HOME
The Info List - Jewish Holidays



--- Advertisement ---


(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

JEWISH HOLIDAYS, also known as JEWISH FESTIVALS or _YAMIM TOVIM_ (ימים טובים, "Good Days", or singular יום טוב _YOM TOV_, in transliterated Hebrew ), are holidays observed in Judaism and by Jews
Jews
throughout the Hebrew calendarand include religious, cultural and national elements, derived from three sources: Biblical _mitzvot _ ("commandments"); rabbinic mandates ; Jewish history
Jewish history
and the history of the State of Israel
Israel
. Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
occur on the same dates every year in the Hebrew calendar, but the dates vary in the Gregorian . This is because the Hebrew calendaris a lunisolar calendar (_i.e._, based on the cycles of both the sun and moon), whereas the Gregorian is a solar calendar.

CONTENTS

* 1 General concepts

* 1.1 Groupings * 1.2 Terminology used to describe holidays * 1.3 "Work" on Sabbath and biblical holidays * 1.4 Second day of Biblical festivals

* 2 Holidays of biblical and rabbinic (Talmudic) origin

* 2.1 Shabbat—The Sabbath * 2.2 Rosh Chodesh—The New Month

* 2.3 Rosh Hashanah—The Jewish New Year

* 2.3.1 Selichot
Selichot
* 2.3.2 Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
* 2.3.3 Four New Years * 2.3.4 Aseret Yemei Teshuva—Ten Days of Repentance

* 2.4 Tzom Gedalia— Fast of Gedalia * 2.5 Yom
Yom
Kippur—Day of Atonement * 2.6 Sukkot—Feast of Booths (or Tabernacles) * 2.7 Shemini Atzeretand Simchat Torah
Torah
* 2.8 Hanukkah—Festival of Lights * 2.9 Tenth of Tevet * 2.10 Tu Bishvat—New Year of the Trees

* 2.11 Purim—Festival of Lots

* 2.11.1 Purim
Purim
Katan * 2.11.2 Ta\'anit Esther– Fast of Esther * 2.11.3 Purim
Purim
and Shushan Purim
Purim

* 2.12 Pesach— Passover
Passover

* 2.12.1 Month of Nisan
Nisan
* 2.12.2 Eve of Passover
Passover
and Fast of the Firstborn * 2.12.3 Passover
Passover
* 2.12.4 Pesach Sheni

* 2.13 Sefirah— Counting of the Omer

* 2.13.1 Lag Ba\'Omer

* 2.14 Shavuot—Feast of Weeks— Yom
Yom
HaBikurim

* 2.15 Mourning for Jerusalem: Seventeenth of Tammuzand Tisha B\'Av

* 2.15.1 Fast of the Seventeenth of Tammuz * 2.15.2 The Three Weeksand the Nine Days * 2.15.3 Tisha B\'Av—Ninth of Av

* 2.16 Tu B\'Av * 2.17 Other fasts

* 3 Israeli/Jewish national holidays and days of remembrance

* 3.1 Yom
Yom
HaShoah— Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day * 3.2 Yom
Yom
Hazikaron—Memorial Day * 3.3 Yom
Yom
Ha\'atzmaut— Israel
Israel
Independence Day * 3.4 Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim— Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day * 3.5 Yom
Yom
HaAliyah— Aliyah
Aliyah
Day * 3.6 Day to commemorate the expulsion of Jews
Jews
from Arab lands and Iran * 3.7 Ethnic holidays

* 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links

GENERAL CONCEPTS

GROUPINGS

Certain terms are used very commonly for groups of holidays.

* The Hebrew-language term _YOM TOV_ (יום טוב) usually refers to the six Biblically-mandated festival dates on which all activities prohibited on Shabbat
Shabbat
are prohibited, except for some related to food preparation. These include the first and seventh days of Passover
Passover
, Shavuot
Shavuot
, both days of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
, first day of Sukkot
Sukkot
, and Shemini Atzeret. By extension, outside the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
, the second-day holidays known under the rubric _ Yom
Yom
tov sheni shel galuyot _ (literally, "Second _ Yom
Yom
Tov_ of the Diaspora") are also included in this grouping. Colloquially, Yom
Yom
Kippur , a Biblically-mandated date on which even food preparation is prohibited, is often included in this grouping. * The English-language term HIGH HOLY DAYS (or HIGH HOLIDAYS) refers to Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom
Yom
Kippur collectively. Its Hebrew analogue, _YAMIM NORA\\'IM _ (ימים נוראים), "Days of Awe”, is more flexible: it can refer just to those holidays, or to the TEN DAYS OF REPENTANCE , or to the entire penitential period, starting as early as the beginning of Elul, and (more rarely) ending as late as Shemini Atzeret . * The term THREE PILGRIMAGE FESTIVALS (שלוש רגלים, _shalosh regalim_) refers to Passover
Passover
, Shavuot
Shavuot
and Sukkot
Sukkot
. Within this grouping Sukkot
Sukkot
normally includes Shemini Atzeretand Simchat Torah
Torah
.

TERMINOLOGY USED TO DESCRIBE HOLIDAYS

Certain terminology is used in referring to different categories of holidays, depending on their source and their nature:

_SHABBAT _ (שבת) ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
pron. from Yiddish
Yiddish
_shabbos_), or Sabbath, is referred to by that name exclusively. Similarly, _ROSH CHODESH _ (ראש חודש) is referred to by that name exclusively.

* _YOM TOV_ (יום טוב) ( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
pron. from Yid. _YONTIF_) (_lit.,_ "good day"): See "Groupings " above. * _MOED_ (מועד) ("festive season"), plural _MOADIM_ (מועדים), refers to any of the Three Pilgrimage Festivalsof Passover, Shavuot
Shavuot
and Sukkot. When used in comparison to _ Yom
Yom
Tov,_ it refers to Chol HaMoed
Chol HaMoed
, the intermediate days of Passover
Passover
and Sukkot. * _ḤAG_ or _CHAG_ (חג) ("festival"), plural _CHAGIM_ (חגים), can be used whenever _yom tov_ or _moed_ is. It is also used to describe Hanukkah
Hanukkah
and Purim
Purim
, as well as _ Yom
Yom
Ha\'atzmaut _ (Israeli Independence Day) and _ Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim _ ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day). * _TA\'ANIT_ (תענית), or, less commonly, _TZOM_ (צום), refers to a _fast_. These terms are generally used to describe the rabbinic fasts, although _tzom_ is used liturgically to refer to Yom Kippur as well.

"WORK" ON SABBATH AND BIBLICAL HOLIDAYS

Main article: Melacha

The most notable common feature of Shabbat
Shabbat
and the Biblical festivals is the requirement to refrain from _melacha_ on these days. _Melacha_ is most commonly translated as "work"; perhaps a better translation is "creative-constructive work". Strictly speaking, _Melacha_ is defined in Jewish law _(halacha)_ by 39 categories of labor that were used in constructing the Tabernacle
Tabernacle
while the Jews
Jews
wandered in the desert. As understood traditionally and in Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
:

* On Shabbat
Shabbat
and Yom
Yom
Kippur all _melacha_ is prohibited. * On a Yom
Yom
Tov (other than Yom
Yom
Kippur) which falls on a weekday, not Shabbat, most _melacha_ is prohibited. Some _melacha_ related to preparation of food is permitted. * On weekdays during Chol HaMoed, _melacha_ is not prohibited _per se._ However, _melacha_ should be limited to that required either to enhance the enjoyment of the remainder of the festival or to avoid great financial loss. * On other days, there are no restrictions on _melacha._

In principle, Conservative Judaism
Judaism
understands the requirement to refrain from _melacha_ in the same way as Orthodox Judaism. In practice, Conservative rabbis frequently rule on prohibitions around _melacha_ differently from Orthodox authorities. Still, there are a number of Conservative/Masorti communities around the world where Sabbath and Festival observance fairly closely resembles Orthodox observance.

However, many, if not most, lay members of Conservative congregations in North America do not consider themselves Sabbath-observant , even by Conservative standards. At the same time, adherents of Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
do not accept _halacha_, and therefore restrictions on _melacha,_ as binding at all. Jews
Jews
fitting any of these descriptions refrain from _melacha_ in practice only as they personally see fit.

SAVING A LIFE. Shabbat
Shabbat
and holiday work restrictions are always put aside in cases of _pikuach nefesh ,_ which is _saving a human life._ At the most fundamental level, if there is any possibility whatsoever that action must be taken to save a life, Shabbat
Shabbat
restrictions are set aside immediately, and without reservation. Where the danger to life is present but less immediate, there is some preference to minimize violation of Shabbat
Shabbat
work restrictions where possible. The laws in this area are complex.

SECOND DAY OF BIBLICAL FESTIVALS

Main article: Yom
Yom
tov sheni shel galuyot

The Torah
Torah
specifies a single date on the Jewish calendarfor observance of holidays. Nevertheless, festivals of Biblical origin other than Shabbat
Shabbat
and Yom
Yom
Kippur are observed for two days outside of the land of Israel
Israel
, and Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is observed for two days even inside the land of Israel.

Dates for holidays on the Jewish calendarare expressed in the Torah as "day x of month y." Accordingly, the beginning of _month y_ needs to be determined before the proper date of the holiday on _day x_ can be fixed. Months in the Jewish calendarare lunar, and originally could only be proclaimed by the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
based on the testimony of witnesses saying they saw the new crescent moon. The Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
would then have to inform Jewish communities away from its meeting place that it had proclaimed the new moon. The practice of observing a second festival day stemmed from delays in disseminating that information.

* _Rosh Hashanah._ Because of holiday restrictions on travel, messengers could not even leave the seat of the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
until the holiday was over. Inherently, there was no possible way for anyone living away from the seat of the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
to receive news of the proclamation of the new month until messengers arrived _after the fact_. Accordingly, the practice emerged that Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
was observed on both possible days, as calculated from the previous month's start, everywhere in the world. * _Three Pilgrimage Festivals._ Sukkot
Sukkot
and Passover
Passover
fall on the 15th day of their respective months. This gave messengers two weeks to inform communities about the proclamation of the new month. Normally, they would reach most communities within the land of Israel
Israel
within that time, but they might fail to reach communities farther away (such as those in Babylonia or overseas). Consequently, the practice developed that these holidays be observed for one day within Israel, but for two days (both possible days as calculated from the previous month's start) outside of Israel. This practice is known as _yom tov sheni shel galuyot_, "second day of festivals in exile communities".

For Shavuot, calculated as the fiftieth day from Passover, the above issue did not pertain directly, as the "correct" date for Passover
Passover
would be known by then. Nevertheless, the Talmud
Talmud
applies the same rule to Shavuot, and to the Seventh Day of Passover
Passover
and Shemini Atzeret, for consistency.

Yom
Yom
Kippur is not observed for two days anywhere because of the difficulty of maintaining a fast over two days. Shabbat
Shabbat
is not observed based on a calendar date, but simply at intervals of seven days. Accordingly, there is never a doubt of the date of Shabbat, and it need never be observed for two days.

Adherents of Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
generally do not observe the second day of festivals, although some do observe two days of Rosh Hashanah.

HOLIDAYS OF BIBLICAL AND RABBINIC (TALMUDIC) ORIGIN

Theories concerning possible non-Jewish sources for Biblical holidays are beyond the scope of this article. Please see individual holiday articles, particularly Shabbat
Shabbat
(History) .

SHABBAT—THE SABBATH

Shabbat
Shabbat
candles and kiddush cup Main article: Shabbat
Shabbat

Jewish law _(halacha)_ accords SHABBAT (שבת) the status of a holiday, a day of rest celebrated on the seventh day of each week. Jewish law defines a day as ending at either sundown or nightfall, when the next day then begins. Thus,

* SHABBAT BEGINS just before sundown Friday night. Its start is marked by the lighting of Shabbat
Shabbat
candles and the recitation of Kiddush
Kiddush
over a cup of wine ; and * SHABBAT ENDS at nightfall Saturday night. Its conclusion is marked by the prayer known as Havdalah
Havdalah
.

