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Jetavana
Jetavana
was one of the most famous of the Buddhist monasteries or viharas in India. It was the second vihara donated to Gautama Buddha after the Veluvana in Rajgir. Jetavana
Jetavana
is located just outside the old city of Savatthi. There was also an important vihara named Jetavana
Jetavana
in Sri Lanka. Jetavana
Jetavana
was the place where the Buddha gave the majority of his teachings and discourses, having passed at Jetavana
Jetavana
nineteen out of 45 vassas, more than in any other monastery.[1] It is said that after the Migāramātupāsāda, a second vihara erected at Pubbarama, close to Savatthi, came into being, the Buddha would dwell alternately in Jetavana
Jetavana
and Migāramātupāsāda, often spending the day in one and the night in the other (SNA.i.336).

Contents

1 Donation of Jetavana 2 Description of ancient Jetavana

2.1 Inside Jetavana 2.2 The Gandhakuti: Buddha's dwelling in Jetavana 2.3 Near Jetavana

3 Discovery and current situation 4 Photo gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Donation of Jetavana[edit]

Anathapindika
Anathapindika
covers Jetavana
Jetavana
with coins (Bharhut)

When the Buddha accepted Anāthapindika's invitation to visit Sāvatthi the latter, seeking a suitable place for the Buddha's residence, discovered this park belonging to Jetakumāra (MA.i.471 says it was in the south of Sāvatthi). When he asked to be allowed to buy it, Jeta's reply was: "Not even if you could cover the whole place with money." Anāthapindika said that he would buy it at that price, and when Jeta answered that he had had no intention of making a bargain, the matter was taken before the Lords of Justice, who decided that if the price mentioned were paid, Anāthapindika had the right of purchase. Anāthapindika had gold brought down in carts and covered Jetavana
Jetavana
with pieces laid side by side. (This incident is illustrated in a bas-relief at the Bharhut
Bharhut
Tope; see Cunningham - the Stūpa of Bharhut, Pl.lvii., pp. 84–6). The money brought in the first journey was found insufficient to cover one small spot near the gateway. So Anāthapindika sent his servants back for more, but Jeta, inspired by Anāthapindika's earnestness, asked to be allowed to give this spot. Anāthapindika agreed and Jeta erected there a gateway, with a room over it. Anāthapindika built in the grounds dwelling rooms, retiring rooms, store rooms and service halls, halls with fireplaces, closets, cloisters, halls for exercise, wells, bathrooms, ponds, open and roofed sheds, etc. (Vin.ii.158f). It is said (MA.i.50; UdA.56f) that Anāthapindika paid eighteen crores for the purchase of the site, all of which Jeta spent in the construction of the gateway gifted by him. (The gateway was evidently an imposing structure; see J.ii.216). Jeta gave, besides, many valuable trees for timber. Anāthapindika himself spent fifty-four crores in connection with the purchase of the park and the buildings erected in it. The ceremony of dedication was one of great splendour. Not only Anāthapindika himself, but his whole family took part: his son with five hundred other youths, his wife with five hundred other noble women, and his daughters Mahā Subhaddā and Cūla Subhaddā with five hundred other maidens. Anāthapindika was attended by five hundred bankers. The festivities in connection with the dedication lasted for nine months (J.i.92ff). The vihāra is almost always referred to as Jetavane Anāthapindikassa ārāma (Pali, meaning: in Jeta Grove, Anathapindika's Monastery). The Commentaries (MA.ii.50; UdA.56f, etc.) say that this was deliberate (at the Buddha's own suggestion pp. 81–131; Beal: op. cit., ii.5 and Rockhill: p. 49), in order that the names of both earlier and later owners might be recorded and that people might be reminded of two men, both very generous in the cause of the Religion, so that others might follow their example. The vihāra is sometimes referred to as Jetārāma (E.g., Ap.i.400). Description of ancient Jetavana[edit] Inside Jetavana[edit]

Jetavana
Jetavana
of Sravasti, showing the three preferred residences of the Buddha. Sanchi.

