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John Dickinson
John Dickinson
(November 8, 1732[note 1] – February 14, 1808), a Founding Father of the United States, was a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
and Wilmington, Delaware
Wilmington, Delaware
known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768. As a member of the First Continental Congress, where he was a signee to the Continental Association, Dickinson drafted most of the 1774 Petition to the King, and then as a member of the Second Continental Congress wrote the 1775 Olive Branch Petition, two attempts to negotiate with King George III of Great Britain. When these failed, he reworked Thomas Jefferson's language and wrote the final draft of the 1775 Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. When Congress then decided to seek independence, Dickinson served on the committee that wrote the Model Treaty, and then wrote the first draft of the 1776–1777 Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and Perpetual Union. Dickinson later served as President of the 1786 Annapolis Convention, which called for the Constitutional Convention of 1787, which Dickinson then attended as a delegate from Delaware. He also wrote "The Liberty Song" in 1768, was a militia officer during the American Revolution, President of Delaware, President of Pennsylvania, and was among the wealthiest men in the British American colonies. Upon Dickinson's death, President Thomas Jefferson recognized him as being "Among the first of the advocates for the rights of his country when assailed by Great Britain whose "name will be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution.""[1] Together with his wife, Mary Norris Dickinson, he is the namesake of Dickinson College
Dickinson College
(originally John and Mary's College), as well as of the Dickinson School of Law
Dickinson School of Law
of Pennsylvania State University
Pennsylvania State University
and the University of Delaware's Dickinson Complex. John Dickinson
John Dickinson
High School was opened/dedicated in 1959 as part of the public schools in northern Delaware.

Contents

1 Family history 2 Early life and family 3 Continental Congress 4 Return to Poplar Hall 5 Drafting of the Articles of Confederation 6 President of Delaware 7 President of Pennsylvania 8 John and Mary's College 9 United States
United States
Constitution 10 Death and legacy 11 Almanac 12 In popular culture 13 Notes 14 References 15 Sources 16 External links

Family history[edit]