The fundamental rituals and observances of Shabbat
Shabbat
include:

* Reading of the Weekly Torah portion
Weekly Torah portion
* Abbreviation of the Amidahin the three regular daily services to eliminate requests for everyday needs * Addition of a musaf service to the daily prayer services * Enjoyment of three meals, often elaborate or ritualized, through the course of the day * Restraint from performing _melacha_ (see above ).

In many ways _halakha_ (Jewish law) sees _Shabbat_ as the most important holy day in the Jewish calendar.

* It is the first holiday mentioned in the _ Tanakh
Tanakh
_ (Hebrew Bible), and God
God
was the first one to observe it (Genesis ). * The Torah
Torah
reading on _Shabbat_ has more sections of _parshiot_ ( Torah
Torah
readings) than on Yom
Yom
Kippur or any other Jewish holiday. * The prescribed penalty in the Torah
Torah
for transgression of _Shabbat_ prohibitions is death by stoning (Exodus 31), while for other holidays the penalty is (relatively) less severe. * Observance of Shabbat
Shabbat
is the benchmark used in _halacha_ to determine whether an individual is a religiously observant, religiously reliable member of the community.

ROSH CHODESH—THE NEW MONTH

Main article: Rosh Chodesh

ROSH CHODESH (ראש חודש) (lit., "head of the month") is a minor holiday or observance occurring on the first day of each month of the Jewish calendar, as well as the last day of the preceding month if it has thirty days.

* Rosh Chodeshobservance during at least a portion of the period of the prophets could be fairly elaborate. * Over time there have been varying levels of observance of a custom that women are excused from certain types of work. * Fasting is normally prohibited on Rosh Chodesh.

Beyond the preceding, current observance is limited to changes in liturgy . In the month of Tishrei, this observance is superseded by the observance of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
, a major holiday.

_Related observances:_

* The date of the forthcoming Rosh Chodeshis announced in synagogue on the preceding Sabbath. * There are special prayers said upon observing the waxing moon for the first time each month.

ROSH HASHANAH—THE JEWISH NEW YEAR

Selichot

The month of Elulthat precedes Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
is considered to be a propitious time for repentance . For this reason, additional penitential prayers called Selichot
Selichot
are added to the daily prayers, except on Shabbat. Sephardi Jews
Jews
add these prayers each weekday during Elul. Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews
recite them from the last Sunday (or Saturday night) preceding Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
that allows at least four days of recitations.

Rosh Hashanah

Rosh Hashana symbols: shofar , apples and honey , pomegranates , kiddush wine Main article: Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah

* Erev Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
(eve of the first day): 29 Elul * Rosh Hashanah: 1–2 Tishrei
Tishrei

According to oral tradition , ROSH HASHANAH (ראש השנה) (lit., "Head of the Year") is the Day of Memorial or Remembrance (יום הזכרון, _ Yom
Yom
HaZikaron_), and the day of judgment (יום הדין, _ Yom
Yom
HaDin_). God
God
appears in the role of King, remembering and judging each person individually according to his/her deeds, and making a decree for each person for the following year.

The holiday is characterized by one specific mitzvah : blowing the _shofar _. According to the Torah, this is the first day of the seventh month of the calendar year, and marks the beginning of a ten-day period leading up to Yom
Yom
Kippur. According to one of two Talmudic opinions, the creation of the world was completed on Rosh Hashanah.

Morning prayer services are lengthy on Rosh Hashanah, and focus on the themes described above: majesty and judgment, remembrance, the birth of the world, and the blowing of the _shofar_. Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews recite the brief _ Tashlikh
Tashlikh
_ prayer, a symbolic casting off of the previous year's sins, during the afternoon of Rosh Hashanah.

The Bible specifies Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
as a one-day holiday, but it is traditionally celebrated for two days, even within the Land of Israel . (See _Second day of Biblical festivals ,_ above.)

Four New Years

The Torah
Torah
itself does not use any term like "new year" in reference to Rosh Hashanah. The Mishnah
Mishnah
in Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
specifies four different "New Year's Days" for different purposes:

* 1 Tishrei
Tishrei
(conventional "Rosh Hashanah"): "new year" for calculating calendar years, sabbatical-year _(shmita)_ and jubilee cycles, and the age of trees for purposes of Jewish law; and for separating grain tithes . * 15 Shevat( Tu Bishvat): "new year" for trees–_i.e.,_ their current agricultural cycle and related tithes.

* 1 Nisan
Nisan
: "new year" for counting months and major festivals and for calculating the years of the reign of a Jewish king

* In biblical times, the day following 29 Adar, Year 1 of the reign of ___, would be followed by 1 Nisan, Year 2 of the reign of ___. * In modern times, although the Jewish calendaryear number changes on Rosh Hashanah, the months are still numbered from Nisan. * The three pilgrimage festivals are always reckoned as coming in the order Passover-Shavuot-Sukkot. This can have religious law consequences even in modern times.

* 1 Elul( Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
LaBehema ): "new year" for animal tithes.

Aseret Yemei Teshuva—Ten Days Of Repentance

Main article: Ten Days of Repentance

The first ten days of Tishrei
Tishrei
(from the beginning of Rosh Hashana until the end of Yom
Yom
Kippur) are known as the TEN DAYS OF REPENTANCE (עשרת ימי תשובה, _ASERET YEMEI TESHUVA)._ During this time, in anticipation of Yom
Yom
Kippur, it is "exceedingly appropriate" for Jews
Jews
to practice _teshuvah _ (literally "return"), an examination of one's deeds and repentance for sins one has committed against other people and God. This repentance can take the form of additional supplications, confessing one's deeds before God, fasting, self-reflection, and an increase of involvement with, or donations to, charity .

TZOM GEDALIA—FAST OF GEDALIA

Main article: Fast of Gedalia

* Tzom Gedalia: 3 Tishrei

The FAST OF GEDALIA (צום גדליה) is a minor Jewish fast day. It commemorates the assassination of the governor of Judah of that name , which ended any level of Jewish rule following the destruction of the First Temple. The assassination apparently occurred on Rosh Hashanah (1 Tishrei), but the fast is postponed to 3 Tishrei
Tishrei
in respect for the holiday. It is further postponed to 4 Tishrei
Tishrei
if 3 Tishrei
Tishrei
is Shabbat.

As on all minor fast days, fasting from dawn to dusk is required, but other laws of mourning are not normally observed. A Torah
Torah
reading is included in both the _Shacharit_ and _Mincha_ prayers, and a Haftarah is also included at _Mincha_. There are also a number of additions to the liturgy of both services.

YOM KIPPUR—DAY OF ATONEMENT

A man in a tallit blows the shofar Main article: Yom
Yom
Kippur

* Erev Yom
Yom
Kippur: 9 Tishrei * Yom
Yom
Kippur: 10 Tishrei
Tishrei
(begins at sunset)

YOM KIPPUR (יום כיפור) is the holiest day of the year for Jews. Its central theme is atonement and reconciliation. This is accomplished through prayer and complete fasting—including abstinence from all food and drink (including water) —by all healthy adults. Bathing, wearing of perfume or cologne, wearing of leather shoes, and sexual relations are some of the other prohibitions on Yom Kippur—all them designed to ensure one's attention is completely and absolutely focused on the quest for atonement with God. Yom
Yom
Kippur is also unique among holidays as having work-related restrictions identical to those of Shabbat. The fast and other prohibitions commence on 10 Tishrei
Tishrei
at sunset—sunset being the _beginning_ of the day in Jewish tradition.

A traditional prayer in Aramaic called _ Kol Nidre_ ("All Vows") is traditionally recited just before sunset. Although often regarded as the start of the Yom
Yom
Kippur evening service—to such a degree that _Erev Yom
Yom
Kippur_ (" Yom
Yom
Kippur Evening") is often called "Kol Nidre" (also spelled "Kol Nidrei")—it is technically a separate tradition. This is especially so because, being recited before sunset, it is actually recited on 9 Tishrei, which is the day _before_ Yom
Yom
Kippur; it is not recited on Yom
Yom
Kippur itself (on 10 Tishrei, which begins _after_ the sun sets). The words of Kol Nidrediffer slightly between Ashkenazic and Sephardic traditions. In both, the supplicant prays to be released from all personal vows made to God
God
during the year, so that any unfulfilled promises made to God
God
will be annulled and, thus, forgiven. In Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
tradition, the reference is to the coming year; in Sephardic tradition, the reference is to the year just ended. Only vows between the supplicant and God
God
are relevant. Vows made between the supplicant and other people remain perfectly valid, since they are unaffected by the prayer.

A _ Tallit
Tallit
_ (four-cornered prayer shawl) is donned for evening and afternoon prayers–the only day of the year in which this is done. In traditional Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
communities, men wear the _kittel _ throughout the day's prayers. The prayers on Yom
Yom
Kippur evening are lengthier than on any other night of the year. Once services reconvene in the morning, the services (in all traditions) are the longest of the year. In some traditional synagogues prayers run continuously from morning until nightfall, or nearly so. Two highlights of the morning prayers in traditional synagogues are the recitation of _ Yizkor,_ the prayer of remembrance, and of liturgical poems _(piyyutim )_ describing the temple service of Yom
Yom
Kippur .

Two other highlights happen late in the day. During the _ Minchah_ prayer, the haftarah reading features the entire Book of Jonah
Book of Jonah
. Finally, the day concludes with _Ne\'ilah ,_ a special service recited only on the day of Yom
Yom
Kippur. Ne'ilahdeals with the closing of the holiday, and contains a fervent final plea to God
God
for forgiveness just before the conclusion of the fast. Yom
Yom
Kippur comes to an end with the blowing of the _shofar _, which marks the conclusion of the fast. It is always observed as a one-day holiday, both inside and outside the boundaries of the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
.

Yom
Yom
Kippur is considered, along with 15th of Av, as the happiest days of the year ( Talmud
Talmud
Bavli—Tractate Ta'anit).

SUKKOT—FEAST OF BOOTHS (OR TABERNACLES)

_ A sukkah booth Main article: Sukkot
Sukkot

* Erev Sukkot: 14 Tishrei * Sukkot: 15–21 Tishrei
Tishrei
(22 outside Israel) * The first day of Sukkot
Sukkot
is (outside of Israel, first two days are) full_ yom tov , _while the remainder of Sukkot
Sukkot
has the status of Chol Hamoed , "intermediate days"._

SUKKOT (סוכות OR סֻכּוֹת, _SUKKōT_) or _Succoth_ is a seven-day festival , also known as the Feast of Booths, the Feast of Tabernacles, or just Tabernacles. It is one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals (_shalosh regalim_) mentioned in the Bible. Sukkot commemorates the years that the Jews
Jews
spent in the desert on their way to the Promised Land, and celebrates the way in which God
God
protected them under difficult desert conditions. The word _sukkot_ is the plural of the Hebrew word _sukkah_, meaning booth. Jews
Jews
are commanded to "dwell" in booths during the holiday. This generally means taking meals, but some sleep in the _sukkah_ as well, particularly in Israel. There are specific rules for constructing a _sukkah_.

Along with dwelling in a _sukkah,_ the principal ritual unique to this holiday is use of the Four Species
Four Species
(_lulav_ (palm) , _hadass_ (myrtle) , _aravah_ (willow) and _etrog_ (citron) . On each day of the holiday other than Shabbat, these are waved in association with the recitation of Hallelin the synagogue, then walked in a procession around the synagogue called the _Hoshanot_ .

The seventh day of the Sukkot
Sukkot
is called Hoshanah Rabbah, the "Great _Hoshanah"_ (singular of _Hoshanot_ and the source of the English word hosanna ). The climax of the day's prayers includes seven processions of _Hoshanot_ around the synagogue. This tradition mimics practices from the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
. Many aspects of the day's customs also resemble those of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
and Yom
Yom
Kippur. Hoshanah Rabbahis traditionally taken to be the day of the "delivery" of the final judgment of Yom
Yom
Kippur, and offers a last opportunity for pleas of repentance before the holiday season closes.

