The Info List - Jerome Bruner

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Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an American psychologist who made significant contributions to human cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational psychology. Bruner was a senior research fellow at the New York University School of Law.[1] He received a B.A. in 1937 from Duke University and a Ph.D.
from Harvard University
Harvard University
in 1941.[2][3][4][5] A Review of General Psychology
survey, published in 2002, ranked Bruner as the 28th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.[6]


1 Education and early life 2 Career and research

2.1 Cognitive
psychology 2.2 Developmental psychology 2.3 Educational psychology 2.4 Language development 2.5 Narrative construction of reality 2.6 Legal psychology

3 Publications

3.1 Books 3.2 Selected articles

4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Education and early life[edit] Bruner was born blind (due to cataracts) on October 1, 1915, in New York City, to Herman and Rose Bruner, who were Polish Jewish immigrants.[7][8] An operation at age 2 restored his vision. He received a bachelor's degree in psychology, in 1937 from Duke, and went on to earn a master's degree in psychology in 1939 and then a doctorate in psychology in 1941 from Harvard.[2] In 1939, Bruner published his first psychological article on the effect of thymus extract on the sexual behavior of the female rat.[9] During World War II, Bruner served on the Psychological Warfare Division
Psychological Warfare Division
of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force committee under General Dwight D. Eisenhower, researching social psychological phenomena.[7][10] Career and research[edit] In 1945, Bruner returned to Harvard as a psychology professor and was heavily involved in research relating to cognitive psychology and educational psychology. In 1970, Bruner left Harvard to teach at the University of Oxford
University of Oxford
in the United Kingdom. He returned to the United States in 1980 to continue his research in developmental psychology. In 1991, Bruner joined the faculty at New York University. As an adjunct professor at NYU School of Law, Bruner studied how psychology affects legal practice. During his career, Bruner was awarded honorary doctorates from Yale University, Columbia University, the Sorbonne, the ISPA Instituto Universitário, as well as colleges and universities in such locations as Berlin
and Rome, and was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.[5] He turned 100 in October 2015[11] and died on June 5, 2016.[4][12] Cognitive
psychology[edit] Main article: Cognitive
psychology Bruner is one of the pioneers of cognitive psychology in the United States, which began through his own early research on sensation and perception as being active, rather than passive processes. In 1947, Bruner published his study Value and Need as Organizing Factors in Perception, in which poor and rich children were asked to estimate the size of coins or wooden disks the size of American pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and half-dollars. The results showed that the value and need the poor and rich children associated with coins caused them to significantly overestimate the size of the coins, especially when compared to their more accurate estimations of the same size disks.[13] Similarly, another study conducted by Bruner and Leo Postman showed slower reaction times and less accurate answers when a deck of playing cards reversed the color of the suit symbol for some cards (e.g. red spades and black hearts).[14] These series of experiments issued in what some called the 'New Look' psychology, which challenged psychologists to study not just an organism's response to a stimulus, but also its internal interpretation.[7] After these experiments on perception, Bruner turned his attention to the actual cognitions that he had indirectly studied in his perception studies. In 1956, Bruner published the book A Study of Thinking, which formally initiated the study of cognitive psychology. Soon afterward Bruner helped found the Harvard Center of Cognitive
Studies. After a time, Bruner began to research other topics in psychology, but in 1990 he returned to the subject and gave a series of lectures, later compiled into the book Acts of Meaning. In these lectures, Bruner refuted the computer model for studying the mind, advocating a more holistic understanding of the mind and its cognitions. Developmental psychology[edit] Main article: Developmental psychology Beginning around 1967, Bruner turned his attention to the subject of developmental psychology and studied the way children learn. He coined the term "scaffolding" to describe the way children often build on the information they have already mastered. In his research on the development of children (1966) Bruner proposed three modes of representation: enactive representation (action-based), iconic representation (image-based), and symbolic representation (language-based). Rather than neatly delineated stages, the modes of representation are integrated and only loosely sequential as they "translate" into each other. Symbolic representation remains the ultimate mode, for it "is clearly the most mysterious of the three." Bruner's theory suggests it is efficacious, when faced with new material, to follow a progression from enactive to iconic to symbolic representation; this holds true even for adult learners. A true instructional designer, Bruner's work also suggests that a learner (even of a very young age) is capable of learning any material so long as the instruction is organized appropriately, in sharp contrast to the beliefs of Piaget and other stage theorists. (Driscoll, Marcy). Like Bloom's Taxonomy, Bruner suggests a system of coding in which people form a hierarchical arrangement of related categories. Each successively higher level of categories becomes more specific, echoing Benjamin Bloom's understanding of knowledge acquisition as well as the related idea of instructional scaffolding. In accordance with this understanding of learning, Bruner proposed the spiral curriculum, a teaching approach in which each subject or skill area is revisited at intervals, at a more sophisticated level each time. First there is basic knowledge of a subject, then more sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first discussed. This system is used in China and India. Bruner's spiral curriculum, however, draws heavily from evolution to explain how to learn better and thus it drew criticism from conservatives. In the United States
