The Info List - Johannes Ockeghem

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Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
(also Jean de, Jan; surname Okeghem, Ogkegum, Okchem, Hocquegam, Ockegham; other variant spellings are also encountered) (1410/1425 – February 6,[2] 1497) was the most famous composer of the Franco-Flemish School in the last half of the 15th century, and is often considered the most influential composer between Guillaume Dufay
Guillaume Dufay
and Josquin des Prez. In addition to being a renowned composer, he was also an honored singer, choirmaster, and teacher.


1 Life 2 Music and influence 3 Works

3.1 Masses 3.2 Motets

3.2.1 Marian antiphons 3.2.2 Others

3.3 Motet-chanson 3.4 Chansons

3.4.1 Two voices 3.4.2 Three voices 3.4.3 Three or four voices 3.4.4 Four voices

4 Recordings 5 Notes 6 References 7 External links

Life[edit] The spelling of Ockeghem's name comes from a supposed autograph of his which survived as late as 1885, and was reproduced by Eugène Giraudet, a historian in Tours;[3] the document has since been lost. In 15th-century sources, the spelling "Okeghem" predominates. Ockeghem is believed to have been born in Saint-Ghislain, Netherlands (now Belgium). His birthdate is unknown; dates as early as 1410 and as late as 1430 have been proposed.[4] The earlier date is based on the possibility that he knew Binchois in Hainaut before the older composer moved from Mons
to Lille
in 1423.[2] Ockeghem would have to have been younger than 15 at the time. This particular speculation derives from Ockeghem's reference, in the lament he wrote on the death of Binchois in 1460, to a chanson by Binchois dated to that time.[5] In this lament Ockeghem not only honored the older composer by imitating his style, but also revealed some useful biographical information about him.[6] The comment by the poet Guillaume Crétin, in the lament he wrote on Ockeghem's death in 1497, "it was a great shame that a composer of his talents should die before 100 years old", is also often taken as evidence for the earlier birthdate for Ockeghem. In 1993, documents dating from 1607 were found stating that "Jan Hocquegam" was a native of Saint-Ghislain
in the County of Hainaut, which was confirmed by references in 16th century documents.[7] This suggests that, though he first appears in records in Flanders, he was a native speaker of Picard.[8] Previously, most biographies surmised that he was born in East Flanders, either in the town after which he was named (present-day Okegem, from which his ancestors must have come) or in the neighboring town of Dendermonde
(French: Termonde), where the surname Ockeghem occurred in the 14th and 15th century.[9] Occasionally, Bavay, now in the Nord department in France, was suggested as his birthplace as well.[10] Details of his early life are lacking. Like many composers in this period, he started his musical career as a chorister, although the exact location of his education is unknown: Mons, a town near Saint-Ghislain
that had at least two churches with competent music schools, has been suggested.[5] The first actual documented record of Ockeghem is from the Onze-Lieve-Vrouwe cathedral in Antwerp, where he was employed in June 1443 as a "left-hand choir singer" ("left-handers" sang composed music, "right-handers" sang chant). He probably sang under the direction of Johannes Pullois, whose employment also dates from that year.[11] This church was a distinguished establishment, and it was likely here that Ockeghem became familiar with the English compositional style, which influenced late 15th-century musical practice on the continent.[2] Between 1446 and 1448 Ockeghem served, along with singer and composer Jean Cousin, at the court of Charles I, Duke of Bourbon in Moulins, now in central France.[2] During this service he became the first among the singing chaplains to appear in the court records.[2] Around 1452 he moved to Paris
where he served as maestro di cappella to the French court, as well as treasurer of the collegiate church of St. Martin, at Tours.[2] In addition to serving at the French court – both for Charles VII and Louis XI[2] – he held posts at Notre Dame de Paris
and at St. Benoît. He is known to have traveled to Spain
in 1470, as part of a diplomatic mission for the King, which was a complex affair attempting both to dissuade Spain
from joining an alliance with England and Burgundy against France, and to arrange a marriage between Isabella I of Castile
Isabella I of Castile
and Charles, Duke of Guyenne (the brother of king Louis XI).[5] After the death of Louis XI (1483), not much is known for certain about Ockeghem's whereabouts, though it is known that he went to Bruges
and Tours, and he probably died in the latter town since he left a will there. An indication of the renown in which Ockeghem was held is the number of laments written on his death in 1497; among the most famous of the musical settings of these many poems is Nymphes des bois by Josquin des Prez.[5] Ockeghem probably studied with Gilles Binchois, and at least was closely associated with him at the Burgundian court. Since Antoine Busnois wrote a motet in honor of Ockeghem sometime before 1467, it is probable that those two were acquainted as well; and writers of the time often link Dufay, Busnois and Ockeghem. Although Ockeghem's musical style differs considerably from that of the older generation, it is probable that he acquired his basic technique from them, and as such can be seen as a direct link from the Burgundian style to the next generation of Netherlanders, such as Obrecht and Josquin. Music and influence[edit]