Outside of Israel, meals are still taken in the Sukkah
Sukkah
on the eighth day, Shemini Atzeret, a holiday in its own right. (See following section.)

SHEMINI ATZERET AND SIMCHAT TORAH

Dancing with the Torah
Torah
Main articles: Shemini Atzeretand Simchat Torah
Torah

* Shemini Atzeret: 22 Tishrei
Tishrei
(combined with Simchat Torah
Torah
in Israel) * Simchat Torah
Torah
outside Israel: 23 Tishrei

The holiday of SHEMINI ATZERET (שמיני עצרת) immediately follows the conclusion of the holiday of Sukkot
Sukkot
. The Hebrew word _shemini_ means "eighth”, and refers to its position on "the eighth day" of Sukkot, actually a seven-day holiday. This name reflects the fact that while in many respects Shemini Atzeretis a separate holiday in its own right, in certain respects its celebration is linked to that of Sukkot
Sukkot
.

The main notable custom of this holiday is the celebration of SIMCHAT TORAH (שמחת תורה), meaning "rejoicing with the Torah
Torah
". This name originally referred to a special "ceremony": the last weekly Torah
Torah
portion is read from Deuteronomy, completing the annual cycle, and is followed immediately by the reading of the first chapter of Genesis , beginning the new annual cycle. Services are especially joyous, and all attendees, young and old, are involved.

This ceremony so dominates the holiday that in Israel, where the holiday is one day long, the whole holiday is often referred to as _Simchat Torah_. Outside Israel, the holiday is two days long; the name _Shemini Atzeret_ is used for the first day, while the second is normally called _Simchat Torah_.

HANUKKAH—FESTIVAL OF LIGHTS

Main article: Hanukkah
Hanukkah
Hanukkiah

* Erev Hanukkah: 24 Kislev * Hanukkah: 25 Kislev–2 or 3 Tevet

The story of HANUKKAH (חנוכה) is preserved in the books of the First and Second Maccabees . These books are not part of the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), they are apocryphal books instead. The miracle of the one-day supply of olive oil miraculously lasting eight days is first described in the Talmud
Talmud
( Shabbat
Shabbat
21b) , written about 600 years after the events described in the books of Maccabees.

Hanukkah
Hanukkah
marks the defeat of Seleucid Empire
Seleucid Empire
forces that had tried to prevent the people of Israel
Israel
from practicing Judaism. Judah Maccabee and his brothers destroyed overwhelming forces, and rededicated the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
. The eight-day festival is marked by the kindling of lights—one on the first night, two on the second, and so on—using a special candle holder called a _ Hanukkiah_, or a _ Hanukkah
Hanukkah
menorah._

Religiously, Hanukkah
Hanukkah
is a minor holiday. Except on Shabbat, restrictions on work do not apply. Aside from the kindling of lights, formal religious observance is restricted to changes in liturgy . Hanukkah
Hanukkah
celebration tends to be informal and based on custom rather than law. Three widely practiced customs include:

* Consumption of foods prepared in oil , such as potato pancakes or jelly doughnuts , commemorating the miracle of oil * Playing the game of dreidel (called a _sevivon_ in Hebrew), symbolizing Jews' disguising of illegal Torah
Torah
study sessions as gambling meetings during the period leading to the Maccabees' revolt * Giving children money, especially coins, called Hanukkah
Hanukkah
gelt . However, the custom of giving presents is of far more recent, North American, origin, and is connected to the gift economy prevalent around North American Christmas
Christmas
celebrations.

TENTH OF TEVET

Main article: Tenth of Tevet

* Asarah B'Tevet: 10 Tevet

The TENTH OF TEVET (עשרה בטבת, _ASARAH B\'TEVET_) is a minor fast day, marking the beginning of the siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as outlined in 2 Kings
2 Kings
25:1 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about.

This fast's commemoration also includes other events occurring on 8, 9 and 10 Tevet.

This fast is observed like other minor fasts (see Tzom Gedalia
Gedalia
, above). This is the only minor fast that can fall on a Friday under the current fixed Jewish calendar.

TU BISHVAT—NEW YEAR OF THE TREES

Nuts and dried fruits, traditionally eaten on Tu Bishvat Main article: Tu Bishvat

* Tu Bishvat: 15 Shevat

TU BISHVAT (ט"ו בשבט) (lit., "fifteenth of Shevat”, as ט״ו is the number "15" in Hebrew letters), is the new year for trees. It is also known as חג האילנות (_Ḥag ha-Ilanot,_ Festival of Trees), or ראש השנה לאילנות (_Rosh ha-Shanah la-Ilanot,_ New Year for Trees). According to the Mishnah
Mishnah
, it marks the day from which fruit tithes are counted each year. Starting on this date, the Biblical prohibition on eating the first three years of fruit (_orlah _) and the requirement to bring the fourth year fruit _(neta revai)_ to the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
were counted.

During the 17th century, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yitzchak Luriaof Safed
Safed
and his disciples created a short seder, called _Hemdat ha‑Yamim,_ reminiscent of the seder that Jews
Jews
observe on Passover
Passover
, that explores the holiday's Kabbalistic themes. This Tu Bishvatseder has witnessed a revival in recent years. More generally, Tu Bishvatis celebrated in modern times by eating various fruits and nuts associated with the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
.

Traditionally, trees are planted on this day. Many children collect funds leading up to this day to plant trees in Israel. Trees are usually planted locally as well.

PURIM—FESTIVAL OF LOTS

* Fast of Esther: normally 13 Adar
Adar
* Purim: 14 Adar * ShushanPurim: 15 Adar * _In leap years on the Hebrew calendar, the above dates are observed in the Second Adar_ ( Adar
Adar
Sheni). _The 14th and 15th of First Adar_ ( Adar
Adar
Rishon) _are known as_ Purim
Purim
Katan

Purim
Purim
Katan

PURIM KATAN (פורים קטן) (lit., "small Purim") is observed on the 14th and 15th of First Adar
Adar
in leap years. These days are marked by a small increase in festivity, including a prohibition on fasting, and slight changes in the liturgy.

Ta\'anit Esther–Fast Of Esther

The opening chapter of a hand-written scroll of the Book of Esther, with reader's pointer Mishloah manot Main article: Fast of Esther

TA\'ANIT ESTHER (תענית אסתר), or "Fast of Esther", is named in honor of the fast of Esther
Esther
and her court as Esther
Esther
prepared to approach the king unbidden to invite him and Haman to a banquet. It commemorates that fast, as well as one alluded to later in the Book of Esther
Esther
, undertaken as the Jews
Jews
prepared to battle their enemies.

This fast is observed like other minor fasts (see Tzom Gedalia
Gedalia
, above). While normally observed on 13 Adar, the eve of Purim, this fast is advanced to Thursday, 11 Adar, when 13 Adar
Adar
falls on Shabbat.

Purim
Purim
And ShushanPurim

Main article: Purim
Purim

PURIM (פורים) commemorates the events that took place in the Book of Esther
Esther
. The principal celebrations or commemorations include:

* THE READING OF THE _MEGILLAH_ . Traditionally, this is read from a scroll twice during Purim–once in the evening and again in the morning. Ashkenazim have a custom of making disparaging noises at every mention of Haman 's name during the reading. * THE GIVING OF _MISHLOAKH MANOT_ , gifts of food and drink to friends and neighbors. * THE GIVING OF _MATANOT LA\\'EVYONIM_ , gifts to the poor and the needy. * THE PURIM MEAL (_Se'udat Purim_ or _ Purim
Purim
Se'udah_). This meal is traditionally accompanied by consumption of alcohol, often heavy, although Jewish sages have warned about the need to adhere to all religious laws even in a drunken state.

Several customs have evolved from these principal commemorations. One widespread custom to act out the story of Purim. The Purim
Purim
spiel , or Purim
Purim
play, has its origins in this, although the _ Purim
Purim
spiel_ is not limited to that subject. Wearing of costumes and masks is also very common. These may be an outgrowth of Purim
Purim
plays, but there are several theories as to the origin of the custom, most related in some way to the "hidden" nature of the miracles of Purim.

Purim
Purim
carnivals of various types have also become customary. In Israel
Israel
there are festive parades, known as _Ad-D'lo-Yada_, in the town's main street. The largest and most renowned is in Holon
Holon
.

Most Jews
Jews
celebrate Purim
Purim
on 14 Adar, the day of celebration after the Jews
Jews
defeated their enemies. Because Jews
Jews
in the capital city of Shushanfought with their enemies an extra day, Purim
Purim
is celebrated a day later there, on the day known as שושן פורים, SHUSHAN PURIM . This observance was expanded to "walled cities", which are defined as cities "walled since the time of Joshua
Joshua
". In practice, there are no Jews
Jews
living in Shushan( Shush, Iran), and ShushanPurim is observed fully only in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Cities like Safed
Safed
and Tiberias also partially observe ShushanPurim. Elsewhere, Shushan Purim
Purim
is marked only by a small increase in festivity, including a prohibition on fasting, and slight changes in the liturgy.

PESACH—PASSOVER

* Erev Pesach and Fast of the Firstborn, (" Ta'anitBechorot"): 14 Nisan
Nisan
* Pesach ( Passover
Passover
): 15–21 Nisan
Nisan
(outside Israel
Israel
15–22 Nisan) * _The first day and last day of Passover
Passover
(outside of Israel, first two and last two days) are full_ yom tov _, while the remainder of Passover
Passover
has the status of Chol Hamoed
Chol Hamoed
, "intermediate days"._ * Pesach Sheni(second Passover): 14 Iyar
Iyar

Month Of Nisan

As a rule, the month of Nisan
Nisan
is considered to be one of extra joy. Traditionally, throughout the entire month, Tahanunis omitted from the prayer service, many public mourning practices (such as delivering a eulogy at a funeral) are eliminated, and voluntary fasting is prohibited. However, practices sometimes vary.

Eve Of Passover
Passover
And Fast Of The Firstborn

Traditional arrangement of symbolic foods on a Passover
Passover
Seder Plate Table set for Passover
Passover
seder

The day before Passover
Passover
(_EREV PESACH,_ lit., " Passover
Passover
eve") is significant for three reasons:

* It is the day that all of the involved preparations for Passover, especially elimination of leavened food, or _chametz_ , must be completed. In particular, a formal search for remaining _chametz _ is done during the evening of Erev Pesach, and all remaining _chametz_ is finally destroyed, disposed of or nullified during the morning of Erev Pesach. * It is the day observed as the FAST OF THE FIRSTBORN (תענית בכורות). Jews
Jews
who are firstborn fast, in remembrance of the tenth plague , when God
God
killed the Egyptian firstborn, while sparing the Jewish firstborn. This fast is overridden by a _seudat mitzvah _, a meal celebrating the fulfillment of a commandment; accordingly, it is almost universal for firstborn Jews
Jews
to attend such a meal on this day so as to obviate their need to fast. * During the era of the Temple in Jerusalem, the _ Korban Pesach_, or sacrifice of the Paschal Lamb, was carried out the afternoon of 14 Nisan
Nisan
in anticipation of its consumption on Passover
Passover
night.

When Passover
Passover
starts on Sunday, and the eve of Passover
Passover
is therefore Shabbat, the above schedule is altered. See Eve of Passover
Passover
on Shabbat for details.

Passover

Main article: Passover
Passover

PASSOVER (פּסח) _("PESACH"),_ also known liturgically as חג המצות _("Ḥag haMatzot"_, the "Festival of Unleavened Bread"), is one of the Three Pilgrimage Festivals(_shalosh regalim_) mentioned in the Bible. Passover
Passover
commemorates the liberation of the Israelite slaves from Egypt
Egypt
. No _chametz _ (leavened food) is eaten, or even owned, during the week of Passover, in commemoration of the fact that the Israelites left Egypt
Egypt
so quickly that their bread did not have enough time to rise. Observant Jews
Jews
go to great lengths to remove all _chametz_ from their homes and offices in the run-up to Passover.

