Jerome Seymour Bruner (October 1, 1915 – June 5, 2016) was an
American psychologist who made significant contributions to human
cognitive psychology and cognitive learning theory in educational
psychology. Bruner was a senior research fellow at the New York
University School of Law. He received a B.A. in 1937 from Duke
University and a
Harvard University in 1941. A
Review of General
Psychology survey, published in 2002, ranked Bruner
as the 28th most cited psychologist of the 20th century.
1 Education and early life
2 Career and research
2.2 Developmental psychology
2.3 Educational psychology
2.4 Language development
2.5 Narrative construction of reality
2.6 Legal psychology
3.2 Selected articles
4 See also
6 External links
Education and early life
Bruner was born blind (due to cataracts) on October 1, 1915, in New
York City, to Herman and Rose Bruner, who were Polish Jewish
immigrants. An operation at age 2 restored his vision. He
received a bachelor's degree in psychology, in 1937 from Duke, and
went on to earn a master's degree in psychology in 1939 and then a
doctorate in psychology in 1941 from Harvard. In 1939, Bruner
published his first psychological article on the effect of thymus
extract on the sexual behavior of the female rat. During World War
II, Bruner served on the
Psychological Warfare Division
Psychological Warfare Division of the Supreme
Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force committee under General Dwight
D. Eisenhower, researching social psychological phenomena.
Career and research
In 1945, Bruner returned to Harvard as a psychology professor and was
heavily involved in research relating to cognitive psychology and
educational psychology. In 1970, Bruner left Harvard to teach at the
University of Oxford
University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. He returned to the United
States in 1980 to continue his research in developmental psychology.
In 1991, Bruner joined the faculty at New York University.
As an adjunct professor at NYU School of Law, Bruner studied how
psychology affects legal practice. During his career, Bruner was
awarded honorary doctorates from Yale University, Columbia University,
the Sorbonne, the ISPA Instituto Universitário, as well as colleges
and universities in such locations as
Berlin and Rome, and was a
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He turned 100
in October 2015 and died on June 5, 2016.
Bruner is one of the pioneers of cognitive psychology in the United
States, which began through his own early research on sensation and
perception as being active, rather than passive processes.
In 1947, Bruner published his study Value and Need as Organizing
Factors in Perception, in which poor and rich children were asked to
estimate the size of coins or wooden disks the size of American
pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters and half-dollars. The results showed
that the value and need the poor and rich children associated with
coins caused them to significantly overestimate the size of the coins,
especially when compared to their more accurate estimations of the
same size disks.
Similarly, another study conducted by Bruner and Leo Postman showed
slower reaction times and less accurate answers when a deck of playing
cards reversed the color of the suit symbol for some cards (e.g. red
spades and black hearts). These series of experiments issued in
what some called the 'New Look' psychology, which challenged
psychologists to study not just an organism's response to a stimulus,
but also its internal interpretation. After these experiments on
perception, Bruner turned his attention to the actual cognitions that
he had indirectly studied in his perception studies.
In 1956, Bruner published the book A Study of Thinking, which formally
initiated the study of cognitive psychology. Soon afterward Bruner
helped found the Harvard Center of
Cognitive Studies. After a time,
Bruner began to research other topics in psychology, but in 1990 he
returned to the subject and gave a series of lectures, later compiled
into the book Acts of Meaning. In these lectures, Bruner refuted the
computer model for studying the mind, advocating a more holistic
understanding of the mind and its cognitions.
Main article: Developmental psychology
Beginning around 1967, Bruner turned his attention to the subject of
developmental psychology and studied the way children learn. He coined
the term "scaffolding" to describe the way children often build on the
information they have already mastered. In his research on the
development of children (1966) Bruner proposed three modes of
representation: enactive representation (action-based), iconic
representation (image-based), and symbolic representation
(language-based). Rather than neatly delineated stages, the modes of
representation are integrated and only loosely sequential as they
"translate" into each other. Symbolic representation remains the
ultimate mode, for it "is clearly the most mysterious of the three."
Bruner's theory suggests it is efficacious, when faced with new
material, to follow a progression from enactive to iconic to symbolic
representation; this holds true even for adult learners. A true
instructional designer, Bruner's work also suggests that a learner
(even of a very young age) is capable of learning any material so long
as the instruction is organized appropriately, in sharp contrast to
the beliefs of Piaget and other stage theorists. (Driscoll, Marcy).