An illuminated opening from the Chigi codex
Chigi codex
featuring the Kyrie
of Ockeghem's Missa Ecce ancilla Domini

Ockeghem was not a prolific composer, given the length of his career and extent of his reputation, and some of his work was lost. Many works formerly attributed to him are now presumed to be by other composers; Ockeghem's total output of reliably attributed compositions, as with many of the most famous composers of the time (such as Josquin), has shrunk with time.[5] Surviving reliably attributed works include some 14 masses (including a Requiem), an isolated Credo (Credo sine nomine), five motets, a motet-chanson (a deploration on the death of Binchois), and 21 chansons.[2] Thirteen of Ockeghem's masses are preserved in the Chigi codex, a Flemish manuscript dating to around 1500.[12] His Missa pro Defunctis is the earliest surviving polyphonic Requiem mass (a possibly earlier setting by Dufay has been lost). Some of his works, alongside compositions by his contemporaries, are included in Petrucci's Harmonice musices odhecaton (1501), the first collection of music published using moveable type.[13] Dating Ockeghem's works is difficult, as there are almost no external points of reference, except of course the death of Binchois (1460) for which Ockeghem composed a motet-chanson. The Missa Caput
Missa Caput
is almost certainly an early work, since it follows on an anonymous English mass of the same title dated to the 1440s, and his late masses may include the Missa Ma maistresse and Missa Fors seulement, in view of both his innovative treatment of the cantus firmus and his increasingly homogeneous textures later in his life.[5] Ockeghem used the cantus firmus technique in about half of his masses; the earliest of these masses use head-motifs at the start of the individual movements, a common practice around 1440 but one that had already become archaic by around 1450.[5] Two of his masses, Missa Ma maistresse and Missa Fors seulement, are based on chansons he wrote himself, and use more than one voice of the chanson, foreshadowing the parody mass techniques of the 16th century. In his remaining masses, including the Missa Mi-mi, Missa cuiusvis toni, and Missa prolationum, no borrowed material has been found, and the works seem to have been freely composed.[5][14] Ockeghem would sometimes place borrowed material in the lowest voice, such as in the Missa Caput, one of three masses written in the mid-15th century based on that fragment of chant from the English Sarum Rite.[5] Other characteristics of Ockeghem's compositional technique include variation in voices' rhythmic character so as to maintain their independence.[2] A strong influence on Josquin des Prez
Josquin des Prez
and the subsequent generation of Netherlanders, Ockeghem was famous throughout Europe for his expressive music, though he was equally renowned for his technical prowess.[6] Two of the most famous contrapuntal achievements of the 15th century include his Missa prolationum, which consists entirely of mensuration canons, and the Missa cuiusvis toni, designed to be performed in any of the different modes, but even these technique-oriented pieces demonstrate his uniquely expressive use of vocal ranges and tonal language.[15][POV? – discuss] Ockeghem's use of wide-ranging and rhythmically active bass lines sets him apart from many of the other composers in the Netherlandish Schools. Ockeghem died in Tours, France. To commemorate his death, Josquin des Prez composed the motet La déploration de la mort de Johannes Ockeghem, a setting of the poem Nymphes des bois by Jean Molinet. An unusually large number of laments appeared after Ockeghem's death. Some of the authors of these poems included Molinet and Desiderius Erasmus; Johannes Lupi provided another musical setting.[15] Works[edit] Masses[edit]