Coat of Arms of John Dickinson

Dickinson was born[2] at Croisadore, his family's tobacco plantation near the village of Trappe in Talbot County, Province of Maryland.[3] He was the great-grandson of Walter Dickinson who emigrated from England
England
to Virginia
Virginia
in 1654 and, having joined the Society of Friends, came with several co-religionists to Talbot County on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
in 1659. There, with 400 acres (1.6 km2) on the banks of the Choptank River, Walter began a plantation, Croisadore, meaning "cross of gold." Walter also bought 800 acres (3.2 km2) on St. Jones Neck in what became Kent County, Delaware.[4] Croisadore passed through Walter's son, William, to his grandson, Samuel, the father of John Dickinson. Each generation increased the landholdings, so that Samuel inherited 2,500 acres (1,000 ha) on five farms in three Maryland
Maryland
counties and over his lifetime increased that to 9,000 acres (3,600 ha). He also bought the Kent County property from his cousin and expanded it to about 3,000 acres (1,200 ha), stretching along the St. Jones River
St. Jones River
from Dover to the Delaware
Delaware
Bay. There he began another plantation and called it Poplar Hall. These plantations were large, profitable agricultural enterprises worked by slave labor, until 1777 when John Dickinson freed the enslaved of Poplar Hall.[5] Samuel Dickinson first married Judith Troth (1689–1729) on April 11, 1710. They had nine children; William, Walter, Samuel, Elizabeth, Henry, Elizabeth "Betsy," Rebecca, and Rachel. The three eldest sons died of smallpox while in London seeking their education. Widowed, with two young children, Henry and Betsy, Samuel married Mary Cadwalader in 1731. She was the daughter of Martha Jones (granddaughter of Dr. Thomas Wynne) and the prominent Quaker John Cadwalader who was also grandfather of General John Cadwalader of Philadelphia. Their sons, John, Thomas, and Philemon were born in the next few years. For three generations the Dickinson family had been members of the Third Haven Friends Meeting in Talbot County and the Cadwaladers were members of the Meeting in Philadelphia. But in 1739, John Dickinson's half-sister, Betsy, was married in an Anglican church to Charles Goldsborough in what was called a "disorderly marriage" by the Meeting. The couple would be the grandparents of Maryland
Maryland
governor Charles Goldsborough. Leaving Croisadore to elder son Henry Dickinson, Samuel moved to Poplar Hall, where he had already taken a leading role in the community as Judge of the Court of Common Pleas of Kent County. The move also placed Mary nearer her Philadelphia
Philadelphia
relations. Poplar Hall was situated on a now-straightened bend of the St. Jones River. There was plenty of activity delivering the necessities, and shipping the agricultural products produced. Much of this product was wheat that along with other wheat from the region, was milled into a "superfine" flour.[citation needed] Most people at this plantation were servants and slaves of the Dickinsons. Early life and family[edit] Dickinson was educated at home, by his parents and by recent immigrants employed for that purpose. Among them was the Presbyterian minister Francis Alison, who later established New London Academy in Chester County, Pennsylvania.[6] Most important was his tutor, William Killen, who became a lifelong friend and who later became Delaware’s first Chief Justice and Chancellor. Dickinson was precocious and energetic, and in spite of his love of Poplar Hall and his family, was drawn to Philadelphia. At 18 he began studying the law under John Moland in Philadelphia. There he made friends with fellow students George Read and Samuel Wharton, among others. By 1753, John went to London for three years of study at the Middle Temple. He spent those years studying the works of Edward Coke
Edward Coke
and Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
at the Inns of Court, following in the footsteps of his lifelong friend, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Attorney General Benjamin Chew,[citation needed] and in 1757 was admitted to the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Bar beginning his career as barrister and solicitor. In protest to the Townshend Acts, Dickinson published Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania. First published in the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Chronicle, Dickinson's letters were re-printed by numerous other newspapers and became one of the most influential American political documents prior to the American Revolution. Dickinson argued that Parliament had the right to regulate commerce, but lacked the right to levy duties for revenue. Dickinson further warned that if the colonies acquiesced to the Townshend Acts, Parliament would lay further taxes on the colonies in the future.[7] On July 19, 1770, Dickinson married Mary Norris, known as Polly, a prominent and well educated thirty-year-old woman in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
with a substantial holding of real estate and personal property (including a 1500 volume library, one of the largest in the colonies at the time) who had been operating her family's estate, Fair Hill, for a number of years by herself or with her sister. She was the daughter of a wealthy Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Quaker, and Speaker of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
General Assembly, Isaac Norris and Sarah Logan, the daughter of James Logan, both deceased.[8] She was also cousin to the Quaker poet Hannah Griffitts. Dickinson and Norris had five children, but only two survived to adulthood: Sarah Norris "Sally" Dickinson and Maria Mary Dickinson. Dickinson never formally joined the Quaker Meeting, because, as he explained, he believed in the "lawfulness of defensive war".[9] He and Norris were married in a civil ceremony. In Philadelphia, he lived at his wife's property, Fair Hill, near Germantown, which they modernized through their combined wealth. Meanwhile, he built an elegant mansion on Chestnut Street but never lived there as it was confiscated and turned into a hospital during his 1776–77 absence in Delaware.[10] It then became the residence of the French ambassador and still later the home of his brother, Philemon Dickinson. Fair Hill was burned by the British during the Battle of Germantown. While in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
as State President, he lived at the confiscated mansion of Joseph Galloway
Joseph Galloway
at Sixth and Market Streets, now established as the State Presidential mansion. Dickinson lived at Poplar Hall, for extended periods only in 1776–77 and 1781–82. In August 1781 it was sacked by Loyalists and was badly burned in 1804. This home is now owned by the State of Delaware
Delaware
and is open to the public.[11] After his service as President of Pennsylvania, he returned to live in Wilmington, Delaware
Wilmington, Delaware
in 1785 and built a mansion at the northwest corner of 8th and Market Streets. Continental Congress[edit] Dickinson was one of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
delegates to the First Continental Congress in 1774 and the Second Continental Congress
Continental Congress
in 1775 and 1776. In support of the cause, he continued to contribute declarations in the name of the Congress. Dickinson wrote the Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
as the Second Continental Congress' last attempt for peace with Britain (King George III did not even read the petition). But through it all, agreeing with New Castle County's George Read and many others in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
and the Lower Counties, Dickinson's object was reconciliation, not independence and revolution. He was a proud devotee of the British Constitution
British Constitution
and felt the dispute was with Parliament only.[citation needed] When the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
began the debate on the Declaration of Independence on July 1, 1776, Dickinson reiterated his opposition to declaring independence at that time. Dickinson believed that Congress should complete the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and secure a foreign alliance before issuing a declaration. Dickinson also objected to violence as a means for resolving the dispute. He abstained or absented himself from the votes on July 2 that declared independence and absented himself again from voting on the wording of the formal Declaration on July 4. Dickinson understood the implications of his refusal to vote stating, "My conduct this day, I expect will give the finishing blow to my once too great and, my integrity considered, now too diminished popularity."[citation needed] Dickinson refused to sign the Declaration and since a proposal had been brought forth and carried that stated, "for our mutual security and protection," no man could remain in Congress without signing, Dickinson voluntarily left and joined the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
militia. Following the Declaration of Independence, Dickinson was given the rank of brigadier general in the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
militia, known as the Associators. He led 10,000 soldiers to Elizabeth, New Jersey, to protect that area against British attack from Staten Island. But because of his unpopular opinion on independence, two junior officers were promoted above him.[citation needed] Return to Poplar Hall[edit] Dickinson resigned his commission in December 1776 and went to stay at Poplar Hall in Kent County. While there he learned that his home on Chestnut Street in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
had been confiscated and converted into a hospital. He stayed at Poplar Hall for more than two years. The Delaware
Delaware
General Assembly tried to appoint him as their delegate to the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
in 1777, but he refused. In August 1777 he served as a private with the Kent county Militia at Middletown, Delaware
Delaware
under General Caesar Rodney
Caesar Rodney
to help delay General William Howe's march to Philadelphia. In October 1777, Dickinson's friend, Thomas McKean, appointed him Brigadier General of the Delaware Militia, but again Dickinson declined the appointment. Shortly afterwards he learned that the British had burned down his and his wife's Fairhill property during the Battle of Germantown.[citation needed] These years were not without accomplishment however. In 1777, Dickinson, Delaware's wealthiest farmer and largest slaveholder, decided to free his slaves. While Kent County was not a large slave-holding area, like farther south in Virginia, and even though Dickinson had only 37 slaves, this was an action of some considerable courage. Undoubtedly, the strongly abolitionist Quaker influences around them had their effect, and the action was all the easier because his farm had moved away from tobacco to the less labor-intensive crops like wheat and barley. Furthermore, manumission was a multi-year process and many of the workers remained obligated to service for a considerable additional time. Dickinson was the only founding father to free his slaves in the period between 1776 and 1786.[12] Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
had freed his slaves by 1770. Drafting of the Articles of Confederation[edit] Dickinson prepared the first draft of the Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
in 1776, after others had ratified the Declaration of Independence over his objection that it would lead to violence, and to follow through on his view that the colonies would need a governing document to survive war against them. At the time he chaired the committee charged with drafting the Articles Dickinson was serving in the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
as a delegate from Pennsylvania. The Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
he drafted are based around a concept of "person", not "man" as was used in the Declaration of Independence, although they do refer to "men" in the context of armies.[13] President of Delaware[edit]