Some of the chief buildings attached to the Jetavana
Jetavana
are mentioned in the books by special names, viz., Mahāgandhakuti, Kaverimandalamāla, Kosambakuti and Candanamāla. SNA.ii.403. Other buildings are also mentioned - e.g., the Ambalakotthaka-āsanasālā (J.ii.246). According to Tibetan sources the vihāra was built according to a plan sent by the devas of Tusita and contained sixty large halls and sixty small. The Dulva (Vinaya-pitaka in Tibetan) also gives details of the decorative scheme of the vihāra (Rockhill: op. cit.48 and n.2). All these were built by Anāthapindika; there was another large building erected by Pasenadi
Pasenadi
and called the Salalaghara (DA.ii.407). Over the gateway lived a guardian deity to prevent all evildoers from entering (SA.i.239). Just outside the monastery was a rājayatana-tree, the residence of the god Samiddhisumana (Mhv.i.52f; MT 105; but see DhA.i.41, where the guardian of the gateway is called Sumana). In the grounds there seems to have been a large pond which came to be called the Jetavanapokkharanī. (AA.i.264; here the Buddha often bathed (J.i.329ff.). Is this the Pubbakotthaka referred to at A.iii.345? But see S.v.220; it was near this pond that Devadatta
Devadatta
was swallowed up in Avīci (J.iv.158)). The grounds themselves were thickly covered with trees, giving the appearance of a wooded grove (arañña) (Sp.iii.532). On the outskirts of the monastery was a mango-grove (J.iii.137). In front of the gateway was the Bodhi-tree planted by Anāthapindika, which came later to be called the Anandabodhi (J.iv.228f). Not far from the gateway was a cave which became famous as the Kapallapūvapabbhāra on account of an incident connected with Macchariyakosiya (J.i.348). According to the Divyāvadāna (Dvy.395f), the thūpas of Sāriputta and Moggallāna were in the grounds of Jetavana
Jetavana
and existed until the time of Asoka. Both Fa Hien (Giles: p. 33ff) and Houien Thsang (Beal.ii.7ff) give descriptions of other incidents connected with the Buddha, which took place in the neighbourhood of Jetavana
Jetavana
- e.g., the murder of Sundarikā, the calumny of Ciñcā, Devadatta's attempt to poison the Buddha, etc. The Gandhakuti: Buddha's dwelling in Jetavana[edit] The space covered by the four bedposts of the Buddha's Gandhakuti in Jetavana
Jetavana
is one of the four avijahitatthānāni; all Buddhas possess the same, though the size of the actual vihāra differs in the case of the various Buddhas. For Vipassī Buddha, the setthi Punabbasumitta built a monastery extending for a whole league, while for Sikhī Buddha, the setthi Sirivaddha made one covering three gavutas. The Sanghārāma built by Sotthiya for Vessabhū Buddha
Vessabhū Buddha
was half a league in extent, while that erected by Accuta for Kakusandha Buddha
Kakusandha Buddha
covered only one gāvuta. The monastery of the Koṇāgamana Buddha, built by the setthi Ugga, extended for half a gāvuta, while that of the Kassapa Buddha
Kassapa Buddha
built by Sumangala covered sixteen karīsas. Anāthapindika's monastery covered a space of eighteen karīsas (BuA.2, 47; J.i.94; DA.ii.424). According to a description given by Faxian
Faxian
(Giles, pp. 31, 33), the vihāra was originally in seven sections (storeys?) and was filled with all kinds of offerings, embroidered banners, canopies, etc., and the lamps burnt from dusk to dawn. One day a rat, holding in its mouth a lamp wick, set fire to the banners and canopies, and all the seven sections were entirely destroyed. The vihāra was later rebuilt in two sections. There were two main entrances, one on the east, one on the west, and Faxian
Faxian
found thūpas erected at all the places connected with the Buddha, each with its name inscribed. Near Jetavana[edit] Near Jetavana
Jetavana
was evidently a monastery of the heretics where Ciñcāmānavikā spent her nights while hatching her conspiracy against the Buddha. (DhA.iii.179; behind Jetavana
Jetavana
was a spot where the Ajivakas practised their austerities (J.i.493). Once the heretics bribed Pasenadi
Pasenadi
to let them make a rival settlement behind Jetavana, but the Buddha frustrated their plans (J.ii.170)). There seems to have been a playground just outside Jetavana
Jetavana
used by the children of the neighbourhood, who, when thirsty, would go into Jetavana
Jetavana
to drink (DhA.iii.492). The high road to Sāvatthi passed by the edge of Jetavana, and travellers would enter the park to rest and refresh themselves (J.ii.203, 341; see also vi.70, where two roads are mentioned). Discovery and current situation[edit] The remains of Jetavana
Jetavana
and Savatthi
Savatthi
were locally known as Sahet-Mahet. Alexander Cunningham
Alexander Cunningham
used the ancient (6th century AD) accounts of Chinese pilgrim-monks to determine that Sahet-Mahet actually referred to Jetavana
Jetavana
and Savatthi.[2] Jetavana
Jetavana
is currently a historical park, with remains of many ancient buildings such as monasteries, huts (such as the Gandhakuti and the Kosambakuti) and stupas. In Jetavana
Jetavana
is also located the second-holiest tree of Buddhism: the Anandabodhi Tree. A visit to Savatthi
Savatthi
and Jetavana
Jetavana
is part of the Buddhist pilgrim route in North-India. The most revered place in Jetavana
Jetavana
is the Gandhakuti, where Buddha used to stay. Jetavana
Jetavana
is located at 27°30′34″N 82°02′24″E / 27.509466°N 82.040073°E / 27.509466; 82.040073Coordinates: 27°30′34″N 82°02′24″E / 27.509466°N 82.040073°E / 27.509466; 82.040073. Photo gallery[edit]

Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana
Jetavana
monastery.

Gandhakuti (Buddha's hut) in Jetavana.

Scene in Jetavana.

Scene in Jetavana, showing some small stupas.

Buddhist monks meditating under the Anandabodhi tree.

See also[edit]

Anathapindika Kassapa Buddha Koṇāgamana Buddha Kakusandha Buddha List of the twenty-eight Buddhas

References[edit]

^ DhA.i.3; BuA.3; AA.i.314 ^ Arch. Survey of India, 1907-8, pp.81-131

External links[edit]

Entry on Jetavana
Jetavana
in the Buddhist Dictionary of Pali
Pali
Proper Names Description of Jetavana
Jetavana
by the Chinese pilgrim monk Faxian
Faxian
(399-414 AC) Suttas spoken by Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
concerning Jetavana: (more)

Potthapada Sutta - About Potthapada Bhaya-bherava Sutta - Fear & Terror''

Extracts from books on the subject of Jetavana Dedication ceremony of the Jetavana
Jetavana
monastery by Anathapindika

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