United States
classes are split by grade—life sciences in 9th grade, chemistry in 10th, physics in 11th. The spiral teaches life sciences, chem, physics all in one year, then two subjects, then one, then all three again to understand how they mold together.[15] Bruner also believes learning should be spurred by interest in the material rather than tests or punishment, since one learns best when they find the knowledge they are obtaining appealing. Educational psychology[edit] Main article: Educational psychology While Bruner was at Harvard he published a series of works about his assessment of current educational systems and ways that education could be improved. In 1961, he published the book Process of Education. Bruner also served as a member of the Educational Panel of the President's Science Advisory Committee during the presidencies of John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Referencing his overall view that education should not focus merely on memorizing facts, Bruner wrote in Process of Education that "knowing how something is put together is worth a thousand facts about it." From 1964–1996 Bruner sought to develop a complete curriculum for the educational system that would meet the needs of students in three main areas which he called Man: A Course of Study. Bruner wanted to create an educational environment that would focus on (1) what was uniquely human about human beings, (2) how humans got that way and (3) how humans could become more so.[9] In 1966, Bruner published another book relevant to education, Towards a Theory of Instruction, and then in 1973, another book, The Relevance of Education. Finally, in 1996, in The Culture of Education, Bruner reassessed the state of educational practices three decades after he had begun his educational research. Bruner was also credited with helping found the Head Start early childcare program.[16] Bruner was deeply impressed by his 1995 visit to the preschools of Reggio Emilia and has established a collaborative relationship with them to improve educational systems internationally. Equally important was the relationship with the Italian Ministry of Education which officially recognized the value of this innovative experience. Language development[edit] Main article: Language development In 1972, Bruner was appointed Watts Professor of Experimental Psychology
at the University of Oxford, where he remained until 1980. In his Oxford years, Bruner focused on early language development. Rejecting the nativist account of language acquisition proposed by Noam Chomsky, Bruner offered an alternative in the form of an interactionist or social interactionist theory of language development. In this approach, the social and interpersonal nature of language was emphasized, appealing to the work of philosophers such as Ludwig Wittgenstein, John L. Austin and John Searle
John Searle
for theoretical grounding.[citation needed] Following Lev Vygotsky
Lev Vygotsky
the Russian theoretician of socio-cultural development, Bruner proposed that social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of cognition in general and of language in particular. He emphasized that children learn language in order to communicate, and, at the same time, they also learn the linguistic code. Meaningful language is acquired in the context of meaningful parent-infant interaction, learning “scaffolded” or supported by the child’s language acquisition support system (LASS). At Oxford Bruner worked with a large group of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows to understand how young children manage to crack the linguistic code, among them Alison Garton, Alison Gopnik, Magda Kalmar (hu:Kalmár Magda (pszichológus)), Alan Leslie, Andrew Meltzoff, Anat Ninio, Roy Pea, Susan Sugarman,[17] Michael Scaife, Marian Sigman,[18] Kathy Sylva and many others. Much emphasis was placed on employing the then-revolutionary method of videotaped home-observations, Bruner showing the way to a new wave of researchers to get out of the laboratory and take on the complexities of naturally occurring events in a child’s life. This work was published in a large number of journal articles, and in 1983 Bruner published a summary in the book Child’s talk: Learning to Use Language. This decade of research established Bruner at the helm of the interactionist approach to language development, exploring such themes as the acquisition of communicative intents and the development of their linguistic expression, the interactive context of language use in early childhood, and the role of parental input and scaffolding behavior in the acquisition of linguistic forms. This work rests on the assumptions of a social constructivist theory of meaning according to which meaningful participation in the social life of a group as well as meaningful use of language involve an interpersonal, intersubjective, collaborative process of creating shared meaning. The elucidation of this process became the focus of Bruner’s next period of work. Narrative construction of reality[edit] In 1980, Bruner returned to the United States, taking up the position of professor at the New School for Social Research in New York City
New York City
in 1981. For the next decade, he worked on the development of a theory of the narrative construction of reality, culminating in several seminal publications. His book Actual Minds, Possible Worlds has been cited by over 16,100 scholarly publications, making it one of the most influential works of the 20th century. Legal psychology[edit] Main article: Legal psychology In 1991, Bruner arrived at NYU as a visiting professor to do research and to found the Colloquium on the Theory of Legal Practice. The goal of this institution is to "study how law is practiced and how its practice can be understood by using tools developed in anthropology, psychology, linguistics, and literary theory."[19] Publications[edit] Books[edit]