Along with the avoidance of _chametz_, the principal ritual unique to this holiday is the seder . The _seder_, meaning "order", is an ordered ritual meal eaten on the first night of Passover, and outside Israel
Israel
also on the second night . This meal is known for its distinctive ritual foods—matzo (unleavened bread), maror (bitter herbs), and four cups of wine —as well as its prayer text/handbook/study guide, the Haggadah
Haggadah
. Participation in a Passover seder is one of the most widely observed of Jewish rituals, even among less affiliated or less observant Jews.

Passover
Passover
lasts seven days in Israel
Israel
(as per Ex. 12:15), and eight days outside of Israel. The holiday of the last day of Passover (outside Israel, last two days ) commemorates the Splitting of the Red Sea ; according to tradition this occurred on the seventh day of Passover
Passover
.

Pesach Sheni

Main article: Pesach Sheni

PESACH SHENI (פסח שני) ("Second Passover") is a day prescribed in the Torah
Torah
to allow those who did not bring the Paschal Lamb offering _( Korban
Korban
Pesach)_ a second chance to do so. Eligibility was limited to those who were distant from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on Passover, or those who were ritually impure and ineligible to participate in a sacrificial offering. Today, some have the custom to eat matzo on Pesach Sheni, and some make a small change to the liturgy.

SEFIRAH—COUNTING OF THE OMER

Main article: Counting of the Omer

* _Sefirat HaOmer_ (Counting of the Omer): 16 Nisan–5 Sivan
Sivan

SEFIRAH (lit. "Counting"; more fully, _Sefirat HaOmer,_ "Counting of the Omer") (ספירת העומר), is the 49-day period between the Biblical pilgrimage festivals of Passover
Passover
and Shavuot. The Torah states that this period is to be counted, both in days and in weeks. The first day of this period is the day of the first grain offering of the new year's crop, an omer of barley . The day following the 49th day of the period is the festival of Shavuot; the Torah
Torah
specifies a grain offering of wheat on that day.

Symbolically, this period has come to represent the spiritual development of the Israelites from slaves in the polytheistic society of Ancient Egypt
Egypt
to free, monotheistic people worthy of the revelation of the Torah, traditionally said to have occurred on Shavuot
Shavuot
. Spiritual development remains a key rabbinic teaching of this period.

Sefirah has long been observed as a period of semi-mourning. The customary explanation cites a plague that killed 24,000 students of Rabbi Akiva
Rabbi Akiva
(BT _ Yevamot_ 62b). In broad terms, the mourning practices observed include limiting actual celebrations (such as weddings), not listening to music, not wearing new clothing, and not shaving or taking a haircut. There is a wide variety of practice as to the specifics of this observance. See Counting of the Omer (Semi-mourning) . Lag Ba\'Omer bonfire

Lag Ba\'Omer

Main article: Lag Ba\'Omer

* Lag Ba'Omer: 18 Iyar
Iyar

LAG BA\'OMER (ל"ג בעומר) is the 33rd day in the Omer count (ל"ג is the number 33 in Hebrew). By Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
practice, the semi-mourning observed during the period of Sefirah (see above) is lifted _on_ Lag Ba'Omer, while Sefardi practice is to lift it _at the end of_ Lag Ba'Omer. Minor liturgical changes are made on Lag Ba'omer; because mourning practices are suspended, weddings are often conducted on this day.

Lag Ba'Omeris identified as the _ Yom
Yom
Hillula (yahrzeit )_ of Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai , one of the leading _ Tannaim_ (teachers quoted in the Mishna) and ascribed author of the core text of Kabbalah
Kabbalah
, the Zohar
Zohar
. Customary celebrations include bonfires, picnics , and bow and arrow play by children. Boys sometimes receive their first haircuts on Lag Ba'Omer, while Hasidic rebbes hold _tishes _ in honor of the day.

In Israel, Lag Ba'Omeris associated with the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire. In Zionist thought, the plague that decimated Rabbi
Rabbi
Akiva's 24,000 disciples is explained as a veiled reference to the revolt; the 33rd day representing the end of the plague is explained as the day of Bar Kokhba's victory. The traditional bonfires and bow-and-arrow play were thus reinterpreted as celebrations of military victory. In this vein, the order originally creating the Israeli Defense Forceswas issued on Lag Ba'Omer1948, 13 days after Israel
Israel
declared independence.

SHAVUOT—FEAST OF WEEKS—YOM HABIKURIM

Cheese blintzes , a traditional food on Shavuot
Shavuot
Main article: Shavuot
Shavuot

* Erev Shavuot: 5 Sivan
Sivan
* Shavuot
Shavuot
: 6 (and outside Israel: 7) Sivan

SHAVUOT (שבועות), the Feast of Weeks, is one of the three pilgrimage festivals (_Shalosh regalim_) ordained in the Torah
Torah
. Different from other Biblical holidays, the date for Shavuot
Shavuot
is not explicitly fixed in the Torah. Instead, it is observed on the day following the 49th and final day in the counting of the Omer . In the current era of the fixed Jewish calendar, this puts the date of Shavuot
Shavuot
as 6 Sivan. In Israel
Israel
and in Reform Judaism, it is a one-day holiday; elsewhere, it is a two-day holiday extending through 7 Sivan.

According to Rabbinic tradition, codified in the Talmud
Talmud
at Shabbat 87b , the Ten Commandments
Ten Commandments
were given on this day. In the era of the Temple, there were certain specific offerings mandated for Shavuot, and Shavuot
Shavuot
was the first day for bringing of Bikkurim to the Temple. Other than those, there are no explicit _mitzvot_ unique to Shavuot given in the Torah
Torah
(parallel to matzo on Passover
Passover
or Sukkah
Sukkah
on Sukkot).

Nevertheless, there are a number of widespread customs observed on Shavuot. During this holiday the Torah
Torah
portion containing the Ten Commandments is read in the synagogue, and the biblical Book of Ruth is read as well. It is traditional to eat dairy meals during Shavuot. In observant circles, all night Torah
Torah
study is common on the first night of Shavuot, while in Reform Judaism, Shavuot
Shavuot
is the customary date for Confirmation ceremonies .

MOURNING FOR JERUSALEM: SEVENTEENTH OF TAMMUZ AND TISHA B\'AV

The three-week period starting on 17 Tammuz and concluding after Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
has traditionally been observed as a period of mourning for the destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Holy Templethere.

Fast Of The Seventeenth Of Tammuz

Main article: Seventeenth of Tammuz

* Shiva
Shiva
Asar B'Tammuz: 17 Tammuz

The SEVENTEENTH OF TAMUZ (שבעה עשר בתמוז, _SHIVA ASAR B\'TAMUZ_) traditionally marks the first breach in the walls of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the Roman conquest in 70 CE, at the end of the Second Temple period. According to tradition, this day has had negative connotations since Moses
Moses
broke the first set of tablets on this day. The Mishnah
Mishnah
cites five negative events that happened on 17 Tammuz.

This fast is observed like other minor fasts (see Tzom Gedalia
Gedalia
, above). When this fast falls out on Shabbat, its observance is postponed until Sunday.

The Three WeeksAnd The Nine Days

Main articles: The Three Weeksand The Nine Days

* The Three Weeks: 17 Tammuz – 9 Av * The Nine Days: 1–9 Av * The Week of Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
(beginning at the conclusion of Shabbat preceding Tisha B'Av)

The period between the fasts of 17 Tammuz and 9 Av, known as the "Three Weeks" (Hebrew: בין המצרים, "between the straits" ), features a steadily increasing level of mourning practices as Tisha B'Av approaches. Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews
refrain from conducting weddings and other joyful events throughout the period unless the date is established by Jewish law (as for a bris or _pidyon haben )._ They do not cut their hair during this period. Starting on the first of Av and throughout the nine days between the 1st and 9th days of Av, Ashkenazim traditionally refrain from eating meat and drinking wine , except on Shabbat
Shabbat
or at a _Seudat Mitzvah_ (a Mitzvah
Mitzvah
meal, such as for a bris or _siyum _). They also refrain from bathing for pleasure. Sefardic practice varies some from this; the less severe restrictions usually begin on 1 Av, while the more severe restrictions apply during the week of Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
itself.

Subject to the variations described above, Orthodox Judaism
Judaism
continues to maintain the traditional prohibitions. In Conservative Judaism
Judaism
, the Rabbinical Assembly's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards has issued several responsa (legal rulings) which hold that the prohibitions against weddings in this timeframe are deeply held traditions, but should not be construed as binding law. Thus, Conservative Jewish practice would allow weddings during this time, except on the 17th of Tammuz and 9th of Av themselves. Rabbis within Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
hold that halakha (Jewish law) is no longer binding and follow their individual consciences on such matters. Nevertheless, the rabbinical manual of the Reform movement encourages Reform rabbis not to conduct weddings on Tisha B'Av itself "out of historical consciousness and respect" for the Jewish community.

Tisha B\'Av—Ninth Of Av

Worshipers seated on the floor of the synagogue before the reading of Lamentations on Tisha B\'Av Main article: Tisha B\'Av

* Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
: 9 Av

TISHA B\'AV (תשעה באב) is a major fast day and day of mourning. A Midrashic tradition states that the spies' negative report concerning the Land of Israel
Land of Israel
was delivered on Tisha B'Av. Consequently, the day became auspicious for negative events in Jewish history. Most notably, both the First Temple
First Temple
, originally built by King Solomon
Solomon
, and the Second Temple
Second Temple
of Roman times were destroyed on Tisha B'Av. Other calamities throughout Jewish history
Jewish history
are said to have taken place on Tisha B'Av, including King Edward I 's edict compelling the Jews
Jews
to leave England (1290) and the Jewish expulsion from Spain in 1492.

Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
is a major fast. It is a 25-hour fast, running from sundown to nightfall. As on Yom
Yom
Kippur, not only are eating and drinking prohibited, but also bathing, anointing, marital relations and the wearing of leather shoes. Work is not prohibited, as on Biblical holidays, but is discouraged. In the evening, the Book of Lamentations is read in the synagogue, while in the morning lengthy _kinot ,_ poems of elegy, are recited. From evening until noon mourning rituals resembling those of shiva are observed, including sitting on low stools or the floor; after noon those restrictions are somewhat lightened, in keeping with the tradition that Messiah will be born on Tisha B'Av.

While the fast ends at nightfall of 9-10 Av, the restrictions of the Three Weeks and Nine Days continue through noon on 10 Av because the Second Temple
Second Temple
continued to burn through most of that day. When 9 Av falls on Shabbat, when fasting is prohibited, the fast is postponed until 10 Av. In that case, the restrictions of the Three Weeks and Nine Days end with the fast, except for the prohibition against eating meat and drinking wine, which extend until the morning of 10 Av.

TU B\'AV

Main article: Tu B\'Av

* Tu B'Av: 15 Av

TU B\'AV (ט״ו באב), lit. "15th of Av", is a day mentioned in the Talmud
Talmud
alongside Yom
Yom
Kippur as "happiest of the year". It was a day celebrating the bringing of wood used for the Temple Service, as well as a day when marriages were arranged. Today, it is marked by a small change in liturgy. In modern Israel, the day has become somewhat of an analog to Valentine\'s Day .

OTHER FASTS

Main article: Ta\'anit

Several other fast days of ancient or medieval origin continue to be observed to some degree in modern times. Such continued observance is usually by Orthodox Jews
Jews
only, and is not universal today even among Orthodox Jews.

* FASTS FOR DROUGHTS AND OTHER PUBLIC TROUBLES. Much of the Talmudic tractate _Ta\'anit_ is devoted to the proclamation and execution of public fasts. The most detailed description refers to fasts in times of drought in the Land of Israel. Apparently these fasts included a _Ne\'ilah _ (closing) prayer, a prayer now reserved for recitation on Yom
Yom
Kippur only.