Dickinson as President of Delaware

On January 18, 1779, Dickinson was appointed to be a delegate for Delaware
Delaware
to the Continental Congress. During this term he signed the Articles of Confederation, having in 1776 authored their first draft while serving in the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
as a delegate from Pennsylvania. In August 1781, while still a delegate in Philadelphia he learned that Poplar Hall had been severely damaged by a Loyalist raid. Dickinson returned to the property to investigate the damage and once again stayed for several months. While there, in October 1781, Dickinson was elected to represent Kent County in the State Senate, and shortly afterwards the Delaware General Assembly elected him the president of Delaware. The General Assembly's vote was nearly unanimous, the only dissenting vote having been cast by Dickinson himself.[14] Dickinson took office on November 13, 1781 and served until November 7, 1782. Beginning his term with a "Proclamation against Vice and Immorality," he sought ways to bring an end to the disorder of the days of the Revolution. It was a popular position and enhanced his reputation both in Delaware
Delaware
and Pennsylvania. Dickinson then successfully challenged the Delaware General Assembly to address lagging militia enlistments and to properly fund the state’s assessment to the Confederation government. And recognizing the delicate negotiations then underway to end the American Revolution, Dickinson secured the Assembly's continued endorsement of the French alliance, with no agreement on a separate peace treaty with Great Britain. He also introduced the first census.[citation needed] However, as before, the lure of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
politics was too great. On October 10, 1782, Dickinson was elected to the Supreme Executive Council of Pennsylvania. On November 7, 1782 a joint ballot by the Council and the Pennsylvania General Assembly
Pennsylvania General Assembly
elected him as president of the Council and thereby President of Pennsylvania. But he did not actually resign as State President of Delaware. Even though Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
and Delaware
Delaware
had shared the same governor until very recently, attitudes had changed, and many in Delaware
Delaware
were upset at seemingly being cast aside so readily, particularly after the Philadelphia
Philadelphia
newspapers began criticizing the state for allowing the practice of multiple and non resident office holding. Dickinson’s constitutional successor, John Cook, was considered too weak in his support of the Revolution, and it was not until January 12, 1783, when Cook called for a new election to choose a replacement, that Dickinson formally resigned.

Delaware
Delaware
General Assembly (sessions while President)

Year Assembly

Senate Majority Speaker

House Majority Speaker

1781/82 6th

non-partisan Thomas Collins

non-partisan Simon Kollock

1782/83 7th

non-partisan Thomas Collins

non-partisan Nicholas Van Dyke

President of Pennsylvania[edit] When the American Revolution
American Revolution
began, Dickinson fairly represented the center of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
politics. The old Proprietary and Popular parties divided equally in thirds over the issue of independence, as Loyalists, Moderate Whigs who later became Federalists, and Radicals or Constitutionalists. The old Pennsylvania General Assembly
Pennsylvania General Assembly
was dominated by the Loyalists and Moderates and, like Dickinson, did little to support the burgeoning Revolution or independence, except protest. The Radicals took matters into their own hands, using irregular means to write the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Constitution of 1776, which by law excluded from the franchise anyone who would not swear loyalty to the document or the Christian Holy Trinity. In this way all Loyalists, Moderate Whigs, and Quakers were kept out of government. This peremptory action seemed appropriate to many during the crises of 1777 and 1778, but less so in the later years of the Revolution, and the Moderate Whigs gradually became the majority. Dickinson's election to the Supreme Executive Council was the beginning of a counterrevolution against the Constitutionalists. He was elected President of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
on November 7, 1782, garnering 41 votes to James Potter's 32. As president he presided over the intentionally weak executive authority of the state, and was its chief officer, but always required the agreement of a majority to act. He was re-elected twice and served the constitutional maximum of three years; his election on November 6, 1783 was unanimous. On November 6, 1784 he defeated John Neville, who also lost the election for Vice-President the same day. Working with only the smallest of majorities in the General Assembly in his first two years and with the Constitutionalists in the majority in his last year, all issues were contentious. At first he endured withering attacks from his opponents for his alleged failure to fully support the new government in large and small ways. He responded ably and survived the attacks. He managed to settle quickly the old boundary dispute with Virginia
Virginia
in southwestern Pennsylvania, but was never able to satisfactorily disentangle disputed titles in the Wyoming Valley resulting from prior claims of Connecticut
Connecticut
to those lands. An exhausted Dickinson left office October 18, 1785. On that day a special election was held in which Benjamin Franklin
Benjamin Franklin
was unanimously elected to serve the ten days left in Dickinson's term. Perhaps the most significant decision of his term was his patient, peaceful management of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Mutiny of 1783. This was a violent protest of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
veterans who marched on the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
demanding their pay before being discharged from the army. Somewhat sympathizing with their case, Dickinson refused Congress's request to bring full military action against them, causing Congress to vote to remove themselves to Princeton, New Jersey. And when the new Congress agreed to return in 1790, it was to be for only 10 years, until a permanent capital was found elsewhere.

Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
General Assembly (sessions while President)

Year Assembly

Majority Speaker

1782/83 7th

Republican Frederick A. C. Muhlenberg

1783/84 8th

Republican George Gray

1784/85 9th

Constitutional John Bubenheim Bayard

John and Mary's College[edit] In 1784, Dickinson and Mary Norris Dickinson bequeathed much of their combined library to John and Mary's College, named in their honor by its founder Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
and later renamed Dickinson College.[15][16][17] The Dickinsons also donated 500 acres (2 km²) in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, land originally inherited and managed by Mary Norris, to the new college. United States
United States
Constitution[edit]

The Signing of the Constitution of the United States.

After his service in Pennsylvania, Dickinson returned to Delaware, and lived in Wilmington. He was quickly appointed to represent Delaware
Delaware
at the Annapolis Convention, where he served as its president. In 1787, Delaware
Delaware
sent him as one of its delegates to the Constitutional Convention of 1787, along with Gunning Bedford, Jr., Richard Bassett, George Read, and Jacob Broom. There, he supported the effort to create a strong central government but only after the Great Compromise assured that each state, regardless of size, would have an equal vote in the future United States
United States
Senate. As he had done with the Articles, he also carefully drafted it with the term "Person" rather than "Man" as was used in the Declaration of Independence. He prepared initial drafts of the First Amendment. Following the Convention he promoted the resulting Constitution in a series of nine essays, written under the pen name Fabius. In 1791, Delaware
Delaware
convened a convention to revise its existing Constitution, which had been hastily drafted in 1776. Dickinson was elected president of this convention, and although he resigned the chair after most of the work was complete, he remained highly influential in the content of the final document. Major changes included the establishment of a separate Chancery Court and the expansion of the franchise to include all taxpayers, except blacks and women.[citation needed] Dickinson remained neutral in an attempt to include a prohibition of slavery in the document, believing the General Assembly was the proper place to decide that issue. The new Constitution was approved June 12, 1792. Dickinson himself had freed his slaves conditionally in 1776 and fully by 1787. Once more Dickinson was returned to the State Senate for the 1793 session, but served for just one year before resigning due to his declining health. In his final years, he worked to further the abolition movement, and donated a considerable amount of his wealth to the "relief of the unhappy". In 1801, Dickinson published two volumes of his collected works on politics. Death and legacy[edit] Dickinson died at Wilmington, Delaware
Wilmington, Delaware
and was buried in the Friends Burial Ground.[18] In an original copy of a letter discovered November 2009 from Thomas Jefferson to Joseph Bringhurst, caretaker of Dickinson in his later years, Jefferson responded to news of Dickinson's death: "A more estimable man, or truer patriot, could not have left us. Among the first of the advocates for the rights of his country when assailed by Great Britain, he continued to the last the orthodox advocate of the true principles of our new government and his name will be consecrated in history as one of the great worthies of the revolution."[1][19] He shares with Thomas McKean
Thomas McKean
the distinction of serving as Chief Executive of both Delaware
Delaware
and Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
after the Declaration of Independence. Dickinson College
Dickinson College
and Dickinson School of Law
Dickinson School of Law
(now of the Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State University), separate institutions each operating a campus located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on land inherited and managed by his wife Mary Norris, were named for them. Dickinson College
Dickinson College
was originally named "John and Mary's College" but was renamed to avoid an implication of royalty by confusion with "William and Mary." And along with his Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, Dickinson also authored The Liberty Song. Dickinson Street in Madison, Wisconsin
Madison, Wisconsin
is named in his honor,[20] as is John Dickinson High School in Milltown, Delaware, and Dickinson Hall at the University of Delaware. Almanac[edit] Delaware
Delaware
elections were held October 1 and members of the General Assembly took office on October 20 or the following weekday. The State Legislative Council was created in 1776 and its Legislative Councilmen had a three-year term. Beginning in 1792 it was renamed the State Senate. State Assemblymen had a one-year term. The whole General Assembly chose the State President for a three-year term. Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
elections were held in October as well. Assemblymen had a one-year term. The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Supreme Executive Council was created in 1776, and counsellors were popularly elected for three-year terms. A joint ballot of the Pennsylvania General Assembly
Pennsylvania General Assembly
and the Council chose the president from among the twelve counsellors for a one-year term. Both assemblies chose the Continental Congressmen for a one-year term as well as the delegates to the U.S. Constitution Convention.