A Study of Thinking. 1956.  The Process of Education. 1960. ISBN 978-0-674-71001-6.  Studies in Cognitive
Growth. 1966.  Toward a Theory of Instruction. 1966. ISBN 978-0-674-89701-4.  Processes of Cognitive
Growth: Infancy. 1968.  Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the Psychology
of Knowing. W. W. Norton & Company. 1973. ISBN 978-0-393-09363-6.  On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand. 1979. ISBN 978-0-674-63525-8.  Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language. 1983.  In Search of Mind: Essays in Autobiography. 1983.  Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. 1985. ISBN 978-0-674-00366-8.  "Foreword". The Mind
of a Mnemonist: A Little Book about a Vast Memory. 1987. ISBN 978-0-674-57622-3.  Acts of Meaning. 1990. ISBN 978-0-674-00361-3.  The Culture of Education. 1996. ISBN 978-0-674-17953-0.  Minding the Law. 2000. ISBN 978-0-674-00816-8.  Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life. 2003. ISBN 978-0-674-01099-4. 

Selected articles[edit]

Bruner, J. S. & Goodman, C. C. (1947). "Value and need as organizing factors in perception". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 42, 33–44. Bruner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1947). "Tension and tension-release as organizing factors in perception". Journal of Personality, 15, 300–308. Bruner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1949). "On the perception of incongruity: A paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206–223. Bruner, J. S. (1975). "The ontogenesis of speech acts". Journal of Child Language, 2, 1–19. (The most cited article in the Journal of Child Language) Scaife, M., Bruner, J. S. (1975). "Capacity for joint visual attention in the infant". Nature, 253, 265–266. Bruner, J. S. (1975/76). "From communication to language: A psychological perspective". Cognition, 3, 255–287. Bruner, J. S. (1976). "Prelinguistic prerequisites of speech". In R. Campbell and P. Smith (Eds.), Recent Advances in the Psychology
of Language, 4a, 199–214. New York: Plenum Press. Bruner, J. S., and Sherwood, V. (1976). "Early rule structure: The case of peekaboo". In J. S. Bruner, A. Jolly, and K. Sylva (Eds.), Play: Its Role in Evolution and Development. London: Penguin Books. Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). "The role of tutoring in problem solving". Journal of Child Psychology
and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 17, 89–100. Bruner, J. S. (1977). "Early social interaction and language acquisition". In H. R. Schaffer (Ed.), Studies in Mother-infant Interaction (pp. 271–289). London: Academic Press. Bruner, J. S., Caudill, E. and Ninio, A. (1977). "Language and experience". In R. S. Peters (Ed.), John Dewey
John Dewey
Reconsidered. Routledge & Kegan Paul. Ninio, A. and Bruner, J. S. (1978). "The achievement and antecedents of labelling". Journal of Child Language, 5, 1–15. Reprinted in M. B. Franklin and S. S. Barten (eds.), “Child Language: A Reader” (pp. 36–49). New York: Oxford University Press (1988). Ratner, N. and Bruner, J. S. (1978). "Games, social exchange and the acquisition of language". Journal of Child Language, 5, 391–401. Bruner, J. S. (1978). "On prelinguistic prerequisites of speech". In R. N. Campbell and P. T. Smith, (eds.), Recent Advances in the Psychology
