still (1954)
In 1951, Garland began a four-month concert tour of Britain and
Ireland, where she played to sold-out audiences throughout England,
Scotland, and Ireland. The successful concert tour was the first
of her many comebacks, with performances centered on songs by Al
Jolson and revival of vaudevillian "tradition". Garland performed
complete shows as tributes to Jolson in her concerts at the London
Palladium in April and at New York's Palace Theater later that year.
Garland said after the Palladium show: "I suddenly knew that this was
the beginning of a new life ... Hollywood thought I was through;
then came the wonderful opportunity to appear at the London Palladium,
where I can truthfully say
Judy Garland was reborn." Her
appearances at the Palladium lasted for four weeks, where she received
rave reviews and an ovation described by the Palladium manager as the
loudest he had ever heard.
Garland's engagement at the Palace Theatre in
Manhattan in October
1951 exceeded all previous records for the theater and for Garland,
and was called "one of the greatest personal triumphs in show business
history". Garland was honored with a
Special Tony Award for her
contribution to the revival of vaudeville.
Garland divorced Minnelli that same year. On June 8, 1952, she
married Sid Luft, her tour manager and producer, in Hollister,
California. Garland gave birth to Lorna Luft, herself a future
actress and singer, on November 21, 1952, and to Joey Luft on March
Garland in A Star Is Born (1954)
Garland filmed a musical remake of the film A Star Is Born for Warner
Bros. in 1954. Garland and Sidney Luft, her then-husband, produced the
film through their production company, Transcona Enterprises, while
Warner Bros. supplied the funds, production facilities, and crew.
George Cukor and co-starring James Mason, it was a large
undertaking to which she initially fully dedicated herself.[citation
As shooting progressed, however, she began making the same pleas of
illness that she had so often made during her final films at MGM.
Production delays led to cost overruns and angry confrontations with
Warner Bros. head Jack L. Warner. Principal photography wrapped on
March 17, 1954. At Luft's suggestion, the "Born in a Trunk" medley was
filmed as a showcase for her and inserted over director Cukor's
objections, who feared the additional length would lead to cuts in
other areas. It was completed on July 29.
Upon its world premiere on September 29, 1954, the film was met with
tremendous critical and popular acclaim. Before its release, it was
edited at the instruction of Jack Warner; theater operators, concerned
that they were losing money because they were only able to run the
film for three or four shows per day instead of five or six, pressured
the studio to make additional reductions. About 30 minutes of footage
were cut, sparking outrage among critics and filmgoers. Although it
was still popular, drawing huge crowds and grossing over $6,000,000 in
its first release, A Star is Born did not make back its cost and ended
up losing money. As a result, the secure financial position Garland
had expected from the profits did not materialize. Transcona made
no more films with Warner.
Garland was nominated for the
Academy Award for Best Actress and in
the run-up to the 27th Academy Awards, was generally expected to win.
She could not attend the ceremony because she had just given birth to
her son, Joseph Luft, so a television crew was in her hospital room
with cameras and wires to broadcast her anticipated acceptance speech.
The Oscar was won, however, by
Grace Kelly for The Country Girl
(1954). The camera crew was packing up before Kelly could even reach
Groucho Marx sent her a telegram after the awards ceremony,
declaring her loss "the biggest robbery since Brinks." TIME labeled
her performance as "just about the greatest one-woman show in modern
movie history". Garland won the
Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award for Best
Actress in a Musical for the role.
Garland's films after A Star Is Born included Judgment at Nuremberg
(1961) (for which she was Oscar- and Golden Globe-nominated for Best
Supporting Actress), the animated feature
Gay Purr-ee (1962), and A
Child Is Waiting (1963) with Burt Lancaster. Her final film was I
Could Go On Singing (1963), co-starring Dirk Bogarde.
Television, concerts, and Carnegie Hall
Garland before a concert (1957)
Garland appeared in a number of television specials beginning in 1955.
The first was the 1955 debut episode of Ford Star Jubilee; this was
the first full-scale color broadcast ever on
CBS and was a ratings
triumph, scoring a 34.8 Nielsen rating. She signed a three-year,
$300,000 contract with the network. Only one additional special was
broadcast in 1956, a live concert-edition of General Electric Theater,
before the relationship between the Lufts and
CBS broke down in a
dispute over the planned format of upcoming specials.
In 1956, Garland performed for four weeks at the New Frontier Hotel on
Las Vegas Strip
Las Vegas Strip for a salary of $55,000 per week, making her the
highest-paid entertainer to work in Las Vegas. Despite a brief
bout of laryngitis, her performances there were so successful that her
run was extended an extra week. Later that year, she returned to
the Palace Theatre, site of her two-a-day triumph. She opened in
September, once again to rave reviews and popular acclaim.
In November 1959, Garland was hospitalized after she was diagnosed
with acute hepatitis. Over the next few weeks, several quarts of
fluid were drained from her body until she was released from the
hospital in January 1960, still in a weak condition. She was told by
doctors that she likely had five years or less to live and that, even
if she did survive, she would be a semi-invalid and would never sing
again. She initially felt "greatly relieved" at the diagnosis.
"The pressure was off me for the first time in my life." However,
she recovered over the next several months, and in August of that
year, returned to the stage of the Palladium. She felt so warmly
embraced by the British that she announced her intention to move
permanently to England.