Public Offices

Office State Type Location Began office Ended office notes

Assemblyman Lower Counties Legislature New Castle October 20, 1759 October 20, 1760

Assemblyman Lower Counties Legislature New Castle October 20, 1760 October 20, 1761

Assemblyman Pennsylvania Legislature Philadelphia October 1762 October 1763

Assemblyman Pennsylvania Legislature Philadelphia October 1763 October 1764

Delegate Pennsylvania Legislature New York October 7, 1765 October 19, 1765 Stamp Act Congress

Delegate Pennsylvania Legislature Philadelphia August 2, 1774 October 26, 1774 Continental Congress

Delegate Pennsylvania Legislature Philadelphia March 16, 1775 October 21, 1775 Continental Congress

Delegate Pennsylvania Legislature Philadelphia October 21, 1775 November 7, 1776 Continental Congress

Delegate Delaware Legislature Philadelphia January 18, 1779 December 22, 1779 Continental Congress

Delegate Delaware Legislature Philadelphia December 22, 1779 February 10, 1781 Continental Congress

Councilman Delaware Legislature Dover October 20, 1781 November 13, 1781

State President Delaware Executive Dover November 13, 1781 November 7, 1782 Executive Council

State President Pennsylvania Executive Philadelphia November 4, 1782 October 18, 1785

Delegate Delaware Convention Philadelphia May 14, 1787 September 17, 1787 U.S. Constitution

Delegate Delaware Convention Dover November 29, 1791 June 12, 1792 State Constitution

State Senator Delaware Legislature Dover January 6, 1793 January 6, 1794

Delaware
Delaware
General Assembly service

Dates Assembly Chamber Majority Governor Committees District

1781/82 6th State House non-partisan Caesar Rodney

Kent at-large

1793 17th State Senate Republican Joshua Clayton

New Castle at-large

In popular culture[edit]

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Dickinson is a prominent character in the musical drama 1776, billed third after the parts of Adams and Franklin. He was originally portrayed on stage by Paul Hecht, and in the 1972 film adaptation by Donald Madden. Michael Cumpsty portrayed him in the 1997 revival. His portrayal in this musical differs substantially from reality: instead of abstaining from voting and debating, he acts as John Adams' primary antagonist in the debates over independence, to the point where the two men come to blows. His motivation in the musical is to convince the delegates to come to peace terms with Britain, rather than to seek reforms through civil disobedience and other nonviolent measures and for the colonies to mature before seeking independence. Also his wife Mary Norris does not appear in the musical at all, despite being present in Philadelphia
Philadelphia
at the time, whereas Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
and Martha Jefferson are heavily depicted, despite being in Boston and Virginia, respectively, at the time. In Part II of the 2008 HBO
HBO
series John Adams, based on the book by David McCullough, the part of Dickinson is played by Zeljko Ivanek. As portrayed in the 2015 miniseries Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
Dickinson is shown continually speaking out against prematurely fighting the British and voting on the idea of a Declaration of Independence. He suggests a request first be made from the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
to the King of England, in the form of the Olive Branch Petition. The program gives no indication that Dickinson would author the petition. As the Congress votes on independence, the miniseries portrays Dickinson getting up and leaving the room without explanation, and no summary was given of his overall contributions to the American Revolution
American Revolution
or what would become of him later. Dickinson was honored with a brief mention in season 7, episode 4 of South Park, "I'm a Little Bit Country". Notes[edit]

^ a b These are Gregorian calendar
Gregorian calendar
dates. They are November 2 or 4 in the Julian calendar.

References[edit]

^ a b "UD Library discovers Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
letter". University of Delaware. December 3, 2009. Retrieved December 5, 2009.  ^ Various sources indicate a birth date of November 8, November 12 or November 13, but his most recent biographer, Flower, offers November 2 without dispute. ^ National Archives and Records Administration: "America's Founding Fathers: Delegates to the Constitutional Convention." ^ The Duke of York Record 1646–1679, Printed by order of the General Assembly of the State of Delaware, 1899 ^ "John Dickinson: timeline". Historyhome.co.uk. January 5, 2011. Retrieved September 12, 2012.  ^ "History - University of Delaware". www.udel.edu. Retrieved July 7, 2017.  ^ Middlekauff, Robert (2005). The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution 1763-1789. Oxford University Press. pp. 161–162.  ^ Stillé, Charles Janeway, The Life and Times of John Dickinson. 1732–1808 (Philadelphia, 1891). ^ Flower, Milton Embick (1983). John Dickinson: Conservative Revolutionary. University of Virginia
Virginia
Press. p. 301. ISBN 978-0-8139-0966-0.  ^ Ferling, John (2011). Independence: The Struggle to Set America Free. New York, NY: Bloomsbury Press. p. 132. ISBN 9781608193974.  ^ John Dickinson
John Dickinson
Plantation. State of Delaware, Department of State, Division of Historical and Cultural Affairs. Accessed 2017-01-06. ^ Calvert, Jane E. " John Dickinson
John Dickinson
Writings Project". University of Kentucky: The John Dickinson
John Dickinson
Writings Project. Retrieved February 10, 2013.  ^ "Journals of the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
– Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union; July 12, 1776". The Avalon Project of Yale Law School. Retrieved February 7, 2013.  ^ Bushman, Claudia L.; Hancock, Harold Bell; Homsey, Elizabeth Moyne (1988). Proceedings of the House of Assembly of the Delaware
Delaware
State, 1781–1792, and of the Constitutional Convention of 1792. Newark, DE: University of Delaware
Delaware
Press. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-87413-309-7. Retrieved June 10, 2013.  ^ McKenney, Janice E. (2012). Women of the Constitution: Wives of the Signers. [full citation needed] ^ "The Books of Isaac Norris at Dickinson College". The Dickinson Electronic Initiative in the Liberal Arts. Retrieved February 10, 2013.  ^ Butterfield, L.H. (1948). Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
and the Beginning of John and Mary's College Over the Susquehanna. Oxford Journals: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. p. 427.  ^ Ehrlich, Eugene and Gorton Carruth. The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to the United States. New York: Oxford University Press, 1982. p. 217. ISBN 0-19-503186-5 ^ "Student finds letter 'a link to Jefferson'". CNN.com. December 8, 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2010.  ^ "Odd Wisconsin Archives". Wisconsinhistory.org. March 29, 2006. Retrieved September 12, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