Like Bloom's Taxonomy, Bruner suggests a system of coding in which
people form a hierarchical arrangement of related categories. Each
successively higher level of categories becomes more specific, echoing
Benjamin Bloom's understanding of knowledge acquisition as well as the
related idea of instructional scaffolding.
In accordance with this understanding of learning, Bruner proposed the
spiral curriculum, a teaching approach in which each subject or skill
area is revisited at intervals, at a more sophisticated level each
time. First there is basic knowledge of a subject, then more
sophistication is added, reinforcing principles that were first
discussed. This system is used in China and India. Bruner's spiral
curriculum, however, draws heavily from evolution to explain how to
learn better and thus it drew criticism from conservatives. In the
United States classes are split by grade—life sciences in 9th grade,
chemistry in 10th, physics in 11th. The spiral teaches life sciences,
chem, physics all in one year, then two subjects, then one, then all
three again to understand how they mold together. Bruner also
believes learning should be spurred by interest in the material rather
than tests or punishment, since one learns best when they find the
knowledge they are obtaining appealing.
Main article: Educational psychology
While Bruner was at Harvard he published a series of works about his
assessment of current educational systems and ways that education
could be improved. In 1961, he published the book Process of
Education. Bruner also served as a member of the Educational Panel of
the President's Science Advisory Committee during the presidencies of
John F. Kennedy and Lyndon Johnson. Referencing his overall view that
education should not focus merely on memorizing facts, Bruner wrote in
Process of Education that "knowing how something is put together is
worth a thousand facts about it." From 1964–1996 Bruner sought to
develop a complete curriculum for the educational system that would
meet the needs of students in three main areas which he called Man: A
Course of Study. Bruner wanted to create an educational environment
that would focus on (1) what was uniquely human about human beings,
(2) how humans got that way and (3) how humans could become more
so. In 1966, Bruner published another book relevant to education,
Towards a Theory of Instruction, and then in 1973, another book, The
Relevance of Education. Finally, in 1996, in The Culture of Education,
Bruner reassessed the state of educational practices three decades
after he had begun his educational research. Bruner was also credited
with helping found the Head Start early childcare program. Bruner
was deeply impressed by his 1995 visit to the preschools of Reggio
Emilia and has established a collaborative relationship with them to
improve educational systems internationally. Equally important was the
relationship with the Italian Ministry of Education which officially
recognized the value of this innovative experience.
Main article: Language development
In 1972, Bruner was appointed Watts Professor of Experimental
Psychology at the University of Oxford, where he remained until 1980.
In his Oxford years, Bruner focused on early language development.
Rejecting the nativist account of language acquisition proposed by
Noam Chomsky, Bruner offered an alternative in the form of an
interactionist or social interactionist theory of language
development. In this approach, the social and interpersonal nature of
language was emphasized, appealing to the work of philosophers such as
John L. Austin and
John Searle for theoretical
grounding. Following
Lev Vygotsky the Russian
theoretician of socio-cultural development, Bruner proposed that
social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of
cognition in general and of language in particular. He emphasized that
children learn language in order to communicate, and, at the same
time, they also learn the linguistic code. Meaningful language is
acquired in the context of meaningful parent-infant interaction,
learning “scaffolded” or supported by the child’s language
acquisition support system (LASS).
At Oxford Bruner worked with a large group of graduate students and
post-doctoral fellows to understand how young children manage to crack
the linguistic code, among them Alison Garton, Alison Gopnik, Magda
Kalmar (hu:Kalmár Magda (pszichológus)), Alan Leslie, Andrew
Meltzoff, Anat Ninio, Roy Pea, Susan Sugarman, Michael Scaife,
Marian Sigman, Kathy Sylva and many others. Much emphasis was
placed on employing the then-revolutionary method of videotaped
home-observations, Bruner showing the way to a new wave of researchers
to get out of the laboratory and take on the complexities of naturally
occurring events in a child’s life. This work was published in a
large number of journal articles, and in 1983 Bruner published a
summary in the book Child’s talk: Learning to Use Language.