While the specific fasts described in the Mishnah
Mishnah
fell into disuse once Jews
Jews
were exiled from the land of Israel, various Jewish communities have declared fasts over the years, using these as a model. Two examples include a fast among Polish Jews
Jews
commemorating the massacre of Jews
Jews
during the Khmelnytsky Uprising and one among Russian Jews
Jews
during anti-Jewish pogroms of the 1880\'s . Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel has urged fasting in times of drought.

* BEHAB (בה"ב). The fasts of _bet-hey-bet_—Monday-Thursday-Monday—were established as a vehicle for atonement from possible excesses during the extended holiday periods of Passover
Passover
and Sukkot. They are proclaimed on the first Shabbat
Shabbat
of the month of Iyar
Iyar
following Passover, and Marcheshvan following Sukkot. Based on the model of Mishnah
Mishnah
_Ta'anit_, they are then observed on the Monday, Thursday and Monday following that Shabbat. * YOM KIPPUR KATAN ("little Yom
Yom
Kippur"). These fasts originated in the sixteenth-century Kabbalistic community of Safed
Safed
. They are conceptually linked to the sin-offerings that were brought to the Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
on each Rosh Chodesh. These fasts are observed on the day before Rosh Chodeshin most months.

ISRAELI/JEWISH NATIONAL HOLIDAYS AND DAYS OF REMEMBRANCE

Main article: Public holidays in Israel
Israel

As a general rule, the Biblical Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
(Sabbath, Rosh Hashanah, Yom
Yom
Kippur, Passover, Shavuot, Sukkot
Sukkot
and Purim) are observed as public holidays in Israel. Chanukah is a school holiday, but businesses remain open. On Tisha B'Av, restaurants and places of entertainment are closed. Other Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
listed above are observed in varying ways and to varying degrees.

Between the creation of the State of Israel
Israel
in 1948 and the aftermath of the Six Day War
Six Day War
, the Knesset
Knesset
, generally in consultation with the Chief Rabbinate of Israel
Israel
, established four national holidays or days of remembrance:

* _ Yom
Yom
HaShoah:_ Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day * _ Yom
Yom
Hazikaron:_ Memorial Day * _ Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut:_ Israel
Israel
Independence Day * _ Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim:_ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day

The status of these days as _religious_ events is not uniform within the Jewish world. Non-Orthodox, Religious Zionistand Modern Orthodox Jewish religious movements accept these days as _religious_ as well as _national_ in nature.

As a rule, these four days are not accepted as religious observances by most Haredi Jews
Jews
, including Hasidim. Some _ḥaredim_ are opposed to the existence of the State of Israel
Israel
altogether on religious grounds; others simply feel that there are not sufficient grounds under Jewish law to justify the establishment of new religious holidays. For details, see Haredim and Zionism
Haredim and Zionism
.

Observance of these days in Jewish communities outside Israel
Israel
is typically more muted than their observance in Israel. Events held in government and public venues within Israel
Israel
are often held in Jewish communal settings (synagogues and community centers) abroad.

More recently, the Knesset
Knesset
established two additional holidays:

* _ Yom
Yom
HaAliyah_: Aliyah
Aliyah
Day * A day to commemorate the expulsion of Jews
Jews
from Arab lands and Iran

Finally, the Israeli government also recognizes several ethnic Jewish observances with holiday status.

YOM HASHOAH—HOLOCAUST REMEMBRANCE DAY

A lit Yom
Yom
HaShoah Yellow Candle

* Yom
Yom
HaShoah : (nominally) 27 Nisan
Nisan

YOM HASHOAH (lit. " Holocaust
Holocaust
Day") is a day of remembrance for victims of the Holocaust
Holocaust
. Its full name is _ Yom
Yom
Hazikaron LaShoah v'LiGevurah_ (lit. " Holocaust
Holocaust
and Heroism Remembrance Day") (יום הזכרון לשואה ולגבורה), and reflects a desire to recognize martyrs who died in active resistance to the Nazis alongside those who died as passive victims. Its date, 27 Nisan, was chosen because it commemorates the Warsaw Ghetto uprising, the best known of the armed Jewish uprisings.

Places of public entertainment are closed throughout Israel
Israel
in recognition of the day. Public commemoration of Yom
Yom
HaShoah usually includes religious elements such as the recitation of Psalms
Psalms
, memorial prayers, and kaddish , and the lighting of memorial candles . In Israel
Israel
, the most notable observances are the State memorial ceremony at Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
and the sirens marking off a two-minute silence at 10:00 am. Religious Zionistand Modern Orthodox Jews
Jews
generally participate in such public observances along with secular Jews
Jews
and Jews
Jews
who adhere to more liberal religious movements. Outside Israel
Israel
, Jewish communities observe Yom
Yom
HaShoah in addition to or instead of their countries' Holocaust
Holocaust
Memorial Days . Probably the most notable commemoration is the March of the Living
March of the Living
, held at the site of Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz-Birkenau
, attended by Jews
Jews
from all parts of the world.

Outside Orthodoxy, a liturgy for Yom
Yom
HaShoah is beginning to develop. The Conservative, Reform and Reconstructionist prayer books all include liturgical elements for Yom
Yom
HaShoah , to be added to the regular weekday prayers. Conservative Judaism
Judaism
has written a scroll, called _Megillat HaShoah ,_ intended to become a definitive liturgical reading for Yom
Yom
HaShoah. The Orthodox world–even the segment that participates publicly in Yom
Yom
HaShoah–has been reluctant to write a liturgy for the day, preferring to compose _ Kinnot_ (prayers of lamentation) for recitation on Tisha B\'Av .

In order to ensure that public Yom
Yom
HaShoah ceremonies in Israel
Israel
do not violate Shabbat
Shabbat
prohibitions, the date for Yom
Yom
HaShoah varies as follows:

* If 27 Nisan
Nisan
occurs on a Friday, the observance of Yom
Yom
HaShoah is advanced to the previous day (Thursday, 26 Nisan). * If 27 Nisan
Nisan
occurs on a Sunday, the observance of Yom
Yom
HaShoah is delayed to the following day (Monday, 28 Nisan).

YOM HAZIKARON—MEMORIAL DAY

A moment of silence as the siren is sounded in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
, Yom Hazikaron 2007

* Yom
Yom
Hazikaron : (nominally) 4 Iyar
Iyar

YOM HAZIKARON (lit. "Memorial Day") is a day of remembrance of the fallen of Israel's wars. During the first years of Israel's independence, this remembrance was observed on Yom
Yom
Ha\'atzmaut (Independence Day) itself. However, by 1951, the memorial observance was separated from the festive celebration of Independence Day and moved to its current date, the day before Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut. Since 2000, the scope of the memorial has expanded to include civilians slain by acts of hostile terrorism . Its full name is now יום הזכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ולנפגעי פעולות האיבה ("Day of Remembrance for the Fallen of the Battles of Israel
Israel
and the Victoms of Terror").

Places of public entertainment are closed throughout Israel
Israel
in recognition of the day. Many schools, businesses and other institutions conduct memorial services on this day, and it is customary to visit the graves of fallen soldiers and to recite memorial prayers there. The principal public observances are the evening opening ceremony at the Western Wall
Western Wall
and the morning services of remembrance at military cemeteries throughout the country, each opened by the sounding of sirens. The public observances conclude with the service at the military cemetery on Mount Herzlthat serves as the transition to Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut.

Outside Israel, Yom
Yom
HaZikaron observances are often folded into Yom Ha'atzmaut celebrations. Within Israel, Yom
Yom
Hazikaron is always the day before Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut, but that date moves to prevent violation of Sabbath prohibitions during the ceremonies of either day. See following section for details.

YOM HA\'ATZMAUT—ISRAEL INDEPENDENCE DAY

The final round of the International Bible Contest(here in 1985) is held on Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day celebrations

* Yom
Yom
Ha\'atzmaut : (nominally) 5 Iyar

YOM HA\'ATZMAUT (יום העצמאות) is Israel's Independence Day . Observance of this day by Jews
Jews
inside and outside of Israel
Israel
is widespread, and varies in tone from secular (military parades and barbecues) to religious (recitation of Halleland new liturgies).

Although Israel's independence was declared on a Friday, the Chief Rabbinate has long been mindful of the possibility of Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut (and Yom
Yom
Hazikaron) observances leading to violation of Sabbath prohibitions. To prevent such violations, the dates of Yom
Yom
Hazikaron and Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut vary as follows:

* If 4–5 Iyar
Iyar
occur on a Sunday-Monday, the observances are delayed to Monday-Tuesday, 5–6 Iyar. * If 4–5 Iyar
Iyar
occur on a Tuesday-Wednesday, the observances are not moved. * If 4–5 Iyar
Iyar
occur on a Thursday-Friday, the observances are advanced to Wednesday-Thursday, 3–4 Iyar. * If 4–5 Iyar
Iyar
occur on a Friday-Shabbat, the observances are advanced to Wednesday-Thursday, 2–3 Iyar.

Nearly all non-_ḥaredi_ Jewish religious communities have incorporated changes or enhancements to the liturgy in honor of Yom Ha'atzmaut and suspend the mourning practices of the period of Sefirat Ha\'Omer . (See Yom
Yom
Ha\'atzmaut—Religious Customs for details.) Within the Religious Zionistand Modern Orthodoxcommunities, these changes are not without controversy, and customs continue to evolve.

_Ḥaredi_ religious observance of Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut varies widely. A few _ḥaredim_ (especially Sefardic Ḥaredim) celebrate the day in a reasonably similar way to the way non-_ḥaredim_ do. Most _ḥaredim_ simply treat the day indifferently; _i.e.,_ as a regular day. And finally others (notably Satmar Ḥasidim and Neturei Karta
Neturei Karta
) mourn on the day because of their opposition to the enterprise of the State of Israel.

YOM YERUSHALAYIM—JERUSALEM DAY

* Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim : 28 Iyar

JERUSALEM DAY (יום ירושלים) marks the 1967 reunification of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
under Israeli control during the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
. This marked the first time in 19 years that the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
was accessible to Jews, and the first time since the destruction of the Second Temple 1900 years earlier that the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
was under Jewish political control.

As with Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut, celebrations of Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim range from completely secular (including hikes to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and a large parade through downtown Jerusalem) to religious (recitation of Halleland new liturgies). Although Haredim do not participate in the liturgical changes, they are somewhat more likely to celebrate Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim than the other modern Israeli holidays because of the importance of the liberation of the Western Wall
Western Wall
and the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
.

Outside Israel, observance of Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim is widespread, especially in Orthodox circles. It has not gained as widespread acceptance as Yom
Yom
Ha'atzmaut, especially among more politically liberal Jews, because of the continuing conflicts over the future of the city.

Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim has not traditionally moved to avoid Shabbat desecration, although in 2012 the Chief Rabbinate began some efforts in that direction.

YOM HAALIYAH—ALIYAH DAY

* Yom
Yom
Ha Aliyah
Aliyah
: 10 Nisan

_ Joshua
Joshua
passing the River Jordan with the Ark of the Covenant_ by Benjamin West
Benjamin West

ALIYAH DAY (יום העלייה) is an Israeli national holiday celebrated annually on the tenth of Nisan. The day was established to acknowledge Aliyah
Aliyah
, immigration to the Jewish state, as a core value of the State of Israel, and honor the ongoing contributions of Olim (immigrants) to Israeli society.

Immigration to Israel
Israel
is a recognized religious value of Judaism. The date chosen for Yom
Yom
HaAliyah, 10 Nisan, has religious significance: it is the day on which Joshua
Joshua
and the Israelites crossed the Jordan River at Gilgal
Gilgal
into the Promised Land. It was thus the first documented "mass Aliyah". The alternative date observed in the school system, 7 Heshvan, falls during the week of the Torah
Torah
portion in which God
God
instructs Abraham
Abraham
to leave his home and his family and go up to the Land of Israel.

At the present time, observance of this day appears to be secular in nature.