Missa sine nomine a 3 (attrib) Missa sine nomine a 5 (incomplete: only Kyrie, Gloria and Credo exist) Missa Au travail suis a 4 Missa Caput Missa cuiusvis toni Missa De plus en plus Missa Ecce ancilla Domini Missa Fors seulement
Fors seulement
a 5 (has not survived complete: only Kyrie, Gloria and Credo remain) Missa L'homme armé
L'homme armé
a 4 Missa Ma maistresse (only Kyrie
and Gloria extant) Missa Mi-mi a 4 (also known as the Missa quarti toni) Missa prolationum
Missa prolationum
a 4 (circa 1470) Missa quinti toni a 3 Missa pro defunctis (Requiem) a 4 (incomplete, probably composed for the funeral of Charles VII in 1461) Credo sine nomine (Mass section, also known as Credo "De village")

Motets[edit] Marian antiphons[edit]

Alma Redemptoris Mater Ave Maria Salve Regina


Intemerata Dei mater a 5 (possibly written 1487)[16] Ut heremita solus (possibly intended for instrumental performance) Deo gratias a 36 (attrib)


Mort tu as navré/Miserere (lamentation on the death of Gilles Binchois, probably written in 1460)

Chansons[edit] Two voices[edit]

O rosa bella (ballata) (Ai lasso mi - John Bedyngham/John Dunstaple?)

Three voices[edit]

Aultre Venus estes Au travail suis (attrib: possibly by Barbingant) Baisiés moy dont fort D'ung aultre amer Fors seulement
Fors seulement
contre Fors seulement
Fors seulement
l'attente Il ne m'en chault plus La despourveue et la bannie L'autre d'antan Les desléaux ont la saison Ma bouche rit Ma maistresse Prenez sur moi Presque transi Quant de vous seul Qu'es mi vida preguntays Se vostre cuer eslongne Tant fuz gentement resjouy Ung aultre l'a

Three or four voices[edit]

J'en ay dueil

Four voices[edit]

S'elle m'amera/Petite camusette


Flemish Masters, Virginia Arts Recordings, VA-04413, performed by Zephyrus. Includes the Ockeghem Alma Redemptoris mater, the Obrecht Missa Sub tuum presidium, as well as motets by Willaert, Clemens non Papa, Josquin, Mouton, and Gombert. Angelus, Virginia Arts Recordings, VA-00338, performed by Zephyrus. Includes the Ockeghem Ave Maria ... benedicta tu, as well as motets by Palestrina, Josquin, Victoria, Rore, Morales, Clemens non Papa, Lassus, de Wert, and Andrea Gabrieli "Missa Cuiusvis Toni", æon, ÆCD 0753 (2 CDs-2007), performed by Ensemble Musica Nova, Lucien Kandel; First recording of the four versions. Ed. Gérard Geay. "Missa prolationum", agogique AGO 008, Ensemble Musica Nova, Lucien Kandel. Ed. Gérard Geay.


^ This portrait is tentatively identified as Ockeghem by Reinhard Strohm, "Portrait of a Musician", in Vendrix, Philippe, ed. Johannes Ockeghem : actes du XLe Colloque international d'études humanistes, Tours, 3-8 février 1997. Paris: Klinckseick, 1998. [pp. 167-172.] WorldCat shows copies at the Sorbonne, and Bibliothèque nationale de France: WorldCat page op. cit. ^ a b c d e f g h i Brown & Stein, p61. ^ Giraudet, 1885. Les artistes tourangeaux (series: Mémoires de la société archéologique de Touraine, 33. Bibliothèque nationale de France. Online resource. http://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k5499744t/f3.item.r=ockeghem) pp 312f. ^ Fitch, p. 57. ^ a b c d e f g h i Perkins, Grove online ^ a b Brown & Stein, p61-71. ^ Van Overstraeten, pp 11-17 ^ Brown & Stein, p60 ^ Van Overstraeten, pp 10 ^ Van Overstraeten, pp 8-9 ^ Starr, Grove online ^ Brown & Stein, p70. ^ Brown & Stein, p68. ^ Brown & Stein, p62. ^ a b Brown & Stein, p69. ^ Dean, p. 555.