of Language (Vol. 4a. pp. 194–214). New York: Plenum Press. Bruner, J. S. (1978). "Learning how to do things with words". In J. S. Bruner and R. A. Garton, (eds), Human Growth and Development (pp. 62–84). Oxford: Clarendon Press. Bruner, J. S. (1978). "The role of dialogue in language acquisition". In A. Sinclair, R. J. Jarvella, and W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), The Child’s Conception of Language (pp. 241–256). New York: Springer-Verlag. Bruner, J. S., Roy, C., and Ratner, N. (1982). "The beginnings of request". In K. E. Nelson, (Ed.), Children's Language (Vol. 3. pp. 91–138). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bruner, J. S. (1983). "The acquisition of pragmatic commitments". In R. Golinkoff, (Ed.), The Transition from Prelinguistic to Linguistic Communication (pp. 27 42). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Bruner, J. (1995). "From joint attention to the meeting of minds". In C. Moore & P. Dunham (eds.), Joint Attention: Its Origins And Role In Development. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. "The Narrative Construction of Reality" (1991). Critical Inquiry, 18:1, 1–21. "The Autobiographical Process" (1995). Current Sociology. 43.2, 161–177. Shore, Bradd (March 1997). "Keeping the Conversation Going: An Interview with Jerome Bruner". Ethos. Wiley. 25 (1): 7–62. JSTOR 640457.  Mattingly, C; Lutkehaus, N. C.; Throop, C. J. (2008). "Bruner's Search for Meaning: A Conversation between Psychology
and Anthropology". Ethos. 36 (1): 1–28. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1352.2008.00001.x. PMC 2919784 . PMID 20706551. 

See also[edit]

Contextualism Constructionism Constructivism Cognitivism Cognitivism (learning theory) Cognitive
linguistics Cognitive
psychology Cognitive
revolution Narrative therapy Michael White


^ "In Memoriam: Jerome Bruner, 1915–2016". nyu.edu.  ^ a b Bruner, Jerome Seymour (1941). A psychological analysis of international radio broadcasts of belligerent nations (PhD thesis). Harvard University. OCLC 83325571.  ^ President and Fellows of Harvard College (2007). "About the Department". The Department of Psychology, Harvard University. Retrieved 15 December 2011.  ^ a b Greenfield, Patricia Marks (2016). " Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
(1915–2016) Psychologist
who shaped ideas about perception, cognition and education". Nature. London: Springer Nature. 535 (7611): 232–232. doi:10.1038/535232a.  ^ a b "NYU Psychology, Jerome Bruner, Research Professor of Psychology". nyu.edu. New York University. Archived from the original on 2016-03-05.  ^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.; Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey, Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152. doi:10.1037/1089-2680.6.2.139. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al. (link) ^ a b c Bourgoin, Suzan Michele (1997). Encyclopedia of World Biography. Gale. ISBN 0-7876-2549-3.  ^ Schudel, Matt (2016). Jerome S. Bruner, influential psychologist of perception, dies at 100. The Washington Post, June 7, 2016 ^ a b Palmer, Joy (2001). Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From Piaget to the Present. Taylor & Francis Inc. ISBN 0-415-22409-8.  ^ Bruner in Inside the Psychologist's Studio on YouTube
(interview March 2, 2013) ^ Popova, Maria (2015-10-01). "Pioneering Psychologist
Jerome Bruner on the Act of Discovery and the Key to True Learning". BrainPickings.org. Retrieved 2015-10-03.  ^ Benedict Carey. "Jerome S. Bruner, Who Shaped Understanding of the Young Mind, Dies at 100", The New York Times, June 8, 2016. Accessed June 9, 2016. ^ Bruner, Jerome; Goodman, Cecile (1947). "Value and Need as Organizing Factors in Percepton". Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 42: 33–44. doi:10.1037/h0058484.  ^ "On the Perception
of Incongruity: A Paradigm" by Jerome S. Bruner and Leo Postman. Journal of Personality, 18, pp. 206–223. 1949. ^ "The Spiral Curriculum" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-02-21.  ^ Bruner, Jerome. "NYU Faculty Page". Retrieved 2 December 2011.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-07. Retrieved 2012-07-12.  ^ "Faculty Database – David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA". Archived from the original on 2012-12-15.  ^ Bruner, Jerome. "Jerome Bruner:Biography". Retrieved 2 December 2011. 