Calvert, Jane E. (July 2007). "Liberty Without Tumult: Understanding the Politics of John Dickinson". The Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Magazine of History and Biography. Philadelphia: Historical Society of Pennsylvania. CXXXI (3): 233–62.  Calvert, Jane E. (2008). Quaker Constitutionalism and the Political Thought of John Dickinson. Cambridge, England, and New York: Cambridge University Press.  Conrad, Henry C. (1908). History of the State of Delaware. Lancaster, Pennsylvania: Wickersham Company.  Flower, Milton E. (1983). John Dickinson
John Dickinson
– Conservative Revolutionary. Charlottesville, Virginia: University Press of Virginia. ISBN 0-8139-0966-X.  Hoffecker, Carol E. (2004). Democracy in Delaware. Wilmington, Delaware: Cedar Tree Books. ISBN 1-892142-23-6.  Martin, Roger A. (1984). History of Delaware
Delaware
Through its Governors. Wilmington, Delaware: McClafferty Press.  Martin, Roger A. (1995). Memoirs of the Senate. Newark, Delaware: Roger A. Martin.  Munroe, John A. (2004). Philadelawareans. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware
Delaware
Press. ISBN 0-87413-872-8.  Munroe, John A. (1954). Federalist Delaware
Delaware
1775–1815. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University.  Racino, John W. (1980). Biographical Directory of American and Revolutionary Governors 1607–1789. Westport, CT: Meckler Books. ISBN 0-930466-00-4.  Rodney, Richard S. (1975). Collected Essays on Early Delaware. Wilmington, Delaware: Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Delaware.  Scharf, John Thomas (1888). History of Delaware
Delaware
1609–1888. 2 vols. Philadelphia: L. J. Richards & Co.  Stillé, Charles J. (1891). The life and times of John Dickinson.  Ward, Christopher L. (1941). Delaware
Delaware
Continentals, 1776–1783. Wilmington, DE: Historical Society of Delaware. ISBN 0-924117-21-4.  Bushman, Claudia L.; Hancock, Harold Bell; Homsey, Elizabeth Moyne (1988). Proceedings of the House of Assembly of the Delaware
Delaware
State, 1781–1792, and of the Constitutional Convention of 1792. Newark, DE: University of Delaware
Delaware
Press. ISBN 978-0-87413-309-7. Retrieved June 10, 2013. 

External links[edit]

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John Dickinson
Papers are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Works by or about John Dickinson
John Dickinson
at Internet Archive Works by John Dickinson
John Dickinson
at LibriVox
LibriVox
(public domain audiobooks)

More information

Delaware
Delaware
Historical Society – website University of Delaware
Delaware
– Library website Historical Society of Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
– website John Dickinson Plantation
John Dickinson Plantation
– website Wilmington Quaker Meeting House (burial site)

Political offices

Preceded by Caesar Rodney President of Delaware 1781–1783 Succeeded by John Cook

Preceded by William Moore President of Pennsylvania November 7, 1782 – October 18, 1785 Succeeded by Benjamin Franklin

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John Dickinson

5th President of Pennsylvania, 1782–1785 5th President of Delaware, 1781–1783 Second Continental Congress, 1775–1776, 1779–1781 First Continental Congress, 1774 Stamp Act Congress, 1765

Founding of the United States

Declaration of Rights and Grievances (1765) Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania
(1767, 1768) "The Liberty Song" (1768 United we stand, divided we fall) Petition to the King
Petition to the King
(1774) Signee, Continental Association
Continental Association
(1774) Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Committee of Correspondence (1774–1776) Letter to the inhabitants of the Province of Quebec (1774) Olive Branch Petition
Olive Branch Petition
(1775) Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms (co-wrote, 1775) Committee of Secret Correspondence (1775–1776) Model Treaty committee (1776) Articles of Confederation
Articles of Confederation
and perpetual Union (1776) President, Annapolis Convention (1786) Delegate, Constitutional Convention (1787)

Other events

Brigadier General, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
militia Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
Mutiny of 1783 Delaware
Delaware
Constitution of 1792

Life and homes

Mary Norris Dickinson (wife) Philemon Dickinson
Philemon Dickinson
(brother) Early life Poplar Hall home Fair Hill estate Friends Burial Ground

