JUDæO-ARAMAIC is a group of Hebrew -influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages .
* 1 Early use * 2 Gradual adoption * 3 From Greek conquest to Diaspora
* 4 Diaspora
* 4.1 20th century
* 5 Modern dialects * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Bibliography
Aramaic, like Hebrew, is a Northwest Semitic language , and the two
share many features. From the 7th century BCE, Aramaic became the
lingua franca of the
During the 6th century BCE, the
Documentary evidence shows the gradual shift from Hebrew to Aramaic:
* Hebrew is used as first language and in society; other similar Canaanite languages are known and understood. * Aramaic is used in international diplomacy and foreign trade. * Aramaic is used for communication between subjects and in the imperial administration. * Aramaic gradually becomes the language of outer life (in the marketplace, for example). * Aramaic gradually replaces Hebrew in the home, and the latter is used only in religious activity.
The phases took place over a protracted period, and the rate of change varied depending on the place and social class in question: the use of one or other language was probably a social, political, and religious barometer.
FROM GREEK CONQUEST TO DIASPORA
A Judeo-Aramaic inscription from
The conquest of the
Judaea was one of the areas in which Aramaic remained dominant, and its use continued among Babylonian Jews as well. The destruction of Persian power, and its replacement with Greek rule helped the final decline of Hebrew to the margins of Jewish society. Writings from the Seleucid and Hasmonaean periods show the complete supersession of Aramaic as the language of the Jewish people. In contrast, Hebrew was the holy tongue. The early witness to the period of change is the Biblical Aramaic of the books of Daniel and Ezra . The language shows a number of Hebrew features have been taken into Jewish Aramaic: the letter He is often used instead of Aleph to mark a word-final long a vowel and the prefix of the causative verbal stem, and the masculine plural -īm often replaces -īn.
Different strata of Aramaic began to appear during the Hasmonaean
period, and legal, religious, and personal documents show different
shades of hebraisms and colloquialisms. The dialect of Babylon, the
basis for Standard Aramaic under the Persians, continued to be
regarded as normative, and the writings of Jews in the east were held
in higher regard because of it. The division between western and
eastern dialects of Aramaic is clear among different Jewish
communities. Targumim , translations of the Jewish scriptures into
Aramaic, became more important since the general population ceased to
understand the original. Perhaps beginning as simple interpretive
retellings, gradually 'official' standard Targums were written and
The Great Jewish Revolt of 70 CE and
Bar Kokhba revolt
Aramaic continued to be the first language of it the Jewish
communities that remained in Aramaic-speaking areas throughout
Mesopotamia. At the beginning of the 20th century, dozens of small
Aramaic-speaking Jewish communities were scattered over a wide area
In the middle of the 20th century, the founding of the State of
Jewish Aramaic languages in the mid 1950s (in Russian).
Modern Jewish Aramaic languages are still known by their geographical
location before the return to Israel. Those dialects are related to
Lishana Deni – originally spoken in Northern
* ^ F. Rosenthal; J. C. Greenfield; S. Shaked (December 15, 1986),
"Aramaic", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Iranica Online
* ^ Frye, Richard N.; Driver, G. R. (1955). "Review of G. R.
Driver's "Aramaic Documents of the Fifth Century B. C."". Harvard
Journal of Asiatic Studies. 18 (3/4): 456–461.
* Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Jewish Babylonian Aramaic: Bar Ilan and Johns Hopkins 2002 ISBN 0801872332 * Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Judean Aramaic: Bar Ilan 2003 ISBN 9652262617 * Sokoloff, Michael, A Dictionary of Jewish Palestinian Aramaic of the Byzantine Period: Johns Hopkins 2002/3 ISBN 0801872340
* v * t * e
* Biblical * Mishnaic * Medieval * Modern
* Judaeo-Iraqi * Judaeo-Moroccan * Judaeo-Tripolitanian * Judaeo-Tunisian * Judaeo-Yemeni
* Kayla / Qwara (Cushitic ) * Judaeo-Berber (Berber )
DIALECTS / ARGOTS
* Bukhori * Juhuri * Dzhidi * Judaeo-Hamedani * Judaeo-Shirazi * Judaeo-Esfahani * Judaeo-Kurdish * Judaeo-Yazdi * Judaeo-Kermani * Judaeo-Kashani * Judaeo-Borujerdi * Judaeo-Khunsari * Judaeo-Golpaygani * Judaeo-Nehevandi
* Yevanic (Hellenic ) * Knaanic (Slavic ) * Judaeo-Marathi (Indo-Aryan )
* Krymchak / Karaim (Turkic ) * Judaeo-Malayalam (Dravidian ) * Judaeo-Georgian (Ka