This decade of research established Bruner at the helm of the
interactionist approach to language development, exploring such themes
as the acquisition of communicative intents and the development of
their linguistic expression, the interactive context of language use
in early childhood, and the role of parental input and scaffolding
behavior in the acquisition of linguistic forms. This work rests on
the assumptions of a social constructivist theory of meaning according
to which meaningful participation in the social life of a group as
well as meaningful use of language involve an interpersonal,
intersubjective, collaborative process of creating shared meaning. The
elucidation of this process became the focus of Bruner’s next period
Narrative construction of reality
In 1980, Bruner returned to the United States, taking up the position
of professor at the
New School for Social Research in
New York City
New York City in
1981. For the next decade, he worked on the development of a theory of
the narrative construction of reality, culminating in several seminal
publications. His book Actual Minds, Possible Worlds has been cited by
over 16,100 scholarly publications, making it one of the most
influential works of the 20th century.
Main article: Legal psychology
In 1991, Bruner arrived at NYU as a visiting professor to do research
and to found the Colloquium on the Theory of Legal Practice. The goal
of this institution is to "study how law is practiced and how its
practice can be understood by using tools developed in anthropology,
psychology, linguistics, and literary theory."
A Study of Thinking. 1956.
The Process of Education. 1960. ISBN 978-0-674-71001-6.
Cognitive Growth. 1966.
Toward a Theory of Instruction. 1966.
Cognitive Growth: Infancy. 1968.
Beyond the Information Given: Studies in the
Psychology of Knowing. W.
W. Norton & Company. 1973. ISBN 978-0-393-09363-6.
On Knowing: Essays for the Left Hand. 1979.
Child's Talk: Learning to Use Language. 1983.
In Search of Mind: Essays in Autobiography. 1983.
Actual Minds, Possible Worlds. 1985.
Mind of a Mnemonist: A Little Book about a Vast
Memory. 1987. ISBN 978-0-674-57622-3.
Acts of Meaning. 1990. ISBN 978-0-674-00361-3.
The Culture of Education. 1996. ISBN 978-0-674-17953-0.
Minding the Law. 2000. ISBN 978-0-674-00816-8.
Making Stories: Law, Literature, Life. 2003.
Bruner, J. S. & Goodman, C. C. (1947). "Value and need as
organizing factors in perception". Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology, 42, 33–44.
Bruner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1947). "Tension and tension-release
as organizing factors in perception". Journal of Personality, 15,
Bruner, J. S. & Postman, L. (1949). "On the perception of
incongruity: A paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206–223.
Bruner, J. S. (1975). "The ontogenesis of speech acts". Journal of
Child Language, 2, 1–19. (The most cited article in the Journal of
Scaife, M., Bruner, J. S. (1975). "Capacity for joint visual attention
in the infant". Nature, 253, 265–266.
Bruner, J. S. (1975/76). "From communication to language: A
psychological perspective". Cognition, 3, 255–287.
Bruner, J. S. (1976). "Prelinguistic prerequisites of speech". In R.
Campbell and P. Smith (Eds.), Recent Advances in the
Language, 4a, 199–214. New York: Plenum Press.
Bruner, J. S., and Sherwood, V. (1976). "Early rule structure: The
case of peekaboo". In J. S. Bruner, A. Jolly, and K. Sylva (Eds.),
Play: Its Role in Evolution and Development. London: Penguin Books.
Wood, D., Bruner, J., & Ross, G. (1976). "The role of tutoring in
problem solving". Journal of Child
Psychology and Psychiatry and
Allied Disciplines, 17, 89–100.
Bruner, J. S. (1977). "Early social interaction and language
acquisition". In H. R. Schaffer (Ed.), Studies in Mother-infant
Interaction (pp. 271–289). London: Academic Press.
Bruner, J. S., Caudill, E. and Ninio, A. (1977). "Language and
experience". In R. S. Peters (Ed.),
John Dewey Reconsidered. Routledge
& Kegan Paul.
Ninio, A. and Bruner, J. S. (1978). "The achievement and antecedents
of labelling". Journal of Child Language, 5, 1–15. Reprinted in M.
B. Franklin and S. S. Barten (eds.), “Child Language: A Reader”
(pp. 36–49). New York: Oxford University Press (1988).
Ratner, N. and Bruner, J. S. (1978). "Games, social exchange and the
acquisition of language". Journal of Child Language, 5, 391–401.
Bruner, J. S. (1978). "On prelinguistic prerequisites of speech". In
R. N. Campbell and P. T. Smith, (eds.), Recent Advances in the
Psychology of Language (Vol. 4a. pp. 194–214). New York: Plenum
Bruner, J. S. (1978). "Learning how to do things with words". In J. S.