Her concert appearance at Carnegie Hall on April 23, 1961, was a
considerable highlight, called by many "the greatest night in show
business history". The two-record album
Judy at Carnegie Hall
Judy at Carnegie Hall was
certified gold, charting for 95 weeks on Billboard, including 13 weeks
at number one. It won four Grammy Awards, including Album of the Year
and Best Female Vocal of the Year, and has never been out of
Judy Garland Show
Dean Martin, Garland, and
Frank Sinatra (1962)
In 1961, Garland and
CBS settled their contract disputes with the help
of her new agent, Freddie Fields, and negotiated a new round of
specials. The first, entitled The
Judy Garland Show, aired on February
25, 1962 and featured guests
Frank Sinatra and Dean Martin.
Following this success,
CBS made a $24 million offer to her for a
weekly television series of her own, also to be called The Judy
Garland Show, which was deemed at the time in the press to be "the
biggest talent deal in TV history". Although she had said as early as
1955 that she would never do a weekly television series, in the
early 1960s, she was in a financially precarious situation. She was
several hundred thousand dollars in debt to the Internal Revenue
Service, having failed to pay taxes in 1951 and 1952, and the failure
of A Star is Born meant that she received nothing from that
investment. A successful run on television was intended to secure
her financial future.
Following a third special,
Judy Garland and Her Guests Phil Silvers
and Robert Goulet, Garland's weekly series debuted September 29,
The Judy Garland Show
The Judy Garland Show was critically praised, but
for a variety of reasons (including being placed in the time slot
Bonanza on NBC), the show lasted only one season and was
cancelled in 1964 after 26 episodes. Despite its short run, the series
was nominated for four Emmy Awards, including Best Variety
Series. The demise of the program was personally and financially
devastating for Garland.
Garland was a lifelong and relatively active Democrat. During her
lifetime, she was a member of the Hollywood Democratic committee and a
financial as well as moral supporter of various liberal causes,
including the Civil Rights movement. She donated money to the
campaigns of Democratic presidential candidates Franklin D. Roosevelt,
Henry A. Wallace, Adlai Stevenson II, John F. Kennedy, and Robert F.
In 1963, Garland sued Luft for divorce on the grounds of mental
cruelty. She also asserted that he had repeatedly struck her while he
was drinking and that he had attempted to take their children from her
by force. She had filed for divorce from Luft on several previous
occasions, even as early as 1956, but they had reconciled each
Mickey Deans and Garland at their London wedding in March 1969, three
months before her death
After her television series was cancelled, Garland returned to the
stage. Most notably, she performed at the
London Palladium with her
Liza Minnelli in November 1964. The concert was
also shown on the British television network ITV and was one of her
final appearances at the venue. She made guest appearances on The Ed
Sullivan Show and The Tonight Show. Garland guest-hosted an episode of
The Hollywood Palace
The Hollywood Palace with Vic Damone. She was invited back for a
second episode in 1966 with
Van Johnson as her guest. Problems with
Garland's behavior ended her Hollywood Palace guest appearances.
A 1964 tour of Australia was largely disastrous. Garland's first
concert in Sydney was held in the
Sydney Stadium because no concert
hall could accommodate the overflow crowds who wanted to see her. It
went well and received positive reviews. Her second performance, in
Melbourne, started an hour late. The crowd of 7,000 was angered by her
tardiness and believed that she was drunk; they booed and heckled her,
and she fled the stage after 45 minutes. She later characterized
Melbourne crowd as "brutish". A second concert in Sydney was
uneventful, but the
Melbourne appearance garnered her significant bad
press. Some of that bad press was deflected by the announcement
of a near fatal episode of pleurisy.
Garland's tour promoter
Mark Herron announced that they had married
aboard a freighter off the coast of Hong Kong. However, she was not
officially divorced from Luft at the time the ceremony was
performed. The divorce became final on May 19, 1965, and
Herron and she did not legally marry until November 14, 1965; they
separated six months later.
In February 1967, Garland was cast as Helen Lawson in Valley of the
Dolls for 20th Century Fox. During the filming, she missed
rehearsals and was fired in April, replaced by Susan Hayward. Her
recording of the song "I'll Plant My Own Tree" survived, along with
her stage clothes.
Returning to the stage, Garland made her last appearances at New
York's Palace Theatre in July, a 27-show stand, performing with her
children Lorna and Joey Luft. She wore a sequined pantsuit on stage
for this tour, which was part of the original wardrobe for her
character in Valley of the Dolls.
By early 1969, Garland's health had deteriorated. She performed in
London at the
Talk of the Town nightclub for a five-week run and
made her last concert appearance in
Copenhagen during March 1969.
She married her fifth and final husband, nightclub manager Mickey
Deans, at Chelsea Register Office, London, on March 15, 1969, her
divorce from Herron having been finalized on February 11.
On June 22, 1969, Deans found Garland dead in the bathroom of their
rented mews house in Chelsea, London; she was 47 years old. At the
inquest, Coroner Gavin Thurston stated that the cause of death was "an
incautious self-overdosage" of barbiturates; her blood contained the
equivalent of 10 1.5-grain (97 mg) Seconal capsules.
Thurston stressed that the overdose had been unintentional and that no
evidence suggested she had committed suicide. Garland's autopsy showed
no inflammation of her stomach lining and no drug residue in her
stomach, which indicated that the drug had been ingested over a long
period of time, rather than in a single dose. Her death certificate
stated that her death had been "accidental". Supporting the
accidental cause, her doctor noted that a prescription of 25
barbiturate pills was found by her bedside half-empty and another
bottle of 100 was still unopened.