Legacy

Dickinson College Dickinson School of Law, Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
State University John Dickinson
John Dickinson
High School 1776 (1969 musical, 1972 film) John Adams
John Adams
(2008 miniseries) Sons of Liberty
Sons of Liberty
(2015 miniseries)

Related

Claymont Stone School American Revolution

patriots

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Historical documents of the United States

Constitution

Preamble & Articles

Preamble I II III IV V VI VII

Amendments

Ratified

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Pending

Congressional Apportionment Titles of Nobility Corwin (State Domestic Institutions) Child Labor

Unsuccessful

Equal Rights District of Columbia Voting Rights

See also

List of Constitutional Amendments Bill of Rights (Amendments 1–10) Reconstruction Amendments
Reconstruction Amendments
(Amendments 13–15) Amendment proposals in Congress Conventions to propose amendments State ratifying conventions

Formation

History Articles of Confederation Mount Vernon Conference Annapolis Convention Philadelphia
Philadelphia
Convention

Virginia
Virginia
Plan New Jersey
New Jersey
Plan Connecticut
Connecticut
Compromise Three-Fifths Compromise Committee of Detail Signing Independence Hall Syng inkstand

The Federalist Papers Anti-Federalist Papers Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Compromise Virginia
Virginia
Ratifying Convention Hillsborough Convention Drafting and ratification timeline

Clauses

Appointments Appropriations Assistance of Counsel Bill of credit Case or Controversy Citizenship Commerce Compact Compulsory Process Confrontation Contract Copyright and Patent Double Jeopardy Due Process Equal Protection Establishment Exceptions Excessive Bail Ex post facto Extradition Free Exercise Free Speech Fugitive Slave Full Faith and Credit General Welfare Guarantee Impeachment Import-Export Ineligibility (Emolument) Militia Natural-born citizen Necessary and Proper New States No Religious Test Oath or Affirmation Origination Petition Postal Presentment Privileges and Immunities Privileges or Immunities Recommendation Self-Incrimination Speech or Debate Speedy Trial State of the Union Supremacy Suspension Take Care Takings Taxing and Spending Territorial Title of Nobility Treaty Trial by Jury Vesting Vicinage War Powers List of clauses

Interpretation

Concurrent powers Congressional enforcement Constitutional law Criminal procedure Criminal sentencing Dormant Commerce Clause Enumerated powers Equal footing Executive privilege Incorporation of the Bill of Rights Judicial review Nondelegation doctrine Preemption Saxbe fix Separation of church and state Separation of powers Taxation power Unitary executive theory

Signatories

Convention President

George Washington

New Hampshire

John Langdon Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King

Connecticut

William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman

New York

Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey

William Livingston David Brearley William Paterson Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robert Morris George Clymer Thomas Fitzsimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris

Delaware

George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. John Dickinson Richard Bassett Jacob Broom

Maryland

James McHenry Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll

Virginia

John Blair James Madison

North Carolina

William Blount Richard Dobbs Spaight Hugh Williamson

South Carolina

John Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler

Georgia

William Few Abraham Baldwin

Convention Secretary

William Jackson

Display and legacy

National Archives

Charters of Freedom
Charters of Freedom
Rotunda

Independence Mall Constitution Day Constitution Gardens National Constitution Center Scene at the Signing of the Constitution (painting) A More Perfect Union (film) Worldwide influence

Declaration of Independence

Primary author

Thomas Jefferson

Signatories

President of Congress

John Hancock
John Hancock
(Massachusetts)

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett William Whipple Matthew Thornton

Massachusetts

Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine Elbridge Gerry

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins William Ellery

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington William Williams Oliver Wolcott

New York

William Floyd Philip Livingston Francis Lewis Lewis Morris

New Jersey

Richard Stockton John Witherspoon Francis Hopkinson John Hart Abraham Clark

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Benjamin Rush Benjamin Franklin John Morton George Clymer James Smith George Taylor James Wilson George Ross

Delaware

George Read Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean

Maryland

Samuel Chase William Paca Thomas Stone Charles Carroll of Carrollton

Virginia

George Wythe Richard Henry Lee Thomas Jefferson Benjamin Harrison Thomas Nelson Jr. Francis Lightfoot Lee Carter Braxton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes John Penn

South Carolina

Edward Rutledge Thomas Heyward Jr. Thomas Lynch Jr. Arthur Middleton

Georgia

Button Gwinett Lyman Hall George Walton

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights Lee Resolution Committee of Five Document's history

signing portrait

Second Continental Congress "All men are created equal" "Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" "Consent of the governed" Independence Hall

Syng inkstand

American Revolution

Articles of Confederation

Signatories

Primary drafter

John Dickinson

New Hampshire

Josiah Bartlett John Wentworth Jr.

Massachusetts

John Hancock Samuel Adams Elbridge Gerry Francis Dana James Lovell Samuel Holten

Rhode Island

William Ellery Henry Marchant John Collins

Connecticut

Roger Sherman Samuel Huntington Oliver Wolcott Titus Hosmer Andrew Adams

New York

James Duane Francis Lewis William Duer Gouverneur Morris

New Jersey

John Witherspoon Nathaniel Scudder

Pennsylvania

Robert Morris Daniel Roberdeau Jonathan Bayard Smith William Clingan Joseph Reed

Delaware

Thomas McKean John Dickinson Nicholas Van Dyke

Maryland

John Hanson Daniel Carroll

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee John Banister Thomas Adams John Harvie Francis Lightfoot Lee

North Carolina

John Penn Cornelius Harnett John Williams

South Carolina

Henry Laurens William Henry Drayton John Mathews Richard Hutson Thomas Heyward Jr.