Bruner and R. A. Garton, (eds), Human Growth and Development
(pp. 62–84). Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bruner, J. S. (1978). "The role of dialogue in language acquisition".
In A. Sinclair, R. J. Jarvella, and W. J. M. Levelt (Eds.), The
Child’s Conception of Language (pp. 241–256). New York:
Bruner, J. S., Roy, C., and Ratner, N. (1982). "The beginnings of
request". In K. E. Nelson, (Ed.), Children's Language (Vol. 3.
pp. 91–138). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Bruner, J. S. (1983). "The acquisition of pragmatic commitments". In
R. Golinkoff, (Ed.), The Transition from Prelinguistic to Linguistic
Communication (pp. 27 42). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum
Bruner, J. (1995). "From joint attention to the meeting of minds". In
C. Moore & P. Dunham (eds.), Joint Attention: Its Origins And Role
In Development. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
"The Narrative Construction of Reality" (1991). Critical Inquiry,
"The Autobiographical Process" (1995). Current Sociology. 43.2,
Shore, Bradd (March 1997). "Keeping the Conversation Going: An
Interview with Jerome Bruner". Ethos. Wiley. 25 (1): 7–62.
Mattingly, C; Lutkehaus, N. C.; Throop, C. J. (2008). "Bruner's Search
for Meaning: A Conversation between
Psychology and Anthropology".
Ethos. 36 (1): 1–28. doi:10.1111/j.1548-1352.2008.00001.x.
PMC 2919784 . PMID 20706551.
Cognitivism (learning theory)
^ "In Memoriam: Jerome Bruner, 1915–2016". nyu.edu.
^ a b Bruner, Jerome Seymour (1941). A psychological analysis of
international radio broadcasts of belligerent nations (PhD thesis).
Harvard University. OCLC 83325571.
^ President and Fellows of Harvard College (2007). "About the
Department". The Department of Psychology, Harvard University.
Retrieved 15 December 2011.
^ a b Greenfield, Patricia Marks (2016). "
Jerome Bruner (1915–2016)
Psychologist who shaped ideas about perception, cognition and
education". Nature. London: Springer Nature. 535 (7611): 232–232.
^ a b "NYU Psychology, Jerome Bruner, Research Professor of
Psychology". nyu.edu. New York University. Archived from the original
^ Haggbloom, Steven J.; Warnick, Jason E.; Jones, Vinessa K.;
Yarbrough, Gary L.; Russell, Tenea M.; Borecky, Chris M.; McGahhey,
Reagan; et al. (2002). "The 100 most eminent psychologists of the 20th
century". Review of General Psychology. 6 (2): 139–152.
doi:10.1037/1089-2618.104.22.168. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.
^ a b c Bourgoin, Suzan Michele (1997). Encyclopedia of World
Biography. Gale. ISBN 0-7876-2549-3.
^ Schudel, Matt (2016). Jerome S. Bruner, influential psychologist of
perception, dies at 100. The Washington Post, June 7, 2016
^ a b Palmer, Joy (2001). Fifty Modern Thinkers on Education: From
Piaget to the Present. Taylor & Francis Inc.
^ Bruner in Inside the Psychologist's Studio on
March 2, 2013)
^ Popova, Maria (2015-10-01). "Pioneering
Psychologist Jerome Bruner
on the Act of Discovery and the Key to True Learning".
BrainPickings.org. Retrieved 2015-10-03.
^ Benedict Carey. "Jerome S. Bruner, Who Shaped Understanding of the
Young Mind, Dies at 100", The New York Times, June 8, 2016. Accessed
June 9, 2016.
^ Bruner, Jerome; Goodman, Cecile (1947). "Value and Need as
Organizing Factors in Percepton". Journal of Abnormal and Social
Psychology. 42: 33–44. doi:10.1037/h0058484.
^ "On the
Perception of Incongruity: A Paradigm" by Jerome S. Bruner
and Leo Postman. Journal of Personality, 18, pp. 206–223. 1949.
^ "The Spiral Curriculum" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on
^ Bruner, Jerome. "NYU Faculty Page". Retrieved 2 December 2011.
^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-01-07. Retrieved
^ "Faculty Database – David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA".
Archived from the original on 2012-12-15.