A British specialist who had attended her autopsy said she had
nevertheless been living on borrowed time owing to cirrhosis, although
a later autopsy showed no evidence of alcoholism or
cirrhosis. She died twelve days after her forty-seventh
birthday. Her Wizard of Oz co-star
Ray Bolger commented at her
funeral, "She just plain wore out." Forensic pathologist Dr.
Michael Hunter believed that Garland had an eating disorder, which
contributed to her death.
After her body had been embalmed by Desmond Henley, Deans took
Garland's remains to New York City on June 26, where an estimated
20,000 people lined up to pay their respects at the Frank E. Campbell
Funeral Chapel in Manhattan, which remained open all night long to
accommodate the overflow crowd. On June 27,
James Mason gave a eulogy
at the funeral, an Episcopal service led by the Rev. Peter A. Delaney
of St Marylebone Parish Church, London, who had officiated at her
marriage to Deans, three months prior. The public and press were
barred. She was interred in a crypt in the community mausoleum at
Ferncliff Cemetery in Hartsdale, New York, a small town 24 miles north
of midtown Manhattan.
At the insistence of her children, Garland's remains were disinterred
Ferncliff Cemetery in January 2017 and re-interred 2,800 miles
across the country at the
Hollywood Forever Cemetery
Hollywood Forever Cemetery in Los
Garland possessed the vocal range of a contralto. Her
singing voice has been described as brassy, powerful, effortless
and resonant, often demonstrating a tremulous, powerful
vibrato. Although the octave range of her voice was comparatively
limited, she was capable of alternating between female and
male-sounding timbres at will with little effort. The Richmond
Times-Dispatch correspondent Tony Farrell wrote that Garland possessed
"a deep, velvety contralto voice that could turn on a dime to belt out
the high notes," while Ron O’Brien, producer of tribute album
The Definitive Collection –
Judy Garland (2006), wrote that the
singer's combination of natural phrasing, elegant delivery, mature
pathos "and powerful dramatic dynamics she brings to ... songs make
her [renditions] the definitive interpretations.” HuffPost
writer Joan E. Dowlin called the period of Garland's musical career
between 1937 and 1945 the "innocent years", during which the critic
believes that the singer's "voice was vibrant and her musical
expression exuberant", taking note of its resonance and distinct,
"rich yet sweet" quality "that grabs you and pulls you in."
Garland's voice would often vary to suit the song she was
interpreting, ranging from soft, engaging and tender during ballads to
humorous on some of her duets with other artists. Her more
joyful, belted performances have been compared to entertainers Sophie
Ethel Merman and Al Jolson. Although her musical
repertoire consisted largely of cast recordings, show tunes and
traditional pop standards, Garland was also capable of singing
soul, blues and jazz music, which Dowlin compared to singer Elvis
Garland insists that her talent as a performer was inherited,
claiming, "Nobody ever taught me what to do onstage." Critics
agree that, even when she debuted as a child, Garland had always
sounded mature for her age, particularly on her earlier
recordings. From an early age, Garland had been billed as "the
little girl with the leather lungs", a designation the singer
later admitted to having felt humiliated by because she would have
much preferred to have been known to audiences as a "pretty" or "nice
little girl". Jessel recalled that, even at only 12 years-old,
Garland's singing voice resembled that of "a woman with a heart that
had been hurt."
The Kansas City Star
The Kansas City Star contributor Robert Trussel
cited Garland's singing voice among reasons why her role and
performance in The Wizard of Oz remains memorable, writing that
although "She might have been made up and costumed to look like a
little girl ... she didn’t sing like one" due to her "powerful
contralto command[ing] attention." Camille Paglia, social critic
for The New York Times, joked that even in Garland's adult life "her
petite frame literally throbbed with her huge voice", making it appear
as though she were "at war with her own body". Theater actress
and director Donna Thomason stated that Garland was an "effective"
performer because she was capable of using her "singing voice [as] a
natural extension of [her] speaking voice", a skill that Thomason
believes all musical theater actors should at least strive to
achieve. Trussel agreed that "Garland’s singing voice sounded
utterly natural. It never seemed forced or overly trained."
Writing for Turner Classic Movies, biographer Jonathan Riggs observed
that Garland had a tendency to imbue her vocals with a paradoxical
combination of "fragility and resilience" that eventually became a
signature trademark of hers. Louis Bayard of The Washington Post
described Garland's voice as "throbbing", believing it to be capable
of "connect[ing] with [audiences] in a way no other voice does."
Bayard also believes that listeners "find it hard to disentwine the
sorrow in her voice from the sorrow that dogged her life", while
Dowlin argued that "Listening to Judy sing ... makes me forget all of
the angst and suffering she must have endured." A journalist for
The New York Times
The New York Times observed that Garland, whether intentionally or
not, "brought with her ... all the well-publicized phantoms of her
emotional breakdown, her career collapses and comebacks" on stage
during later performances. Critics noted that Garland's voice
changed and lost some of its quality as she aged, although she
retained much of her personality. Contributing to the Irish
Independent, Julia Molony observed Garland's voice, although "still
rich with emotion", had finally begun to "creak with the weight of
years of disappointment and hard-living" by the time she performed at
Carnegie Hall in 1961. Similarly, the live record's entry in the
Library of Congress
Library of Congress wrote that "while her voice was still strong, it
had also gained a bit of heft and a bit of wear"; author Cary O'Dell
believes Garland's rasp and "occasional quiver" only "upped the
emotional quotient of many of her numbers", particularly on her
signature songs "Over the Rainbow" and "The Man That Got Away".