External links[edit]

Find more aboutJerome Brunerat's sister projects

Media from Wikimedia Commons Data from Wikidata

Video interview Works by or about Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
at Internet Archive 50th anniversary event of Bruner's The Process of Education. April 27, 2011. Bruner's talk at 1:54:00 on YouTube

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Presidents of the American Psychological Association


G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1892) George Trumbull Ladd
George Trumbull Ladd
(1893) William James
William James
(1894) James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell
(1895) George Stuart Fullerton (1896) James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin
(1897) Hugo Münsterberg
Hugo Münsterberg
(1898) John Dewey
John Dewey
(1899) Joseph Jastrow
Joseph Jastrow


Josiah Royce
Josiah Royce
(1901) Edmund Sanford (1902) William Lowe Bryan
William Lowe Bryan
(1903) William James
William James
(1904) Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins
(1905) James Rowland Angell
James Rowland Angell
(1906) Henry Rutgers Marshall (1907) George M. Stratton
George M. Stratton
(1908) Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd
(1909) Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
(1910) Carl Seashore
Carl Seashore
(1911) Edward Thorndike
Edward Thorndike
(1912) Howard C. Warren
Howard C. Warren
(1913) Robert S. Woodworth
Robert S. Woodworth
(1914) John B. Watson
John B. Watson
(1915) Raymond Dodge (1916) Robert Yerkes
Robert Yerkes
(1917) John Wallace Baird (1918) Walter Dill Scott (1919) Shepherd Ivory Franz
Shepherd Ivory Franz
(1920) Margaret Floy Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn
(1921) Knight Dunlap (1922) Lewis Terman
Lewis Terman
(1923) G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall
(1924) I. Madison Bentley (1925)


Harvey A. Carr (1926) Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth
(1927) Edwin Boring
Edwin Boring
(1928) Karl Lashley (1929) Herbert Langfeld (1930) Walter Samuel Hunter (1931) Walter Richard Miles (1932) Louis Leon Thurstone (1933) Joseph Peterson (1934) Albert Poffenberger (1935) Clark L. Hull
Clark L. Hull
(1936) Edward C. Tolman
Edward C. Tolman
(1937) John Dashiell (1938) Gordon Allport (1939) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1940) Herbert Woodrow (1941) Calvin Perry Stone (1942) John Edward Anderson (1943) Gardner Murphy
Gardner Murphy
(1944) Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie
(1945) Henry Garrett (1946) Carl Rogers
Carl Rogers
(1947) Donald Marquis (1948) Ernest Hilgard (1949) J. P. Guilford (1950)