^ Bruner, Jerome. "Jerome Bruner:Biography". Retrieved 2 December
Find more aboutJerome Brunerat's sister projects
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50th anniversary event of Bruner's The Process of Education. April 27,
2011. Bruner's talk at 1:54:00 on YouTube
Presidents of the American Psychological Association
G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall (1892)
George Trumbull Ladd
George Trumbull Ladd (1893)
William James (1894)
James McKeen Cattell
James McKeen Cattell (1895)
George Stuart Fullerton (1896)
James Mark Baldwin
James Mark Baldwin (1897)
Hugo Münsterberg (1898)
John Dewey (1899)
Joseph Jastrow (1900)
Josiah Royce (1901)
Edmund Sanford (1902)
William Lowe Bryan
William Lowe Bryan (1903)
William James (1904)
Mary Whiton Calkins
Mary Whiton Calkins (1905)
James Rowland Angell
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Henry Rutgers Marshall (1907)
George M. Stratton
George M. Stratton (1908)
Charles Hubbard Judd
Charles Hubbard Judd (1909)
Walter Bowers Pillsbury
Walter Bowers Pillsbury (1910)
Carl Seashore (1911)
Edward Thorndike (1912)
Howard C. Warren
Howard C. Warren (1913)
Robert S. Woodworth
Robert S. Woodworth (1914)
John B. Watson
John B. Watson (1915)
Raymond Dodge (1916)
Robert Yerkes (1917)
John Wallace Baird (1918)
Walter Dill Scott (1919)
Shepherd Ivory Franz
Shepherd Ivory Franz (1920)
Margaret Floy Washburn
Margaret Floy Washburn (1921)
Knight Dunlap (1922)
Lewis Terman (1923)
G. Stanley Hall
G. Stanley Hall (1924)
I. Madison Bentley (1925)
Harvey A. Carr (1926)
Harry Levi Hollingworth
Harry Levi Hollingworth (1927)
Edwin Boring (1928)
Karl Lashley (1929)
Herbert Langfeld (1930)
Walter Samuel Hunter (1931)
Walter Richard Miles (1932)
Louis Leon Thurstone (1933)
Joseph Peterson (1934)
Albert Poffenberger (1935)
Clark L. Hull
Clark L. Hull (1936)
Edward C. Tolman
Edward C. Tolman (1937)
John Dashiell (1938)
Gordon Allport (1939)
Leonard Carmichael (1940)
Herbert Woodrow (1941)
Calvin Perry Stone (1942)
John Edward Anderson (1943)
Gardner Murphy (1944)
Edwin Ray Guthrie
Edwin Ray Guthrie (1945)
Henry Garrett (1946)
Carl Rogers (1947)
Donald Marquis (1948)
Ernest Hilgard (1949)
J. P. Guilford (1950)
Robert Richardson Sears
Robert Richardson Sears (1951)
J. McVicker Hunt (1952)
Laurance F. Shaffer (1953)
Orval Hobart Mowrer (1954)
E. Lowell Kelly (1955)
Theodore Newcomb (1956)
Lee Cronbach (1957)
Harry Harlow (1958)
Wolfgang Köhler (1959)
Donald O. Hebb (1960)
Neal E. Miller
Neal E. Miller (1961)
Paul E. Meehl (1962)
Charles E. Osgood (1963)
Quinn McNemar (1964)
Jerome Bruner (1965)
Nicholas Hobbs (1966)
Gardner Lindzey (1967)
Abraham Maslow (1968)
George Armitage Miller
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George Albee (1970)
Kenneth B. Clark (1971)
Anne Anastasi (1972)
Leona E. Tyler (1973)
Albert Bandura (1974)
Donald T. Campbell
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Wilbert J. McKeachie (1976)
Theodore H. Blau (1977)
M. Brewster Smith (1978)
Nicholas Cummings (1979)
Florence Denmark (1980)
John J. Conger (1981)
William Bevan (1982)
Max Siegel (1983)
Janet Taylor Spence (1984)
Robert Perloff (1985)
Logan Wright (1986)
Bonnie Strickland (1987)
Raymond D. Fowler (1988)
Joseph Matarazzo (1989)
Stanley Graham (1990)
Charles Spielberger (1991)
Jack Wiggins Jr. (1992)
Frank Farley (1993)
Ronald E. Fox (1994)
Robert J. Resnick (1995)
Dorothy Cantor (1996)
Norman Abeles (1997)
Martin Seligman (1998)