Garland stated that she always felt most safe and at home while
performing onstage, regardless of the condition of her voice. Her
musical talent has been commended by her peers; opera singer Maria
Callas once said that Garland possessed "the most superb voice she had
ever heard", while singer and actor
Bing Crosby said that "no other
singer could be compared to her" when Garland was rested.
Garland was known for interacting with her audiences during live
performances; a New York Times biographer wrote that Garland possessed
"a seemingly unquenchable need for her audiences to respond with
acclaim and affection. And often they did, screaming, 'We love you,
Judy- we love you.'" Garland explained in 1961, "A really great
reception makes me feel like I have a great big warm heating pad all
over me ... I truly have a great love for an audience, and I used to
want to prove it to them by giving them blood. But I have a funny new
thing now, a real determination to make people enjoy the show.”
The biographer went on to write that Garland's performance style
resembled that of "a music hall performer in an era when music halls
were obsolete." Close friends of Garland's have insisted that she
never truly wanted to be movie star and would have much rather devoted
her career entirely to singing and recording records. AllMusic
biographer William Ruhlmann believes that Garland's ability to
maintain a successful career as a recording artist even after her film
appearances became less frequent was unusual for an artist at the
time. Garland has been identified as a triple threat due to her
ability sing, act and dance, arguably equally as well as each
other. Doug Strassler, a critic for the New York Press, described
Garland as a "triple threat" who "bounced between family musicals and
adult dramas with a precision and a talent that remains largely
unmatched." In terms of acting, a critic for The Guardian
identified Garland as a "chameleon" due to her ability to alternate
between comedic, musical and dramatic roles, citing The Wizard of Oz,
The Clock, A Star is Born and
I Could Go On Singing – her final film
role – as prominent examples.
The New York Times
The New York Times described her
as both "an instinctive actress and comedienne". Michael Musto, a
journalist for W magazine, wrote that in her film roles Garland "could
project decency, vulnerability, and spunk like no other star, and she
wrapped it up with a tremulously beautiful vocal delivery that could
melt even the most hardened troll."
Public image and reputation
Garland was nearly equally as famous for her personal struggles and
everyday life as she was for her entertainment career, although
The New York Times
The New York Times argues that Garland's personal life eventually
overshadowed her career and talent. She has been closely
associated with her carefully cultivated girl next door image.
Early in her career during the 1930s, Garland's public image had
earned her the title "America's favorite kid sister", as well as
"Little Miss Showbusiness". In a review for the Star
Tribune, Graydon Royce wrote that Garland's public image remained that
of "a Midwestern girl who couldn't believe where she was", despite
having been a well-established celebrity for over 20 years. Royce
believes that fans and audiences insisted on preserving their memory
of Garland as Dorothy no matter how much she matured, calling her "a
captive not of her own desire to stay young, but the public's desire
to preserve her that way." Thus, the studio continued to cast
Garland in roles that were significantly younger than her actual
age. According to Malony, Garland was one of Hollywood's
hardest-working performers during the 1940s, which Malony claims she
used as a coping mechanism after her first marriage imploded.
However, studio employees recall that Garland had a tendency to be
quite intense, headstrong and volatile; Judy Garland: The Secret
Life of an American Legend author David Shipman claims that several
individuals were frustrated with Garland's "narcissism" and "growing
instability", while millions of fans found her public demeanor and
psychological state to be "fragile", appearing neurotic in
interviews. MGM reports that Garland was consistently tardy and
demonstrated erratic behavior, resulting in several delays and
disruptions to filming schedules until she was finally dismissed from
the studio, who had deemed her unreliable and difficult to
manage. Farrell called Garland "A grab bag of contradictions"
which "has always been a feast for the American imagination",
describing her public persona as "awkward yet direct, bashful yet
brash". Describing the singer as "Tender and endearing yet savage
and turbulent," Paglia wrote that Garland "cut a path of destruction
through many lives. And out of that chaos she made art of
still-searing intensity." Calling her "a creature of extremes,
greedy, sensual and demanding, gluttonous for pleasure and pain",
Paglia also compared Garland to entertainer
Frank Sinatra due to their
shared "emblematic personality ... into whom the mass audience
projected its hopes and disappointments", while observing that she
lacked Sinatra's survival skills.
Despite her success as a performer, Garland suffered from low self
esteem, particularly in regards to her weight which she constantly
dieted to maintain at the behest of the studio and
Mayer; critics and historians believe this to be a
result of having been told by studio executives that she was an "ugly
Entertainment Weekly columnist
Gene Lyons observed
that both audiences and fellow members of the entertainment industry
"tended either to love her or to hate her." At one point, Stevie
Phillips, who had worked as an agent for Garland for four years, had
described her client as "a demented, demanding, supremely talented
drug-addict." Royce argues that Garland maintained "astonishing
strength and courage", even during difficult times. English actor
Dirk Bogarde once called Garland "the funniest woman I have ever
met". Ruhlmann wrote that the singer's personal life "contrasted
so starkly with the exuberance and innocence of her film roles".
Despite her personal struggles, Garland disagreed with the public's
opinion that she was a tragic figure. Writer William Randall
Beard, who wrote that play based on Garland's life entitled Beyond the
Rainbow, believes that Garland possessed "a wicked sense of humor and
a passion", to the point of which she would have questioned anyone who
stated she had lived "a tragic life". Her younger daughter Lorna
agreed that Garland "hated" being referred to as a tragic figure,
explaining, "We all have tragedies in our lives, but that does not
make us tragic. She was funny and she was warm and she was wonderfully
gifted. She had great highs and great moments in her career. She also
had great moments in her personal life. Yes, we lost her at 47 years
old. That was tragic. But she was not a tragic figure." Ruhlmann
argues that Garland actually used the public's opinion of her tragic
image to her advantage towards the end of her career.