DAY TO COMMEMORATE THE EXPULSION OF JEWS FROM ARAB LANDS AND IRAN

* Day to Mark the Departure and Expulsion of Jews
Jews
from the Arab Countries and Iran : 30 November (on the Gregorian calendar)

The Knesset
Knesset
established this observance in 2014. The purpose of this observance is to recognize the collective trauma of Mizrahi Jews during the period around the establishment of the State of Israel. Many Mizrachi Jews
Jews
felt that their own suffering was being ignored, both in comparison to the suffering of European Jewryduring the Holocaust
Holocaust
and in comparison to the Palestinian Nakba. The Gregorian-calendar date chosen is the day after the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine was adopted, as that date marked the beginning of concentrated pressure and hostility against the community.

At the present time, observance of this day appears to be secular in nature.

ETHNIC HOLIDAYS

Main articles: Mimouna, Seharane, and Sigd
Sigd

The Israeli government officially recognizes three traditional holidays of ethnic Jewish communities in Israel. These days are also observed by their respective communities outside Israel.

* MIMOUNA began as a holiday of Moroccan Jews
Jews
, while similar celebrations also exist among Turkish Jews
Jews
and Persian Jews
Jews
. These festivals are observed on the day after Passover
Passover
, when eating of ordinary food ("chametz") resumes. In Israel, observance of Mimouna has spread widely in recent years; it has been estimated that up to two million Jews
Jews
in Israel
Israel
now participate in Mimounacelebrations.

On the evening concluding Passover, the celebration centers on visiting the homes of friends and neighbors, Jewish and non-Jewish. A variety of traditional foods are served, and symbols representing good luck and prosperity are prominently displayed. The next day, barbecues and picnics are among the most widespread activities of the celebration.

* The SEHARANE was celebrated by Kurdish Jews
Jews
as a multi-day nature festival starting the day after Passover. Communities would leave their villages and camp out for several days, celebrating with eating and drinking, nature walks, singing and dancing.

Its observance was interrupted after the relocation of this community to Israel
Israel
in the 1950s . In recent years it has been revived. But because of the already-widespread celebration of Mimouna in Israel, the celebration of the Seharanewas moved to _Chol HaMoed_ Sukkot.

* The SIGD began as an evolution of the observance of Yom
Yom
Kippur by the Beta Israel
Israel
(Ethiopian) community. Currently that community now observes it in addition to Yom
Yom
Kippur; its date is 29 Heshvan, 49 days after Yom
Yom
Kippur. It shares some features of Yom
Yom
Kippur, Shavuot, and other holidays.

The Sigd
Sigd
is modeled on a ceremony of fasting, study and prayer described in Nehemiah
Nehemiah
8, when the Jews
Jews
rededicated themselves to religious observance on return to Israel
Israel
after the Babylonian exile
Babylonian exile
. In Ethiopia, the community would gather on a mountaintop and pray for a return to Jerusalem. The modern Sigd
Sigd
is centered on a promenade overlooking the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. The day's observance ends with a celebratory break fast .

SEE ALSO

* Judaism
Judaism
portal * Holidays portal

* Hebrew calendar * Jewish greetings * Public holidays in Israel
Israel
* Religious festival * Ta\'anit * Torah
Torah
readings of Yom
Yom
Tov

NOTES

* ^ This article focuses on practices of mainstream Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
. Karaite Jews
Jews
and Samaritans
Samaritans
also observe the biblical festivals, but not in an identical fashion and not always at exactly the same time. * ^ This "negative" (refraining) requirement is paired with a positive requirement to honor and enjoy the Sabbath or festival day. For information on the positive requirements, see Shabbat: Rituals and Shabbat: Encouraged activities . * ^ Burials are also permitted on a yom tov, although not on Shabbat
Shabbat
nor Yom
Yom
Kippur. On the first day of yom tov, burial is prohibited unless the bulk of the associated _melacha_ is done by non-Jews. On the second day of yom tov, including Rosh Hashanah, burial is permitted even if the bulk of the associated _melacha_ is done by Jews. In modern times, it is extremely unusual for a yom tov burial to occur, except on the second day of Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
in Jerusalem. Further details are beyond the scope of this article. * ^ There is a practice for women to refrain from some types of labor on Rosh Chodesh; see Rosh Chodeshand women . * ^ This is especially, though not exclusively, true outside the US. For example, Masorti Judaism
Judaism
in Israel
Israel
and the UK rejects North American Conservatism's position to permit driving to synagogue on Shabbat
Shabbat
. * ^ See, for example, Reform Judaism\'s Position on Jewish Law and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
(Jewish Law and Tradition) , and references in those articles. * ^ The Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(see at _Sotah 20-21_) describes one who fails to do so as a _chasid shoteh,_ a foolishly pious individual. * ^ Similar practices are still used in Islam as well as in the Karaite and Samaritan
Samaritan
communities. * ^ This _reasoning_ did not directly apply in the actual meeting place of the Sanhedrin, but there are other reasons that the _practice_ was applied there as well. See Rambam, _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Torah, Kiddush
Kiddush
HaChodesh_ 5:8. * ^ In practice, the Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
had the discretion to arrange the month proclamations so that Elulwould almost never be extended to 30 days. See BT Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
19b, as well as commentators there. This greatly reduced the practical level of doubt as to which day would be the first day of Tishrei. The doubt still existed, so _Rosh Hashanah_ and _Sukkot_ were observed for two days. However, the low level of the doubt–combined with the difficulty of a 49-hour fast–led to the exemption of _ Yom
Yom
Kippur_ from the requirement for a second day of observance. This complex issue is discussed more fully here. * ^ There are differing opinions as to the location of the International Date Line for purposes of Jewish law. Accordingly, some _halachic_ authorities do have doubts as to which (secular) day of the week should be considered Shabbat
Shabbat
in some Pacific islands. See International date line in Judaism
Judaism
for details. * ^ That is, conventional (Rabbinic) Jews. Karaite Jews
Jews
and Samaritans
Samaritans
regard Passover
Passover
as the holiest day of the year. * ^ Fasting begins at religious majority–age 13 for boys and age 12 for girls. Fasting is prohibited for a variety of medical reasons (_e.g.,_ for nursing mothers, diabetics, people with anorexia nervosa, etc.). * ^ Some customs around cessation of work do exist–particularly work by women during the period the candles are burning. See, for example, Eliyahu Kitov, "Working on Chanukah", retrieved November 8, 2012. * ^ The game of dreidel itself, though, is likely of much later origin. See, for example, David
David
Golinkin, "The Origin of the Dreidel" at myjewishlearning.com, accessed November 8, 2012. * ^ Hanukkah
Hanukkah
and Christmas
Christmas
fall out during the same period of the year, but are not related religiously. * ^ The requirement to drink at the Purim
Purim
Se'udah does not create license for dangerous or immoral behavior. See _Se\'udat Purim_ , as well as Josh Rossman and Shlomo Yaros (March 6, 2004). "Baruch Haman, Arur Mordechai". _Kol Torah,_ Vol. 13 No. 24. Torah
Torah
Academy of Bergen County. Retrieved August 8, 2012. and Jeffrey Spitzer. "Drinking on Purim". MyJewishLearning.com. Retrieved August 8, 2012. * ^ One common suggestion is that the custom comes from Esther's hiding her family background when first brought to the palace (Esther 2:10). See Ariela Pelaia. "Purim–Jewish Holiday of Purim". about.com Judaism. Retrieved December 26, 2012. See Rabbi
Rabbi
Yair Hoffman (February 25, 2010). "New York– Purim
Purim
Costumes–A History–Reasons and Origins". Vos iz Neias.com. Retrieved December 26, 2012. , for another theory. * ^ The text of the Torah
Torah
itself uses the term _"Pesach"_ to refer to the _ Korban Pesach_, the offering of the paschal lamb, as well as the day that the sacrifice is offered—_14 Nisan_. See Leviticus 23:5. The long pilgrimage festival of 15–21 Nisan
Nisan
is always called _Ḥag haMatzot,_ or "Festival of Unleavened Bread"; see Lev. 23:6. This distinction is still made in Karaite Judaism
Judaism
and in Samaritanism. In conventional Rabbinic Judaism
Judaism
the term _"Pesach"_ now commonly refers to the pilgrimage festival itself, although the text of the liturgy continues to use the name _Ḥag haMatzot_. * ^ Exactly what this means is disputed. See Fast of the Firstborn (Qualifications for fasting) . * ^ This is usually a _siyum_ , a meal celebrating the conclusion of substantial study of Talmud, as there is great flexibility around scheduling such an event. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Based on the source text at Lev. 23:11, normative Jewish practice identifies the start of the Omer period as the second day of Passover, or 16 Nisan. (See _ Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/489_. Wikisource. ) Based on the same source text, Karaite practice identifies this as the first Sunday on or after 16 Nisan, and therefore places Shavuot
Shavuot
on the eighth Sunday on or after 16 Nisan—both as reckoned on the Karaite calendar. (See Karaite Judaism: Sephirath Ha‘Omer and Shavu‘oth .) * ^ Neither the Torah
Torah
nor the Talmud
Talmud
specifies Sefirah as a mourning period. However, there is evidence that this custom was in place by the era of the Geonim, which ended around 1040 CE. See Kahn, Rabbi
Rabbi
Ari (February 20, 2006). " Rebbe
Rebbe
Akiva\'s 24,000 Students". aish.com. Retrieved January 18, 2013. * ^ The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
at _Ta\'anit _ 4:5 states that the walls were breached on this date during the First Temple
First Temple
period as well, notwithstanding the text of Jeremiah 39:2. * ^ See, _e.g.,_ Rabbi
Rabbi
David
David
Golinkin, ed. (1998). _Proceedings of the Committee on Jewish Law and Standards of the Conservative Movement 1927-1970_. III. Jerusalem: The Rabbinical Assemblyand The Institute of Applied Halakhah. . Based on these responsa, many Conservative rabbis will only perform small weddings in the rabbi's study between 1-9 Av. * ^ Private fasts are beyond the scope of this article.

* ^ _Inter alia_:

* Non-orthodox: Union for Traditional Judaism
Judaism
, Conservative Judaism , Reform Judaism
Judaism
and Reconstructionist Judaism
Judaism
* Religious Zionist: Mizrachi – Bnai Akiva * Modern Orthodox: Union of Orthodox Congregations , Rabbinical Council of America , United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth

* ^ The uprising began on 14 Nisan, Passover
Passover
eve. There was sufficient opposition to the selection of that date for the memorial that its observance was moved to 27 Nisan, approximately halfway between the end of Passover
Passover
and Yom
Yom
Ha'Atzmaut, and still within the period of the uprising. See Rosenberg, Jennifer. "Holocaust Remembrance Day". about.com. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ In contrast, International Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day is observed on January 27, the day the Auschwitz-Birkenau
Auschwitz-Birkenau
camp was liberated in 1945. * ^ Along with the _ḥaredi_ resistance to new days of commemoration, there is a reluctance to introduce unnecessary mourning during the month of Nisan
Nisan
(see above ). * ^ _A_ _B_ These changes are not uniformly observed by communities outside Israel, where the ceremonies are not official in nature. * ^ Interestingly, as early as 1940, 4 Iyar
Iyar
had been established as a memorial day for victims of Arab terror attacks. See לישוב . _DAVAR _ (IN HEBREW). TEL AVIV. MAY 6, 1940. * ^ When this is Friday night in Israel, the celebration is deferred until after Shabbat.

