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A job, or occupation, is a person's role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment ("for a living"). Many people have multiple jobs (e.g., parent, homemaker, and employee). A person can begin a job by becoming an employee, volunteering, starting a business, or becoming a parent. The duration of a job may range from temporary (e.g., hourly odd jobs) to a lifetime (e.g., judges). An activity that requires a person's mental or physical effort is work (as in "a day's work"). If a person is trained for a certain type of job, they may have a profession. Typically, a job would be a subset of someone's career. The two may differ in that one usually retires from their career, versus resignation or termination from a job.

Contents

1 Jobs for people 2 Types of jobs

2.1 Day job 2.2 Getting a job 2.3 Use of the word

3 Occupation and life expectancy 4 See also 5 References

5.1 Citations 5.2 Sources

6 External links

Jobs for people[edit] Most people spend up to forty or more hours each week in paid employment. Some exceptions are children, retirees, and people with disabilities; However, within these groups, many will work part-time, volunteer, or work as a homemaker. From the age of 5 or so, many children's primary role in society(and therefore their 'job') is to learn and study as a student. Types of jobs[edit] Jobs can be categorized, by the hours per week, into full time or part time. They can be categorized as temporary, odd jobs, seasonal, self-employment, consulting, or contract employment. Jobs can be categorized as paid or unpaid. Examples of unpaid jobs include volunteer, homemaker, mentor, student, and sometimes intern. Jobs can be categorized by the level of experience required: entry level, intern, and co-op. Some jobs require specific training or an academic degree. Those without paid full-time employment may be categorized as unemployed or underemployed if they are seeking a full-time paid job. Moonlighting is the practice of holding an additional job or jobs, often at night, in addition to one's main job, usually to earn extra income. A person who moonlights may have little time left for sleep or leisure activities. The Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
lists 27,966 different job titles, within a website published 2015.[1] Day job[edit] The expression day job is often used for a job one works in order to make ends meet while performing low-paying (or non-paying) work in their preferred vocation. Archetypal examples of this are the woman who works as a waitress (her day job) while she tries to become an actress, and the professional athlete who works as a laborer in the off season because he is currently only able to make the roster of a semi-professional team. While many people do hold a full-time occupation, "day job" specifically refers to those who hold the position solely to pay living expenses so they can pursue, through low paying entry work, the job they really want (which may also be during the day). The phrase strongly implies that the day job would be quit, if only the real vocation paid a living wage. The phrase "don't quit your day job" is a humorous response to a poor or mediocre performance not up to professional caliber. The phrase implies that the performer is not talented enough in that activity to be able to make a career out of it. Getting a job[edit] Further information: Job hunting
Job hunting
and Employment Getting a first job is an important rite of passage in many cultures. The youth may start by doing household work, odd jobs, or working for a family business. In many countries, school children get summer jobs during the longer summer vacation. Students enrolled in higher education can apply for internships or coops to further enhance the probability of securing an entry level job upon graduation. Résumés summarize a person's education and job experience for potential employers. Employers read job candidate résumés to decide whom to interview for an open position. Use of the word[edit] Workers often talk of "getting a job", or "having a job". This conceptual metaphor of a "job" as a possession has led to its use in slogans such as "money for jobs, not bombs". Similar conceptions are that of "land" as a possession (real estate) or intellectual rights as a possession (intellectual property). Occupation and life expectancy[edit] Manual work seems to shorten one's lifespan.[2] High rank[3] (a higher position at the pecking order) has a positive effect. Professions that cause anxiety have a direct negative impact on health and lifespan.[4] Some data is more complex to interpret due to the various reasons of long life expectancy; thus skilled professionals, employees with secure jobs and low anxiety occupants may live a long life for variant reasons.[5] The more positive characteristics one's job is, the more likely he or she will have a longer lifespan.[6][7] Gender, country,[8] and actual (what statistics reveal, not what people believe) danger are also notable parameters.[9][10] See also[edit]

Job
Job
analysis Job
Job
interview Job
Job
performance Job
Job
satisfaction Labor economics Unemployment Wage
Wage
labor

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ "FOI Request: List of all the occupations noted in the UK". Office for National Statistics. The Crown. 2015. Retrieved December 6, 2015.  ^ Correspondent, Sarah Womack, Social Affairs (24 October 2007). "Why accountants live longer than builders" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.  ^ https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/studies/mmi-living-longer-working-longer.pdf ^ "The Most Stressful Jobs of 2014". CareerCast.com.  ^ "5 Jobs Proven to Make You Live Longer".  ^ Lees, John (11 November 2014). "Personality test: what job would make you happiest?". the Guardian.  ^ "Whistling While You Work: The 10 Most Satisfying Careers". CareerCast.com.  ^ "How long will YOU live? Startling map reveals dramatic differences in life expectancy across the globe (and why you should move to Monaco)".  ^ "Find out how your gender and job may affect your life expectancy". the Guardian. 21 October 2015.  ^ Veronese, Keith. "Jobs That Kill: What is the deadliest profession?". 