Mickey Rooney watching Garland put her handprint into concrete at
Grauman's Chinese Theatre, 1939
Star for recognition of film work at 1715 Vine Street on the Hollywood
Walk of Fame: She has another for recording at 6764 Hollywood
By the time of her death in 1969, Garland had appeared in more than 35
films. She has been called one of the greats of entertainment, and
her reputation has endured. In 1992, Gerald Clarke
Architectural Digest dubbed Garland "probably the greatest American
entertainer of the twentieth century." O'Brien believes that "No
one in the history of Hollywood ever packed the musical wallop that
Garland did", explaining, "She had the biggest, most versatile voice
in movies. Her
Technicolor musicals... defined the genre. The songs
she introduced were Oscar gold. Her film career frames the Golden Age
of Hollywood musicals.”
Turner Classic Movies
Turner Classic Movies dubbed Garland
"history's most poignant voice". Entertainment Weekly's Gene
Lyons dubbed Garland "the Madonna of her generation." The
American Film Institute
American Film Institute named her eighth among the Greatest female
stars of Golden Age Hollywood cinema. In June 1998, The New York
Times social critic
Camille Paglia wrote that "Garland was a
personality on the grand scale who makes our current crop of pop stars
look lightweight and evanescent." In recent years, Garland's
legacy has maintained fans of all different ages, both younger and
older. In 2010,
HuffPost contributor Joan E. Dowlin concluded
that Garland possessed a distinct "it" quality by "exemplif[ying] the
star quality of charisma, musical talent, natural acting ability, and
despite what the studio honchos said, good looks (even if they were
the girl next door looks)."
AllMusic biographer William Ruhlmann
"the core of her significance as an artist remains her amazing voice
and emotional commitment to her songs", and believes that "her career
is sometimes viewed more as an object lesson in Hollywood excess than
as the remarkable string of multimedia accomplishments it was."
In 2012, Strassler described Garland as "more than an icon ... Like
Charlie Chaplin and Lucille Ball, she created a template that the
powers that be have forever been trying, with varied levels of
success, to replicate."
Garland's live performances towards the end of her career are still
remembered by fans who attended them as "peak moments in 20th-century
music." Garland has been the subject of over two dozen
biographies since her death, including the well-received Me and My
Shadows: A Family Memoir by her daughter, Lorna Luft, whose memoir was
later adapted into the television miniseries Life with Judy Garland:
Me and My Shadows, which won Emmy Awards for the two actresses
portraying her (
Tammy Blanchard and Judy Davis). Strassler
observed that Garland "created one of the most storied cautionary
tales in the industry, thanks to her the many excesses and
insecurities that led to her early death by overdose."
Garland was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
in 1997. Several of her recordings have been inducted into the
Grammy Hall of Fame. These include "Over the Rainbow", which was
ranked as the number one movie song of all time in the American Film
Institute's "100 Years...100 Songs" list. Four more Garland songs are
featured on the list: "Have Yourself a Merry Little Christmas" (No.
76), "Get Happy" (No. 61), "The Trolley Song" (No. 26), and "The Man
That Got Away" (No. 11). She has twice been honored on U.S.
postage stamps, in 1989 (as Dorothy) and again in 2006 (as Vicki
Lester from A Star Is Born). While on tour In 1964, Garland
identified "Over the Rainbow" as her favorite of all the songs she had
ever recorded, to which Trussel observed that "Her career would remain
inextricably linked". Garland would frequently use an overture
from "Over the Rainbow" as her entrance music during concerts and
television appearances. According to Paglia, the more Garland
performed "Over the Rainbow" the more it "became her tragic anthem ...
a dirge for artistic opportunities squandered and for personal
happiness permanently deferred." In 1998, Carnegie Hall hosted a
two-concert tribute to Garland, which they promoted as "a tribute to
the world's greatest entertainer".
Subsequent celebrities who have suffered from personal struggles with
drug addiction and substance abuse have been compared to Garland,
particularly Michael Jackson. Garland's older daughter Liza had a
personal life that was almost parallel to that of her mother's, having
struggled with substance abuse and several unsuccessful
marriages. Paglia observed that actress
Marilyn Monroe would
exhibit behavior similar to Garland a decade after Meet Me in St.
Louis, particularly her tardiness.
Judy Garland as gay icon
Garland had a large fan base in the gay community and became a gay
icon. Reasons given for her standing, especially among gay men,
are the admiration of her ability as a performer, the way her personal
struggles mirrored those of gay men in America during the height of
her fame, and her value as a camp figure. In the 1960s, a
reporter asked how she felt about having a large gay following. She
replied, "I couldn't care less. I sing to people."
Portrayals in fiction
See also: List of
Judy Garland biographies
Garland has been portrayed on television by
Andrea McArdle in Rainbow
Tammy Blanchard (young Judy) and
Judy Davis (older Judy)
in Life with Judy Garland:
Me and My Shadows
Me and My Shadows (2001), and Sigrid
Thornton in Peter Allen: Not The Boy Next Door (2015). Renée
Zellweger is set to portray Garland in the upcoming biopic Judy, which
is expected to be released in 2018.