REFERENCES

* ^ "yom tov". _Random House Webster\'s Unabridged Dictionary _. * ^ _Mishneh Torah
Torah
_, Moshe ben Maimon, vol. 1, Jerusalem, 1974, s.v. _Shevitat Yom-Tov_ 1:1 (Hebrew). * ^ See text from the Yom
Yom
Kippur liturgy available at Unetanneh Tokef (He Judges Us) . * ^ See Beitza6a and Igrot MosheOC III, 76. * ^ See, for example, Nevins, Daniel, _The Use of Electrical and Electronic Devices on Shabbat_ (PDF), retrieved October 23, 2012 , as an illustration both on general concepts and on specific rulings. * ^ This is widely recognized as true. The best objective source is probably _Jewish Identity and Religious Commitment: The North American Study of Conservative Synagogues and Their Members, 1995–96,_ edited by Jack Wertheimer, 1997, Ratner Center for the Study of Conservative Judaism. But reliable, updated figures are difficult to come by. * ^ YU Torah
Torah
_shiurim_ on _Pikuach Nefesh:_ Part I, Part II, and Part III, accessed July 11, 2013. * ^ See, in general, Rambam
Rambam
, _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Torah
Torah
, Kiddush
Kiddush
HaChodesh,_ Chapters 3 and 5. * ^ _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
1:3_. Wikisource. * ^ Rambam, _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Torah, Kiddush
Kiddush
HaChodesh_ 5:9–12. * ^ Rambam, _ Mishnah
Mishnah
Torah, Kiddush
Kiddush
HaChodesh_ 3:12. * ^ "The Second Festival Day and Reform Judaism
Judaism
(Responsum 5759.7)". _CCAR Responsa_. 1999. Retrieved July 15, 2013. . See in particular footnotes 1 and 2 to the responsum. * ^ "Rosh Hashanah: Customs". _ReformJudaism.org_. Union for Reform Judaism. Retrieved July 14, 2013. * ^ See, for example, I Samuel 20. * ^ See, for example, Megillah 22b. * ^ "The Month of Elul: Stocktaking and Introspection". Chabad.org. Retrieved July 11, 2013. * ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
(BT) Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
16a * ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud
Talmud
Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
1:2 * ^ See, for example, the liturgical poem _ Unetanneh Tokef_ in the _ Machzor
Machzor
_ (holiday prayer book) for Rosh Hashanah. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Numbers 29:1 * ^ See BT Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
10b. The other opinion is that the creation was completed on 1 Nisan. * ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
1:1 * ^ Rambam
Rambam
, Mishneh Torah
Torah
, Laws of Repentance2:6. * ^ See Jeremiah 41:1, _ff._ * ^ See Amidah(Fast Days) , Avinu Malkenu, and Selichot
Selichot
of Fast Days . * ^ _A_ _B_ Nachum Mohl. "The Fifteenth Av and Yom
Yom
Kippur". * ^ Leviticus 23:42 and other places * ^ Leviticus 23:40 and other places * ^ Shawna Dolansky, "The Truth(s) About Hanukkah”, _The Huffington Post,_ December 23, 2011, accessed most recently November 8, 2012. * ^ Tractate Orlah is dedicated to these topics. * ^ See, just as one example, Rinat, Zafrir (January 20, 2011). "Israelis Go Green For Tu Bishvat". _ Haaretz
Haaretz
_. Retrieved January 20, 2011. * ^ See Esther
Esther
4:16. * ^ Esther
Esther
9:2 * ^ _A_ _B_ See Esther
Esther
9. * ^ Megillah 7b * ^ Lisa Katz. " Purim
Purim
Shpiels". about.com Judaism. Retrieved December 26, 2012. * ^ Literally, "until you don't know", a phrase from (Babylonian Talmud) Megillah 7b about drinking on Purim. See Purim
Purim
( Purim
Purim
meal and festive drinking) . * ^ See, for example, "ADLOYADA-The Purim
Purim
Parade in Israel". theicenter.org. Retrieved June 2, 2017. * ^ Babylonian Talmud: _Megillah_ 2b, 3b, 10b. * ^ See _Mashechet Soferim _ 21:3 and BT Menachot65, discussed at "Insights to the Daf—Menachos 65". KollelIyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim. Retrieved January 15, 2013, which differ in their explanation for the custom. * ^ See, for example, Wenger, Eliezer. "The Laws Concerning the Thirty Days before Passover". chabad.org. Retrieved January 15, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ See the Talmud
Talmud
tractate Pesaḥimin both the Mishnah and Gemara, among many sources. * ^ See _Masechet Soferim_ 21:3 and _Shulḥan Aruch Oraḥ Ḥayyim_ 470:1. * ^ See, for example, Exodus 12:14 and following verses. * ^ See, for example, Ex. 12:39. * ^ See Chametz(Stringency) and Chametz(Removal of Chametz) . * ^ _National Jewish Population Survey 2000-1_, United Jewish Communities, 2003, retrieved January 11, 2013 (survey from the United States). * ^ See "Rashi on Exodus 14:5". chabad.org. Retrieved January 10, 2013. * ^ Numbers 9. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Leviticus 23:9–17 and Deuteronomy16:9–10 * ^ See, for example, Cohen, Ezra. "Count Up". Torah
Torah
from Dixie. Retrieved January 18, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _ Shulchan Aruch/Orach Chaim/493_. Wikisource. * ^ Travis, Rabbi
Rabbi
Daniel Yaakov (April 29, 2010). "Mourning’s End – Understanding Sefira and Lag B’Omer". Beyond BT. Archived from the original on May 1, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Schäfer, Peter (2003). _The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered: New perspectives on the Second Jewish Revolt against Rome_. Mohr Siebeck. pp. 283–286. ISBN 3-16-148076-7 . * ^ Rossoff, Dovid. "Meron on Lag B\'Omer". The Jewish Magazine. Retrieved April 28, 2010. * ^ "Lag B\'Omer". _ Ynetnews_. May 13, 2008. Retrieved May 5, 2012. * ^ Per Exodus 32:1 _ff.,_ counting forty days from Shavuot
Shavuot
. * ^ _A_ _B_ Mishnah
Mishnah
_Ta\'anit_ 4:6 (reference in Hebrew) * ^ Lamentations 1:3 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _ Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
Orach Chaim 551_. Wikisource. * ^ "Ask the Expert: Wedding Timing". MyJewishLearning.org. Retrieved June 11, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Kitzur Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
124 (Hebrew Wikisource). * ^ See especially Mishnah
Mishnah
Ta'anit1:4-2:6 and the Gemara on it. * ^ Mishnah
Mishnah
Ta'anit4:1 * ^ _ Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds. (1901–1906). "Fasting and Fast Days". Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
_. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. * ^ Wein, Rabbi
Rabbi
Berel. "Days of Fasting". _torah.org_. Project Genesis. Archived from the original on May 9, 2013. Retrieved July 14, 2013. * ^ Mandel, Jonah (November 16, 2010). "Chief rabbis call for day of fasting, prayers for rain". _ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post_. Retrieved July 14, 2013. * ^ "Fasting and Fast Days". _Encyclopedia Judaica (Jewish Virtual Library)_. The Gale Group. 2008. Retrieved July 14, 2013. * ^ Numbers 28:15 * ^ _ Singer, Isidore ; et al., eds. (1901–1906). " Yom
Yom
Kippur Katan". Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
_. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. * ^ _A_ _B_ " Yom
Yom
HaShoah". timeanddate.com. Retrieved February 27, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Wagner, Matthew (April 28, 2008). "An anchor for national mourning". _The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post_. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ Gordon, Sheldon (May 2003). " Holocaust
Holocaust
Scroll". _The Jewish Forward_. Retrieved January 22, 2013. * ^ Memorial Day for Israel\'s Fallen Soldiers, Knesset
Knesset
official website. Retrieved April 25, 2012. * ^ נזכור את כולם (IN HEBREW). ISRAEL MINISTRY OF DEFENSE. RETRIEVED FEBRUARY 6, 2013. SEE, IN PARTICULAR, THIS SUB-PAGE . * ^ " Yom
Yom
Hazikaron: Israel\'s Memorial Day". My Jewish Learning. Retrieved February 27, 2013. * ^ " Yom
Yom
HaAtzmaut". timeanddate.com. Retrieved February 27, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Haber, Alan. " Yom
Yom
HaAtzmaut and Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim in Halachaand Hashkafa". Yeshivat Shaarei Mevaseret Zion. Archived from the original on July 25, 2012. Retrieved February 27, 2013. * ^ See Haredim and Zionism
Haredim and Zionism
(Groups that support Zionism) . * ^ Guttman, Moishe (March 14, 2007), "Zealots and Zionism", _Mishpacha_. * ^ " Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim:The Celebration". MazorGuide. Retrieved April 27, 2013. * ^ " Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day". MyJewishLearning.com. Retrieved April 27, 2013. * ^ " Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim and Lag Ba\'omer Events Postponed a Day Due to Chillul Shabbos". Matzav.com. Retrieved April 27, 2013. * ^ YNET: Grassroots initiated holiday becomes law * ^ Knesset
Knesset
Proposes Aliyah
Aliyah
Holiday Bill * ^ See Aliyah
Aliyah
§ Religious, ideological and cultural concept for more details. * ^ Joshua
Joshua
4:19 * ^ Genesis 12:1 * ^ Aderet, Ofer (November 30, 2014). " Israel
Israel
marks first-ever national day remembering Jewish exodus from Muslim lands". _ Haaretz
Haaretz
_. Retrieved April 15, 2015. * ^ "Sephardic Passover
Passover
Customs and Traditions For Pesach". Elimelech David
David
Ha-Levi Web. Retrieved July 22, 2013. * ^ "Une fête peu connue en Europe, La Mimouna" (in French). Harissa.com. March 25, 2013. Retrieved July 22, 2013. * ^ " MimounaCustoms". Jewish Agency for Israel
Israel
. 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2013. * ^ "The Seharane". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved July 22, 2013. * ^ "The Ethiopian Sigd". The Jewish Agency for Israel. Retrieved July 22, 2013. * ^ Afsai, Shai (December 12, 2012). "The Sigd
Sigd
Festival comes home to Jerusalem". _The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post_. Retrieved July 22, 2013.

FURTHER READING

* Brofsky, David. "Hilkhot Moadim: Understanding the Laws of the Festivals." Jerusalem: Koren Publishers, 2013. * Greenberg, Irving. _The Jewish Way: Living the Holidays._ New York: Touchstone, 1988. * Renberg, Dalia H. _The Complete Family Guide to Jewish Holidays._ New York: Adama, 1985. * Strassfeld, Michael. _The Jewish Holidays: A Guide and Commentary._ New York: Harper ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Jewish and Israeli holidays and observances

Jewish holidays
Jewish holidays
and observances

SHABBAT

* Shabbat
Shabbat

HIGH HOLY DAYS

* Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
* Fast of Gedalia * Ten Days of Repentance * Yom
Yom
Kippur

Three Pilgrimage Festivals

* Passover
Passover
* Fast of the Firstborn * Pesach Sheni

* Shavuot
Shavuot

* Sukkot
Sukkot
* Hoshana Rabbah * Shemini Atzeret * Simchat Torah
Torah

* Yom
Yom
tov sheni shel galuyot * Chol HaMoed
Chol HaMoed
* Isru chag

* Rosh Chodesh * Hanukkah
Hanukkah
* Tenth of Tevet * Tu BiShvat * Fast of Esther * Purim
Purim
* Purim
Purim
Katan * Counting of the Omer * Lag BaOmer * 17th of Tammuz * The Three Weeks * The Nine Days * Tisha B\'Av * Tu B\'Av * Rosh Hashanah
Rosh Hashanah
LaBehema

Holidays / memorial days of the State of Israel
Israel

* Yom
Yom
HaAtzmaut (Independence Day) * Yom
Yom
HaZikaron (Memorial Day) * Yom
Yom
HaShoah ( Holocaust
Holocaust
Remembrance Day) * Yom
Yom
Yerushalayim ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day) * Yom
Yom
Ha Aliyah
Aliyah
( Aliyah
Aliyah
Day) since 2016 * Mizrahi Expulsion Remembrance Day since 2014

ETHNIC MINORITY HOLIDAYS

* Mimouna * Seharane * Sigd
Sigd

HEBREW CALENDAR MONTHS

* Tishrei
Tishrei
* Cheshvan * Kislev * Tevet * Shevat * Adar
Adar
and Adar
Adar
Sheni * Nisan
Nisan
* Iyar
Iyar
* Sivan
Sivan
* Tammuz * Av * Elul

* Jewish and Israeli holidays 2000–2050

* v * t * e

Jewish life

BIRTH AND INFANCY

* Hebrew birthday * Shalom Zachar
Shalom Zachar
* Brit milah
Brit milah
* Zeved habat * Hebrew name * Pidyon haben
Pidyon haben