Richard Suinn (1999)
Patrick H. DeLeon (2000)
Norine G. Johnson (2001)
Philip Zimbardo (2002)
Robert Sternberg (2003)
Diane F. Halpern (2004)
Ronald F. Levant (2005)
Gerald Koocher (2006)
Sharon Brehm (2007)
Alan E. Kazdin (2008)
James H. Bray (2009)
Carol D. Goodheart (2010)
Melba J. T. Vasquez (2011)
Suzanne Bennett Johnson (2012)
Donald N. Bersoff (2013)
Nadine Kaslow (2014)
Barry S. Anton (2015)
Susan H. McDaniel (2016)
Antonio Puente (2017)
Jessica Henderson Daniel (2018)
E. L. Thorndike Award
Recipients of the
E. L. Thorndike Award for Career Achievement in
1964: Sidney L. Pressey
1965: William Brownell
1966: B. F. Skinner
1967: Lee Cronbach
1968: Cyril Burt
1969: Robert J. Havighurst
1970: John Bissell Carroll
1971: Robert L. Thorndike
1972: John C. Flanagan
1973: Benjamin Bloom
1974: Robert M. Gagné
1975: J. P. Guilford
1976: Jean Piaget
1977: David Ausubel
1978: Julian Stanley
1979: Patrick Suppes
1980: Richard C. Atkinson
1981: Jerome Bruner
1982: Robert Glaser
1983: Jeanne Chall
1984: Anne Anastasi
1985: Ernst Rothkopf
1986: Nathaniel Gage
1987: Merlin Wittrock
1988: Wilbert J. McKeachie
1989: Frank Farley
1990: Richard E. Snow
1991: Herbert Klausmeier
1992: Robert L. Linn
1993: Samuel Messick
1994: James Greeno
1995: Lee Shulman
1996: David Berliner
1997: Richard C. Anderson
1998: Lauren Resnick
1999: Albert Bandura
2000: Richard E. Mayer
2001: John D. Bransford
2002: Joel Levin
2003: Robert Sternberg
2004: G. Michael Pressley
2005: Jacquelynne Eccles
2006: Patricia Alexander
2007: Jere Brophy
2008: Bernard Weiner
2009: Carol Dweck
2010: Richard Shavelson
2011: Barry Zimmerman
2012: Keith Stanovich
2013: Sandra Graham
2014: Stephen J. Ceci
2015: Michelene Chi
2016: Edward Haertel
2017: Robert Slavin
Applied behavior analysis
Industrial and organizational
Sport and exercise
Human subject research
William James (1842–1910)
Ivan Pavlov (1849–1936)
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)
Edward Thorndike (1874–1949)
Carl Jung (1875–1961)
John B. Watson (1878–1958)
Clark L. Hull (1884–1952)
Kurt Lewin (1890–1947)
Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Gordon Allport (1897–1967)
J. P. Guilford (1897–1987)
Carl Rogers (1902–1987)
Erik Erikson (1902–1994)
B. F. Skinner (1904–1990)
Donald O. Hebb (1904–1985)
Ernest Hilgard (1904–2001)
Harry Harlow (1905–1981)
Raymond Cattell (1905–1998)
Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
Neal E. Miller (1909–2002)
Jerome Bruner (1915–2016)
Donald T. Campbell (1916–1996)
Hans Eysenck (1916–1997)
Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001)
David McClelland (1917–1998)
Leon Festinger (1919–1989)
George Armitage Miller (1920–2012)
Richard Lazarus (1922–2002)
Stanley Schachter (1922–1997)
Robert Zajonc (1923–2008)
Albert Bandura (b. 1925)
Roger Brown (1925–1997)
Endel Tulving (b. 1927)
Lawrence Kohlberg (1927–1987)
Noam Chomsky (b. 1928)
Ulric Neisser (1928–2012)
Jerome Kagan (b. 1929)
Walter Mischel (b. 1930)
Elliot Aronson (b. 1932)
Daniel Kahneman (b. 1934)
Paul Ekman (b. 1934)
Michael Posner (b. 1936)
Amos Tversky (1937–1996)
Bruce McEwen (b. 1938)
Larry Squire (b. 1941)
Richard E. Nisbett (b. 1941)
Martin Seligman (b. 1942)
Ed Diener (b. 1946)
Shelley E. Taylor (b. 1946)
John Anderson (b. 1947)
Ronald C. Kessler (b. 1947)
Joseph E. LeDoux (b. 1949)
Richard Davidson (b. 1951)
Susan Fiske (b. 1952)
Roy Baumeister (b. 1953)
Schools of thought
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