On stage, Garland is a character in the musical The Boy from Oz
(1998), portrayed by
Chrissy Amphlett in the original Australian
production and by
Isabel Keating on Broadway in 2003. End of
the Rainbow (2005) featured Caroline O'Connor as Garland and Paul
Goddard as Garland's pianist.
Adrienne Barbeau played Garland in
The Property Known as Garland (2006) and The Judy Monologues
(2010) initially featured male actors reciting Garland's words before
it was revamped as a one-woman show.
Judy Garland discography
List of recordings by Judy Garland
Judy Garland performances
List of awards and honors received by Judy Garland
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and Lesbian Film and Video. TLA Video Management.
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original on March 29, 2010. Retrieved May 31, 2010. During a press
conference in San Francisco in the 1960s, a reporter asked Garland if
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said. 'I sing to people.'
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Chrissy Amphlett – Our Most
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^ Gans, Andrew (May 21, 2004). "DIVA TALK: A Chat With a Gal From Oz,
Isabel Keating Plus "American Idol" Thoughts". Playbill.
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fringe". TheSpec.com. Metroland Media Group Ltd. Retrieved
Clarke, Gerald (2001). Get Happy: The Life of Judy Garland. New York:
Random House. ISBN 0-375-50378-1.
DiOrio, Jr., Al (1973). Little Girl Lost: The Life and Hard Times of
Judy Garland. New York: Manor Books. ISBN 0-375-50378-1.
Edwards, Anne (1975). Judy Garland. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Finch, Christopher (1975). Rainbow: The Stormy Life of Judy Garland.
New York: Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-25173-3.
Frank, Gerold (1975). Judy. New York: Harper & Row.
Juneau, James (1974). Judy Garland: A Pyramid Illustrated History of
the Movies. New York: Pyramid Publications.
Luft, Lorna (1999). Me and My Shadows: A Family Memoir. New York:
Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-283-06320-3.
Petersen, Anne Helen (2004). Judy Garland: Ugly Duckling. Penguin.
Sanders, Coyne Steven (1990). Rainbow's End: The
Judy Garland Show.
New York: Zebra Books. ISBN 0-8217-3708-2.
Seaman, Barbara (1996). Lovely Me: The Life of Jacqueline Susann. New
York: Seven Stories Press. ISBN 0-9658770-6-X.
Shipman, David (1992). Judy Garland: The Secret Life of an American
Legend. New York: Hyperion. ISBN 0-7868-8026-0.
Steiger, Brad (1969). Judy Garland. New York: Ace Books.
Wayne, Jane Ellen (2003). The Golden Girls of MGM. New York: Carroll
& Graf Publishers. ISBN 0-7867-1303-8.
Ponedel, Dorothy & Meredith About Face - The Life and Times of
Dottie Ponedel: Make-up Artist to the Stars. Albany, Georgia BearManor
Media. 26 February 2018 ISBN 978-1-62933-285-7
Find more aboutJudy Garlandat's sister projects
Media from Wikimedia Commons
Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Data from Wikidata
Judy Garland at Encyclopædia Britannica
Judy Garland on IMDb
Judy Garland at AllMovie
Judy Garland at the TCM Movie Database
Judy Garland at the
Internet Broadway Database
Internet Broadway Database
Judy Garland at TV Guide
Judy Garland Birthplace and Museum in Grand Rapids, MN
Judy Garland: By Myself –
American Masters special
Judy Garland at The Biography Channel
Awards and honors
Miss Show Business
Judy in Love
The Garland Touch
Garland at the Grove
Judy at Carnegie Hall
Judy Garland Live!
"Live" at the London Palladium
Judy Garland at Home at the Palace: Opening Night
A Star Is Born
I Could Go On Singing
As gay icon
Rufus Does Judy at Carnegie Hall
Rufus! Rufus! Rufus! Does Judy! Judy! Judy!: Live from the London
The Judy Monologues (2010 play)
Awards for Judy Garland
Awards and achievements
for Ella in Berlin: Mack the Knife
Grammy Award for Best Female Pop Vocal Performance
for Judy at Carnegie Hall
for Ella Swings Brightly with Nelson
Dave Brubeck, Marvin Gaye, Georg Solti, Stevie Wonder
Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award
Bo Diddley, Mills Brothers, Roy Orbison, Paul Robeson
Academy Honorary Award
Warner Bros. /
Charlie Chaplin (1928)
Walt Disney (1932)
Shirley Temple (1934)
D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith (1935)
The March of Time
The March of Time /
W. Howard Greene and
Harold Rosson (1936)
Edgar Bergen /
W. Howard Greene /
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art Film Library /
Mack Sennett (1937)
J. Arthur Ball /
Walt Disney /
Deanna Durbin and
Mickey Rooney /
Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art
Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills,
Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst /
Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey /
Harry Warner (1938)
Douglas Fairbanks /
Judy Garland /
William Cameron Menzies / Motion
Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad
Technicolor Company (1939)
Bob Hope /
Nathan Levinson (1940)
Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA
Manufacturing Company /
Leopold Stokowski and his associates / Rey
Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941)
Charles Boyer /
Noël Coward /
George Pal (1943)
Bob Hope /
Margaret O'Brien (1944)
Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound
Walter Wanger / The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner
Harold Russell /
Laurence Olivier /
Ernst Lubitsch / Claude Jarman Jr.