Robert Richardson Sears
Robert Richardson Sears
(1951) J. McVicker Hunt (1952) Laurance F. Shaffer (1953) Orval Hobart Mowrer (1954) E. Lowell Kelly (1955) Theodore Newcomb (1956) Lee Cronbach (1957) Harry Harlow
Harry Harlow
(1958) Wolfgang Köhler (1959) Donald O. Hebb (1960) Neal E. Miller
Neal E. Miller
(1961) Paul E. Meehl (1962) Charles E. Osgood (1963) Quinn McNemar (1964) Jerome Bruner
Jerome Bruner
(1965) Nicholas Hobbs (1966) Gardner Lindzey (1967) Abraham Maslow
Abraham Maslow
(1968) George Armitage Miller
George Armitage Miller
(1969) George Albee (1970) Kenneth B. Clark (1971) Anne Anastasi (1972) Leona E. Tyler (1973) Albert Bandura
Albert Bandura
(1974) Donald T. Campbell
Donald T. Campbell


Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976) Theodore H. Blau (1977) M. Brewster Smith (1978) Nicholas Cummings (1979) Florence Denmark
Florence Denmark
(1980) John J. Conger (1981) William Bevan (1982) Max Siegel (1983) Janet Taylor Spence (1984) Robert Perloff (1985) Logan Wright (1986) Bonnie Strickland (1987) Raymond D. Fowler (1988) Joseph Matarazzo (1989) Stanley Graham (1990) Charles Spielberger (1991) Jack Wiggins Jr. (1992) Frank Farley (1993) Ronald E. Fox (1994) Robert J. Resnick (1995) Dorothy Cantor (1996) Norman Abeles (1997) Martin Seligman
Martin Seligman
(1998) Richard Suinn (1999) Patrick H. DeLeon (2000)


Norine G. Johnson (2001) Philip Zimbardo
Philip Zimbardo
(2002) Robert Sternberg (2003) Diane F. Halpern (2004) Ronald F. Levant (2005) Gerald Koocher (2006) Sharon Brehm (2007) Alan E. Kazdin (2008) James H. Bray (2009) Carol D. Goodheart (2010) Melba J. T. Vasquez (2011) Suzanne Bennett Johnson (2012) Donald N. Bersoff (2013) Nadine Kaslow
Nadine Kaslow
(2014) Barry S. Anton (2015) Susan H. McDaniel (2016) Antonio Puente (2017) Jessica Henderson Daniel (2018)

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E. L. Thorndike Award

Recipients of the E. L. Thorndike Award for Career Achievement in Educational Psychology


1964: Sidney L. Pressey 1965: William Brownell 1966: B. F. Skinner 1967: Lee Cronbach 1968: Cyril Burt 1969: Robert J. Havighurst


1970: John Bissell Carroll 1971: Robert L. Thorndike 1972: John C. Flanagan 1973: Benjamin Bloom 1974: Robert M. Gagné 1975: J. P. Guilford 1976: Jean Piaget 1977: David Ausubel 1978: Julian Stanley 1979: Patrick Suppes


1980: Richard C. Atkinson 1981: Jerome Bruner 1982: Robert Glaser 1983: Jeanne Chall 1984: Anne Anastasi 1985: Ernst Rothkopf 1986: Nathaniel Gage 1987: Merlin Wittrock 1988: Wilbert J. McKeachie 1989: Frank Farley


1990: Richard E. Snow 1991: Herbert Klausmeier 1992: Robert L. Linn 1993: Samuel Messick 1994: James Greeno 1995: Lee Shulman 1996: David Berliner 1997: Richard C. Anderson 1998: Lauren Resnick 1999: Albert Bandura


2000: Richard E. Mayer 2001: John D. Bransford 2002: Joel Levin 2003: Robert Sternberg 2004: G. Michael Pressley 2005: Jacquelynne Eccles 2006: Patricia Alexander 2007: Jere Brophy 2008: Bernard Weiner 2009: Carol Dweck


2010: Richard Shavelson 2011: Barry Zimmerman 2012: Keith Stanovich 2013: Sandra Graham 2014: Stephen J. Ceci 2015: Michelene Chi 2016: Edward Haertel 2017: Robert Slavin

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WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108296631 LCCN: n79119142 ISNI: 0000 0001 2146 9148 GND: 118927051 SELIBR: 179444 SUDOC: 026756714 BNF: cb11894332z (data) BIBSYS: 90108789 NDL: 00434638 BNE: XX909