Sources[edit]

Davis, Steven; Haltiwanger, John; Schuh, Scott (1998), Job
Job
Creation and Destruction, MIT Press, ISBN 978-0-262-54093-3  Granovetter, Mark (1995), Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers, University of Chicago Press, ISBN 978-0-226-30581-3  Joshel, Sandra (1992), Work, Identity, and Legal Status at Rome: A Study of the Occupational Inscriptions, University of Oklahoma Press, ISBN 978-0-8061-2444-5  Kranzberg, Melvin; Gies, Joseph (1986), By the Sweat of Thy Brow: Work in the Western World, Greenwood Press, ISBN 978-0-313-25323-2  Miller, Ann Ratner; Treiman, Donald; Cain, Pamela; Roos, Pamela (1980), Work, Jobs, and Occupations: a critical review of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, National Academy Press  Orr, Julian Edgerton (1996), Talking about Machines: An Ethnography of a Modern Job, Cornell University Press, ISBN 978-0-8014-8390-5  Robinson, Tony; Willcock, David (2005), The Worst Jobs in History: Two Thousand Years of Miserable Employment, Pan Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-330-43857-5  Roebuck, Carl (1969), The Muses at Work: arts, crafts, and professions in ancient Greece and Rome, MIT Press  Morse, Nancy; Weiss, Robert (1955). "The Function and Meaning of Work and the Job". American Sociological Review. 20 (2): 191–198. doi:10.2307/2088325. JSTOR 2088325. 

External links[edit] Media related to Jobs at Wikimedia Commons

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Employment

Classifications

Casual Contingent Full-time Part-time Self-employed Skilled Independent contractor Temporary Tenure Unskilled Wage
Wage
labour

Hiring

Application Background check Business
Business
networking Contract Cover letter Curriculum Vitae (CV) Drug testing e-recruitment Employment
Employment
counsellor Executive search Induction programme Job
Job
fair Job
Job
fraud Job
Job
hunting Job
Job
interview Labour brokering Overqualification Onboarding Personality-job fit theory Person-environment fit Probation Reference Résumé Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates Underemployment Work-at-home scheme

Roles

Co-op Employee Employer Internship Job Permanent Permatemp Supervisor Volunteer

Worker class

Blue-collar Gold-collar Green-collar Grey-collar Pink-collar White-collar

Career and training

Apprenticeship Avocation Career assessment Career counseling Career development Coaching Creative class Education

Continuing education Continuing professional development E-learning Employability Further education Graduate school Induction training Initial Professional Development Knowledge worker Licensure Lifelong learning Practice-based professional learning Professional association Professional certification Professional development Professional school Reflective practice Retraining Vocational education Vocational school Vocational university

Mentorship Occupational Outlook Handbook Practice firm Profession Tradesman Vocation

Attendance

Break Career break Furlough Gap year Leave of absence Long service leave No call, no show Sabbatical Sick leave Time clock

Schedules

Four-day week Eight-hour day Flextime Overtime Retroactive overtime Shift work Telecommuting Working time Workweek and weekend

Wages and salaries

Income bracket Income tax Living wage Maximum wage National average salary

World Europe

Minimum wage

Canada Hong Kong Europe United States

Progressive wage

Singapore

Overtime rate Paid time off Performance-related pay Salary Salary
Salary
cap Working poor

Benefits

Annual leave Casual Friday Day care Disability
Disability
insurance Health insurance Life insurance Parental leave Pension Sick leave Take-home vehicle

Safety and health

Epilepsy and employment Human factors and ergonomics Industrial noise Karōshi Protective clothing Occupational burnout Occupational disease Occupational exposure limit Occupational health psychology Occupational injury Occupational stress Repetitive strain injury Sick building syndrome Work accident

Occupational fatality

Workers' compensation Workplace phobia Workplace wellness

Equality

Affirmative action Equal pay for women Gender pay gap Glass ceiling

Infractions

Corporate abuse

Accounting scandals Corporate behaviour Corporate crime Control fraud Corporate scandals

Discrimination Dress code Employee
Employee
handbook Employee
Employee
monitoring Evaluation Labour law Sexual harassment Sleeping while on duty Wage
Wage
theft Whistleblower Workplace bullying Workplace harassment Workplace incivility

Willingness

Boreout Civil conscription Conscription Dead-end job Extreme careerism Job
Job
satisfaction Organizational commitment McJob Refusal of work Slavery

Bonded labour Human trafficking Labour camp Penal labour Peonage Truck system Unfree labour Wage
Wage
slavery

Workaholic Work aversion Work ethic Work–life balance

Downshifting (lifestyle) Slow living

Termination

At-will employment Dismissal

Banishment room Constructive dismissal Wrongful dismissal

Employee
Employee
exit management Exit interview Layoff Notice period Pink slip Resignation

Letter of resignation

Restructuring Retirement

Mandatory retirement Retirement
Retirement
age

Severance package

Golden handshake Golden parachute

Turnover

Unemployment

Barriers to Employment Depression

Great Depression Long Depression

Discouraged worker Frictional unemployment Full employment Graduate unemployment Involuntary unemployment Jobless recovery Phillips curve Recession

Great Recession Great Recession
Recession
job losses List of recessions Recession-proof job

Reserve army of labour Types of unemployment Unemployment
Unemployment
Convention Unemployment
Unemployment
benefits Unemployment
Unemployment
extension Unemployment
Unemployment
insurance Unemployment
Unemployment
rates

Employment
Employment
rates Employment-to-population ratio

Structural unemployment Technological unemployment Wage
Wage
curve Youth unemployment

See also templates

Aspects of corporations Aspects of jobs Aspects of occupations Aspects of organizations Aspects of workplaces Corporate titles Organized labor

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Aspects of jobs

Topics

Analysis Attitude Control Description Description management Embeddedness Enlargement Enrichment Fair Fraud Hunting Interview Lock Performance Rotation Satisfaction Security Shadow Sharing Strain Wrapping

See also

Corporation Employment Factory Job Office Organization Whistleblower

Templates

Aspects of corporations Aspects of occupations Aspects of organizations Aspects of workplaces Employment

Authority control

.