James Baskett / Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith,
George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor /
Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947)
Walter Wanger /
Monsieur Vincent /
Sid Grauman /
Adolph Zukor (1948)
Jean Hersholt /
Fred Astaire /
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille / The Bicycle Thief
Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer /
George Murphy /
The Walls of Malapaga (1950)
Gene Kelly /
Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper /
Bob Hope /
Harold Lloyd / George Mitchell / Joseph
M. Schenck /
Forbidden Games (1952)
20th Century-Fox Film Corporation / Bell & Howell Company / Joseph
Breen / Pete Smith (1953)
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company /
Danny Kaye / Kemp Niver / Greta
Jon Whiteley /
Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954)
Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955)
Eddie Cantor (1956)
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers / Gilbert M.
"Broncho Billy" Anderson /
Charles Brackett /
B. B. Kahane (1957)
Maurice Chevalier (1958)
Buster Keaton /
Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest (1959)
Gary Cooper /
Stan Laurel /
Hayley Mills (1960)
William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler /
Jerome Robbins (1961)
William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle (1964)
Bob Hope (1965)
Yakima Canutt /
Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman (1966)
Arthur Freed (1967)
John Chambers /
Onna White (1968)
Cary Grant (1969)
Lillian Gish /
Orson Welles (1970)
Charlie Chaplin (1971)
Charles S. Boren /
Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson (1972)
Henri Langlois /
Groucho Marx (1973)
Howard Hawks /
Jean Renoir (1974)
Mary Pickford (1975)
Margaret Booth (1977)
Walter Lantz /
Laurence Olivier /
King Vidor / Museum of Modern Art
Department of Film (1978)
Hal Elias /
Alec Guinness (1979)
Henry Fonda (1980)
Barbara Stanwyck (1981)
Mickey Rooney (1982)
Hal Roach (1983)
James Stewart /
National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts (1984)
Paul Newman /
Alex North (1985)
Ralph Bellamy (1986)
Kodak Company /
National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada (1988)
Akira Kurosawa (1989)
Sophia Loren /
Myrna Loy (1990)
Satyajit Ray (1991)
Federico Fellini (1992)
Deborah Kerr (1993)
Michelangelo Antonioni (1994)
Kirk Douglas /
Chuck Jones (1995)
Michael Kidd (1996)
Stanley Donen (1997)
Elia Kazan (1998)
Andrzej Wajda (1999)
Jack Cardiff /
Ernest Lehman (2000)
Sidney Poitier /
Robert Redford (2001)
Peter O'Toole (2002)
Blake Edwards (2003)
Sidney Lumet (2004)
Robert Altman (2005)
Ennio Morricone (2006)
Robert F. Boyle (2007)
Lauren Bacall /
Roger Corman /
Gordon Willis (2009)
Kevin Brownlow /
Jean-Luc Godard /
Eli Wallach (2010)
James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones / Dick Smith (2011)
D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker /
Hal Needham /
George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr. (2012)
Angela Lansbury /
Steve Martin /
Piero Tosi (2013)
Jean-Claude Carrière /
Hayao Miyazaki /
Maureen O'Hara (2014)
Spike Lee /
Gena Rowlands (2015)
Jackie Chan /
Lynn Stalmaster /
Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman
Charles Burnett /
Owen Roizman /
Donald Sutherland / Agnès Varda
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille Award
Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille (1952)
Walt Disney (1953)
Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck (1954)
Jean Hersholt (1955)
Jack L. Warner
Jack L. Warner (1956)
Mervyn LeRoy (1957)
Buddy Adler (1958)
Maurice Chevalier (1959)
Bing Crosby (1960)
Fred Astaire (1961)
Judy Garland (1962)
Bob Hope (1963)
Joseph E. Levine
Joseph E. Levine (1964)
James Stewart (1965)
John Wayne (1966)
Charlton Heston (1967)
Kirk Douglas (1968)
Gregory Peck (1969)
Joan Crawford (1970)
Frank Sinatra (1971)
Alfred Hitchcock (1972)
Samuel Goldwyn (1973)
Bette Davis (1974)
Hal B. Wallis
Hal B. Wallis (1975)
Walter Mirisch (1977)
Red Skelton (1978)
Lucille Ball (1979)
Henry Fonda (1980)
Gene Kelly (1981)
Sidney Poitier (1982)
Laurence Olivier (1983)
Paul Newman (1984)
Elizabeth Taylor (1985)
Barbara Stanwyck (1986)
Anthony Quinn (1987)
Clint Eastwood (1988)
Doris Day (1989)
Audrey Hepburn (1990)
Jack Lemmon (1991)
Robert Mitchum (1992)
Lauren Bacall (1993)
Robert Redford (1994)
Sophia Loren (1995)
Sean Connery (1996)
Dustin Hoffman (1997)
Shirley MacLaine (1998)
Jack Nicholson (1999)
Barbra Streisand (2000)
Al Pacino (2001)
Harrison Ford (2002)
Gene Hackman (2003)
Michael Douglas (2004)
Robin Williams (2005)
Anthony Hopkins (2006)
Warren Beatty (2007)
Steven Spielberg (2009)