Georgia

John Walton Edward Telfair Edward Langworthy

See also

Continental Congress Congress of the Confederation American Revolution Perpetual Union

Continental Association

Signatories

President of Congress

Peyton Randolph

New Hampshire

John Sullivan Nathaniel Folsom

Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Bay

Thomas Cushing Samuel Adams John Adams Robert Treat Paine

Rhode Island

Stephen Hopkins Samuel Ward

Connecticut

Eliphalet Dyer Roger Sherman Silas Deane

New York

Isaac Low John Alsop John Jay James Duane Philip Livingston William Floyd Henry Wisner Simon Boerum

New Jersey

James Kinsey William Livingston Stephen Crane Richard Smith John De Hart

Pennsylvania

Joseph Galloway John Dickinson Charles Humphreys Thomas Mifflin Edward Biddle John Morton George Ross

The Lower Counties

Caesar Rodney Thomas McKean George Read

Maryland

Matthew Tilghman Thomas Johnson, Junr William Paca Samuel Chase

Virginia

Richard Henry Lee George Washington Patrick Henry, Junr Richard Bland Benjamin Harrison Edmund Pendleton

North Carolina

William Hooper Joseph Hewes Richard Caswell

South Carolina

Henry Middleton Thomas Lynch Christopher Gadsden John Rutledge Edward Rutledge

See also

Virginia
Virginia
Association First Continental Congress Carpenters' Hall Declaration and Resolves of the First Continental Congress

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Signers of the Articles of Confederation

A. Adams S. Adams T. Adams Banister Bartlett Carroll Clingan Collins Dana Dickinson Drayton Duane Duer Ellery Gerry Hancock Hanson Harnett Harvie Heyward Holten Hosmer Huntington Hutson Langworthy Laurens F. Lee R. Lee Lewis Lovell Marchant Mathews McKean G. Morris R. Morris Penn Reed Roberdeau Scudder Sherman Smith Telfair Van Dyke Walton Wentworth Williams Witherspoon Wolcott

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Signatories of the United States
United States
Constitution

Convention President

George Washington

New Hampshire

John Langdon Nicholas Gilman

Massachusetts

Nathaniel Gorham Rufus King

Connecticut

William Samuel Johnson Roger Sherman

New York

Alexander Hamilton

New Jersey

William Livingston David Brearley William Paterson Jonathan Dayton

Pennsylvania

Benjamin Franklin Thomas Mifflin Robert Morris George Clymer Thomas Fitzsimons Jared Ingersoll James Wilson Gouverneur Morris

Delaware

George Read Gunning Bedford Jr. John Dickinson Richard Bassett Jacob Broom

Maryland

James McHenry Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer Daniel Carroll

Virginia

John Blair James Madison

North Carolina

William Blount Richard Dobbs Spaight Hugh Williamson

South Carolina

John Rutledge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney Charles Pinckney Pierce Butler

Georgia

William Few Abraham Baldwin

Convention Secretary

William Jackson

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Governors and Presidents of Pennsylvania

Presidents (1777–90)

Wharton Bryan Reed Moore Dickinson Franklin Mifflin

Governors (since 1790)

Mifflin McKean Snyder Findlay Hiester Shulze G. Wolf Ritner Porter Shunk Johnston Bigler Pollock Packer Curtin Geary Hartranft Hoyt Pattison Beaver Pattison Hastings Stone Pennypacker Stuart Tener Brumbaugh Sproul Pinchot Fisher Pinchot Earle James Martin Bell Duff Fine Leader Lawrence Scranton Shafer Shapp Thornburgh Casey Ridge Schweiker Rendell Corbett T. Wolf

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Governors and Lieutenant Governors of Delaware

Governors

McKinly McKean Read Caesar Rodney Dickinson Cook Van Dyke T. Collins Davis Clayton Bedford Rogers Bassett Sykes D. Hall Mitchell Truitt Haslet D. Rodney Clark Molleston Stout J. Collins Caleb Rodney Haslet Thomas Paynter Polk Hazzard Bennett Polk Comegys Cooper Stockton Maull Temple Tharp Ross Causey Burton Cannon Saulsbury Ponder Cochran J. Hall Stockley Biggs Reynolds Marvil Watson Tunnell Hunn Lea Pennewill Miller Townsend Denney Robinson Buck McMullen Bacon Carvel Boggs Buckson Carvel Terry Peterson Tribbitt du Pont Castle Wolf Carper Minner Markell Carney

Lieutenant Governors

Cannon Parker Mendinhall Ferguson Eliason Bush Anderson Hazel Corley Cooch MacCollum Carvel Bayard Rollins Buckson Lammot Tribbitt Bookhammer McGinnis Castle Woo Wolf Minner Carney Denn Hall-Long

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 28316376 LCCN: n50027268 ISNI: 0000 0001 2209 750X GND: 137908261 SUDOC: 130930318 BNF: cb161759516 (data) BIBSYS: 14065639 NLA: 35035487 US Congress: D000321 BNE: XX4664

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