Leeman Perkins: "Johannes Ockeghem"; Pamela Starr, "Johannes Pullois". Grove Music Online, ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 23, 2007), (subscription access) Article "Johannes Ockeghem," The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, ed. Stanley Sadie. 20 vol. London, Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1980. (ISBN 1-56159-174-2) Gustave Reese: Music in the Renaissance. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1954. (ISBN 0-393-09530-4) Fabrice Fitch: Johannes Ockeghem: Masses and Models. Paris, Honoré Champion Éditeur, 1997. (ISBN 978-2-85203-735-9) Jeffrey Dean: "Okeghem's valediction? The meaning of 'Intemerata Dei mater'", in Johannes Ockeghem: Actes du XLe Colloque international d'études humanistes. Éditions Klincksieck, 1998. (ISBN 2-252-03214-6) Martin Picker: Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
and Jacob Obrecht: A Guide to Research. (Garland Composer Resource Manuals, 13.) New York: Garland Publishing Co., 1988. (ISBN 0-8240-8381-4) Leeman Perkins: Music in the Age of the Renaissance. New York, W.W. Norton & Co., 1999. Howard M. Brown & Louise K. Stein: Music in the Renaissance, 2nd ed. New Jersey, Prentice Hall, 1996. Pp. 60–79. Giulio Ongaro: Music of the Renaissance. Westport, Connecticut, Greenwood Press, 2003. P.32. Daniel Van Overstraeten: Le lieu de naissance du musicien Jean Ockeghem (ca 1420–1497): une énigme élucidée. Annales du Cercle d'histoire et d'archéologie de Saint-Ghislain
et de la région. VI 1993. (in French) Philippe Vendrix, dir. Johannes Ockeghem. Actes du XIe Colloque international d'études humanistes. Centre d'Etudes Supérieures de la Renaissance. Coll. Epitome musical. Kincksieck, 1998. ISBN 2-252-03214-6 (in French and in English).

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Johannes Ockeghem.

Jean de Ockeghem at Encyclopædia Britannica Ockeghem biography and discography Free scores by Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki) Free scores by Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
at the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) Johannes Ockeghem
Johannes Ockeghem
Home Page  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Jean d'Okeghem". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 

v t e

Franco-Flemish School

1st generation

Guillaume Du Fay Gilles Binchois Antoine Busnois Johannes Pullois

2nd generation

Alexander Agricola Loyset Compère Firminus Caron Guillaume Faugues Johannes Ockeghem Marbrianus de Orto Johannes Prioris Johannes Regis Johannes Tinctoris

3rd generation

Antoine Brumel Antonius Divitis Antoine de Févin Heinrich Isaac Jacob Obrecht Matthaeus Pipelare Josquin des Prez Jean Richafort Pierre de la Rue

4th generation

Jacques Arcadelt Jacob Clemens non Papa Thomas Crecquillon Nicolas Gombert Pierre de Manchicourt Cipriano de Rore Adrian Willaert

5th generation

Orlande de Lassus Carolus Luython Giovanni de Macque Philippe de Monte Jacob Regnart Philippe Rogier Jacobus Vaet Giaches de Wert

v t e

Johannes Ockeghem


Missa cuiusvis toni Missa prolationum Requiem (Ockeghem)

Related articles

Chigi codex

Category:Compositions by Johannes Ockeghem

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 173146468 LCCN: n79127798 ISNI: 0000 0001 1031 7456 GND: 118735926 MusicBrainz: 614358f7-a30d-40c0-b9fe-659c16124