Martin Scorsese (2010)
Robert De Niro
Robert De Niro (2011)
Morgan Freeman (2012)
Jodie Foster (2013)
Woody Allen (2014)
George Clooney (2015)
Denzel Washington (2016)
Meryl Streep (2017)
Oprah Winfrey (2018)
Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Comedy or
Judy Holliday (1950)
June Allyson (1951)
Susan Hayward (1952)
Ethel Merman (1953)
Judy Garland (1954)
Jean Simmons (1955)
Deborah Kerr (1956)
Kay Kendall /
Taina Elg (1957)
Rosalind Russell (1958)
Marilyn Monroe (1959)
Shirley MacLaine (1960)
Rosalind Russell (1961)
Rosalind Russell (1962)
Shirley MacLaine (1963)
Julie Andrews (1964)
Julie Andrews (1965)
Lynn Redgrave (1966)
Anne Bancroft (1967)
Barbra Streisand (1968)
Patty Duke (1969)
Carrie Snodgress (1970)
Liza Minnelli (1972)
Glenda Jackson (1973)
Raquel Welch (1974)
Barbra Streisand (1976)
Diane Keaton /
Marsha Mason (1977)
Ellen Burstyn /
Maggie Smith (1978)
Bette Midler (1979)
Sissy Spacek (1980)
Bernadette Peters (1981)
Julie Andrews (1982)
Julie Walters (1983)
Kathleen Turner (1984)
Kathleen Turner (1985)
Sissy Spacek (1986)
Melanie Griffith (1988)
Jessica Tandy (1989)
Julia Roberts (1990)
Bette Midler (1991)
Miranda Richardson (1992)
Angela Bassett (1993)
Jamie Lee Curtis
Jamie Lee Curtis (1994)
Nicole Kidman (1995)
Helen Hunt (1997)
Gwyneth Paltrow (1998)
Janet McTeer (1999)
Renée Zellweger (2000)
Nicole Kidman (2001)
Renée Zellweger (2002)
Diane Keaton (2003)
Annette Bening (2004)
Reese Witherspoon (2005)
Meryl Streep (2006)
Marion Cotillard (2007)
Sally Hawkins (2008)
Meryl Streep (2009)
Annette Bening (2010)
Michelle Williams (2011)
Jennifer Lawrence (2012)
Amy Adams (2013)
Amy Adams (2014)
Jennifer Lawrence (2015)
Emma Stone (2016)
Saoirse Ronan (2017)
Grammy Award for Album of the Year
The Music from Peter Gunn
The Music from Peter Gunn –
Henry Mancini (1959)
Come Dance with Me! –
Frank Sinatra (1960)
The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart
The Button-Down Mind of Bob Newhart –
Bob Newhart (1961)
Judy at Carnegie Hall
Judy at Carnegie Hall –
Judy Garland (1962)
The First Family –
Vaughn Meader (1963)
Barbra Streisand Album –
Barbra Streisand (1964)
Getz/Gilberto – Stan Getz,
João Gilberto (1965)
September of My Years –
Frank Sinatra (1966)
A Man and His Music –
Frank Sinatra (1967)
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band
Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band –
The Beatles (1968)
By the Time I Get to Phoenix –
Glen Campbell (1969)
Blood, Sweat & Tears – Blood, Sweat & Tears (1970)
Bridge over Troubled Water
Bridge over Troubled Water – Simon & Garfunkel (1971)
Carole King (1972)
The Concert for Bangladesh – Various (1973)
Stevie Wonder (1974)
Fulfillingness' First Finale
Fulfillingness' First Finale –
Stevie Wonder (1975)
Still Crazy After All These Years
Still Crazy After All These Years –
Paul Simon (1976)
Songs in the Key of Life
Songs in the Key of Life –
Stevie Wonder (1977)
Fleetwood Mac (1978)
Saturday Night Fever – Bee Gees/Various (1979)
52nd Street –
Billy Joel (1980)
Christopher Cross –
Christopher Cross (1981)
Double Fantasy –
John Lennon and
Yoko Ono (1982)
Toto IV – Toto (1983)
Michael Jackson (1984)
Can't Slow Down –
Lionel Richie (1985)
No Jacket Required
No Jacket Required –
Phil Collins (1986)
Paul Simon (1987)
The Joshua Tree
The Joshua Tree – U2 (1988)
George Michael (1989)
Nick of Time –
Bonnie Raitt (1990)
Back on the Block
Back on the Block –
Quincy Jones and various artists (1991)
Unforgettable... with Love –
Natalie Cole (1992)
Eric Clapton (1993)
The Bodyguard –
Whitney Houston (1994)
MTV Unplugged –
Tony Bennett (1995)
Jagged Little Pill
Jagged Little Pill –
Alanis Morissette (1996)
Falling into You
Falling into You –
Celine Dion (1997)
Time Out of Mind –
Bob Dylan (1998)
The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill
The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill –
Lauryn Hill (1999)
Supernatural – Santana (2000)
Two Against Nature
Two Against Nature –
Steely Dan (2001)
O Brother, Where Art Thou?
Come Away with Me
Come Away with Me –
Norah Jones (2003)
Speakerboxxx/The Love Below
Speakerboxxx/The Love Below –
Genius Loves Company
Genius Loves Company –
Ray Charles and various artists (2005)
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb
How to Dismantle an Atomic Bomb – U2 (2006)
Taking the Long Way
Taking the Long Way –
Dixie Chicks (2007)
River: The Joni Letters –
Herbie Hancock (2008)
Raising Sand –
Robert Plant &
Alison Krauss (2009)
Taylor Swift (2010)
The Suburbs –
Arcade Fire (2011)
Babel – Mumford & Sons (2013)
Random Access Memories
Random Access Memories –
Daft Punk (2014)
Morning Phase –
Taylor Swift (2016)
24K Magic –
Bruno Mars (2018)
ISNI: 0000 0003 6851 668X
BNF: cb11958571q (data)