COMING OF AGE

* Upsherin * Wimpel
Wimpel
* Bar and Bat Mitzvah
Mitzvah
* Yeshiva
Yeshiva
* Kollel

DAILY LIFE

* Ritual washing * Prayers and blessings * Prayer
Prayer
services * Grace after Meals * Honorifics

MARRIAGE

* Marriageable age * Role of women * Tzniut * Matchmaking * Engagement * Jewish wedding * Ketubah
Ketubah
* Chuppah * Sheva Brachot * Niddah
Niddah
* Mikvah * Divorce

RELIGIOUS PRACTICE

* 613 commandments
613 commandments
* Customs * Torah
Torah
study * Weekly Torah
Torah
reading * Daf Yomi
Daf Yomi
* Shiur * Siyum * Chavrusa * Chavurah * Holidays * Tzedakah
Tzedakah

RELIGIOUS ITEMS

* Sefer Torah
Torah
* Siddur
Siddur
* Machzor
Machzor
* Tzitzit
Tzitzit
* Tallit
Tallit
* Tefillin
Tefillin
* Mezuzah * Kippah * Menorah * Shofar
Shofar
* Four species
Four species

DEATH

* Chevra Kadisha * Shiva
Shiva
* Kaddish * Tehillim * Yahrzeit * Yahrzeitcandle * Yizkor * Honorifics

* v * t * e

Jews
Jews
and Judaism
Judaism

* Outline of Judaism
Judaism

HISTORY

* Timeline * Ancient * Temple in Jerusalem
Temple in Jerusalem
* Babylonian captivity
Babylonian captivity

* Jerusalem
Jerusalem

* Significance * Timeline

* Hasmonean dynasty
Hasmonean dynasty
* Herod * Sanhedrin
Sanhedrin
* Pharisees
Pharisees
* Sadducees * Essenes
Essenes
* First Jewish–Roman War
First Jewish–Roman War
* Bar Kokhba revolt
Bar Kokhba revolt
* Diaspora * Middle Ages * Muslim rule * Sabbateans * Haskalah
Haskalah
* Emancipation * The Holocaust
Holocaust
* History of Zionism * History of Israel
Israel
* Proposals for a Jewish state * Land of Israel
Land of Israel
* Aliyah
Aliyah
* Baal teshuva movement
Baal teshuva movement
* Arab–Israeli / Israeli–Palestinian conflicts * Judaism
Judaism
by country

JEWISH GROUPS

* Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Jews
Jews

* German Jews
Jews
* Hungarian Jews
Jews
* Lithuanian Jews
Jews
* Polish Jews
Jews
* Russian Jews
Jews
* Soviet Jews
Jews

* Sephardi Jews
Jews

* Spanish and Portuguese Jews
Jews
* Turkish Jews
Jews
* Maghrebi Jews
Jews

* Mizrahi Jews
Jews

* Yemenite Jews
Jews
* Iraqi Jews
Jews
* Syrian Jews
Jews
* Persian Jews
Jews
* Kurdish Jews
Jews
* Bukharan Jews
Jews

* African Jews
Jews

* Berber Jews
Jews
* Beta Israel
Israel

* Greco-Roman Jews
Jews

* Romaniote Jews
Jews
* Italkim

* Jews
Jews
of the Caucasus

* Georgian Jews
Jews
* Mountain Jews
Jews
* Crimean Karaites * Krymchaks
Krymchaks
* Urfalim
Urfalim

* Indian Jews
Jews

* Baghdadi Jews
Jews
* Bene Ephraim * Bene Israel
Israel
* Bnei Menashe
Bnei Menashe
* Cochin Jews
Jews

* East Asian Jews
Jews

* Kaifeng Jews
Jews

Religious movements

* Orthodox

* Haredi * Hasidic * Modern Orthodox * Religious Zionism
Religious Zionism
* Chardal

* Musar movement

* Conservative

* Neolog

* Reform/Progressive * Reconstructionist * Jewish Renewal * Haymanot
Haymanot
* Humanistic * Rabbinic * Karaite * Samaritans
Samaritans
* Schisms * Shomer Masoret * Intra-Jewish relations * Atheism * Noahidism

PHILOSOPHY

* 613 commandments
613 commandments
* Halakha * Principles of faith * Chosen people

* Ethics

* Chesed
Chesed
* Tzedakah
Tzedakah
* Pikuach nefesh
Pikuach nefesh
* Kavod HaBriyot * Lashon hara * Tza\'ar ba\'alei chayim * Tikkun olam

* Teshuva * Kashrut
Kashrut
* Kabbalah
Kabbalah
* Names of God
God
* Messiah * Eschatology
Eschatology
* Seven Laws of Noah
Seven Laws of Noah
* Tzniut

RELIGIOUS TEXTS

* Tanakh
Tanakh

* Torah
Torah
* Nevi\'im * Ketuvim
Ketuvim

* Mishnah
Mishnah
* Talmud
Talmud
* Tosefta * Midrash
Midrash
* Rabbinic literature * Mishneh Torah
Torah
* Arba\'ah Turim * Shulchan Aruch
Shulchan Aruch
* Mishnah
Mishnah
Berurah * Chumash * Zohar
Zohar
* Haggadah
Haggadah
* Piyyut * Siddur
Siddur

PLACES

* Land of Israel
Land of Israel

* Four Holy Cities
Four Holy Cities

* Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* Tzfat * Hebron
Hebron
* Tiberias
Tiberias

* Beth din
Beth din
* Mikveh * Synagogue
Synagogue
* Temple * Tabernacle
Tabernacle
* Temple Mount
Temple Mount
* Western Wall
Western Wall

BIBLICAL FIGURES

* Abraham
Abraham
* Isaac
Isaac
* Jacob
Jacob
* Sarah
Sarah
* Rebecca
Rebecca
* Rachel
Rachel
* Leah
Leah
* Joseph * Judah * Moses
Moses
* Joshua
Joshua
* Deborah
Deborah
* Ruth * David
David
* Solomon
Solomon
* Elijah
Elijah
* Ezra
Ezra
* Nehemiah
Nehemiah

LEADERSHIP

* Hillel * Shammai
Shammai
* Yehudah haNasi * Saadia Gaon
Saadia Gaon
* Gershom ben Judah * Isaac
Isaac
Alfasi * Judah Halevi
Judah Halevi
* Abraham
Abraham
ibn Ezra
Ezra
* Tosafists * Yosef Karo * Maimonides
Maimonides
* Nahmanides * Gersonides * Isaac
Isaac
Abravanel * Maharal * Isaac
Isaac
Luria * Baal Shem Tov * Vilna Gaon * Moses
Moses
Sofer * Shneur Zalman of Liadi
Shneur Zalman of Liadi
* Moses
Moses
Mendelssohn * Yosef Dov Soloveitchik * Samson Raphael Hirsch * Nosson Tzvi Finkel * Abraham
Abraham
Geiger * Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz
Avrohom Yeshaya Karelitz
* Solomon
Solomon
Schechter * David
David
Ben-Gurion * Golda Meir
Golda Meir
* Menachem Begin
Menachem Begin
* Mordecai Kaplan * Aharon Kotler * Moshe Feinstein
Moshe Feinstein
* Yaakov Kamenetsky * Joseph Breuer * Yaakov Yitzchok Ruderman * Yoel Teitelbaum * Menachem Schneerson * Abraham
Abraham
Joshua
Joshua
Heschel * Joseph B. Soloveitchik
Joseph B. Soloveitchik
* Elazar Shach * Shlomo Carlebach * Adin Steinsaltz
Adin Steinsaltz
* Zalman Schachter-Shalomi * Norman Lamm * Chaim Kanievsky
Chaim Kanievsky
* Shmuel Kamenetsky

ROLES

* Kohen * Hazzan
Hazzan
* Gabbai * Maggid
Maggid
* Mashgiach * Mohel * Posek
Posek
* Rabbi
Rabbi
* Rebbe
Rebbe
* Rosh yeshiva * Scribe
Scribe

CULTURE

* Minyan * Bar and Bat Mitzvah
Mitzvah
* Bereavement * Brit milah
Brit milah
* Hebrew calendar * Hebrew birthday * Etymology of the word Jew * Marriage * Wedding * Niddah
Niddah
* Pidyon haben
Pidyon haben
* Music * Cuisine * Hiloni * Shidduch * Zeved habat

ISSUES AND OTHERS

* Who is a Jew? * Abortion * Assimilation * Capital punishment * Conversion to Judaism
Judaism
* Crypto- Judaism
Judaism
* Environmentalism * Forbidden relationships * Gender * Heresy * Holocaust
Holocaust
theology * Jewish intelligence * Jewish studies
Jewish studies
* Marriage * Homosexuality * Same-sex marriage * Religious Terrorism
Terrorism
* Schisms * Vegetarianism * _ Jewish Encyclopedia
Jewish Encyclopedia
_ * _ Encyclopaedia Judaica_

LANGUAGES

* Hebrew

* Biblical

* Juhuri (Judeo-Tat) * Judeo-Arabic * Judeo-Aramaic * Judæo-Iranian * Ladino * Yeshivish * Yiddish
Yiddish

Religious articles and prayers

* Aleinu * Amidah * Four species
Four species
* Gartel * Hallel * Havdalah
Havdalah
* Kaddish * Kittel
Kittel
* Kol Nidre * Ma Tovu

* Menorah

* Hanukiah

* Mezuzah

* Sefer Torah
Torah

* Inauguration of a Torah
Torah
scroll

* Services

* Prayer
Prayer

* Shema Yisrael * Shofar
Shofar
* Siddur
Siddur
* Tallit
Tallit
* Tefillin
Tefillin
* Tzitzit
Tzitzit
* Yad
Yad
* Kippah/Yarmulke

Interactions with other religions

* Jewish views on religious pluralism * Abrahamic religions
Abrahamic religions

* Christianity

* Catholicism * Christian–Jewish reconciliation * Judeo-Christian * Messianic Judaism
Judaism

* Islam * Mormonism * Jewish Buddhist
Jewish Buddhist
* Semitic neopaganism * Black Hebrew Israelites * Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Centre

POLITICS

* Israel
Israel

* Zionism
Zionism

* General * Labor * Religious * Revisionist * Neo- Zionism
Zionism

* Political movements

* Left * Right * Anarchism

* Bundism
Bundism
* World Agudath Israel
Israel
* Edah HaChareidis * Feminism * Politics of Israel
Israel

ANTISEMITISM

* History * Persecution * New * Racial * Religious * Secondary

* Category
Category
* Portal
Portal

* v * t * e

Time
Time
in religion and mythology

* Time
Time
and fate deities * Eternity
Eternity
* Eschatology
Eschatology
* Golden Age
Golden Age
* Divination
Divination
* Prophecy
Prophecy
* Fate * Calendar
Calendar

Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jewish_holidays additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

* Privacy policy * About Wikipedia
Wikipedia
* Disclaimers * Contact Wikipedia
Wikipedia
* Developers * Cookie statement * Mobile view

* *

Links: ------ /wiki/Grammatical_number /wiki/Romanization_of_Hebrew /wiki/Hebrew_language /wiki/Help:IPA_for_English /#cite_note-1 /wiki/Judaism /wiki/Jews /#cite_note-2 /wiki/Hebrew_calendar /wiki/Hebrew_Bible /wiki/Mitzvah /wiki/Rabbinic_Judaism /wiki/Jewish_history /wiki/Israel#Independence_and_first_years /wiki/Gregorian_calendar /wiki/Lunisolar_calendar /#General_concepts /#Groupings /#Terminology_used_to_describe_holidays /#.22Work.22_on_Sabbath_and_biblical_holidays /#Second_day_of_Biblical_festivals /#Holidays_of_biblical_and_rabbinic_.28Talmudic.29_origin /#Shabbat.E2.80.94The_Sabbath /#Rosh_Chodesh.E2.80.94The_New_Month /#Rosh_Hashanah.E2.80.94The_Jewish_New_Year

.