The MUSIC OF HAWAII includes an array of traditional and popular
styles, ranging from native Hawaiian folk music to modern rock and hip
hop . Hawaii's musical contributions to the music of the United States
are out of proportion to the state's small size. Styles like slack-key
guitar are well-known worldwide, while Hawaiian-tinged music is a
frequent part of
Hollywood soundtracks .
Hawaii also made a
contribution to country music with the introduction of the steel
guitar . In addition, the music which began to be played by Puerto
Hawaii in the early 1900s is called cachi cachi music , on
the islands of Hawaii.
Music of Hawaiian people is largely religious in nature, and includes
chanting and dance music . Hawaiian music has had a notable impact on
the music of other Polynesian islands ; Peter Manuel called the
influence of Hawaiian music a "unifying factor in the development of
modern Pacific musics".
* 1 Music festivals and venues
* 2 Music institutions and industry
* 3 Folk music
* 4 Music history
* 4.1 Liliʻuokalani and
* 4.3 Late 19th and early 20th century
* 4.3.1 Slack key guitar
* 4.3.2 Popularization
* 5 Modern music
* 5.3 Rock & Roll
* 5.4.1 Musicians
* 5.4.2 Locales
* 5.4.3 Links
* 5.6 ‘Ūkēkē
* 5.7 \'Ohe hano ihu
* 5.8 Other
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 External links
MUSIC FESTIVALS AND VENUES
Major music festivals in
Hawaii include the Merrie Monarch Hula
Festival , which brings together hula groups from across the world, as
well as a number of slack-key and steel guitar festivals: Big Island
Guitar Festival , Steel
Guitar Association Festival and the
Gabby Pahinui/Atta Isaacs Slack Key Festival . April's
Aloha Week is a
popular tourist attraction, as is the Moloka\'i Music Festival held
Labor Day . There was also a
Hawaii International Jazz
Festival, which ran from 1993 until 2007. The annual Pacific Rim
Jazz Festival occurs in mid-autumn at the
Hawaii Convention Center .
The annual Manoa
Jazz some of the more prominent ones include the
Kahala Hilton, the Sheraton Moana Hotel, the Sheraton Waikiki, the
Halekulani, Casanova's and the King Kamehameha Hotel. Large music
Hawaii include the
University of Hawaii at Hilo
University of Hawaii at Hilo Performing
Arts Center, which has 600 seats and is the largest venue on the Big
Island. A 560-seat venue and cultural exhibition center on
Kauai Community College Performing Arts Center . In Honolulu, the
Neal S. Blaisdell Center Arena, Concert Hall, and Exhibition Hall are
three of the largest venues in the state. Other venues for Hawaiian
Oahu include the
Waikiki Shell an establishment used
primarily for concerts and entertainment purposes. Over the years many
local, as well as international artists have graced the stage there.
It is unique outdoor theater located in Kapiolani Park. This venue
seats 2,400 persons, with the capacity to hold up to 6,000 more on the
lawn area. Concerts, graduation ceremonies and hula shows are very
popular at this site. Dancer with ʻuliʻuli, hula kahiko
Merrie Monarch Festival 2003
Hawaiian folk music includes several varieties of chanting (mele )
and music meant for highly ritualized dance (hula ). Traditional
Hawaiian music and dance was functional, used to express praise,
communicate genealogy and mythology, and accompany games, festivals
and other secular events. The
Hawaiian language has no word that
translates precisely as music, but a diverse vocabulary exists to
describe rhythms, instruments, styles and elements of voice
production. Hawaiian folk music is simple in melody and rhythm , but
is "complex and rich" in the "poetry, accompanying mimetic dance
(hula), and subtleties of vocal styles... even in the attenuated forms
in which they survive today".
Hula performance at a ceremony
U.S. Navy control over the island of
Kahoolawe to the
state performed by Uncle Frank Kawaikapuokalani Hewett
The chant (mele) is typically accompanied by an ipu heke (a double
gourd ) and/or pahu (sharkskin covered drum). Some dances require
dancers to utilize hula implements such as an ipu (single gourd ),
ʻiliʻili (waterworn lava stone castanets),ʻuliʻuli (feathered
gourd rattles), pu`ʻli (split bamboo sticks) or kalaʻau (rhythm
sticks). The older, formal kind of hula is called kahiko, while the
modern version is ʻauana. There are also religious chants called
ʻoli; when accompanied by dancing and drums , it is called mele hula
In the pre-contact
Hawaiian language , the word mele referred to any
kind of poetic expression, though it now translates as song. The two
kinds of Hawaiian chanting were mele oli and mele hula. The first were
a cappella individual songs, while the latter were accompanied dance
music performed by a group. The chanters were known as haku mele and
were highly trained composers and performers. Some kinds of chants
express emotions like angst and affection , or request a favor from
another person. Other chants are for specific purposes like naming ,
(mele inoa), prayer (mele pule), surfing (mele he'e nalu) and
genealogical recitations (mele koihonua). Mele chants were governed by
strict rules, and were performed in a number of styles include the
rapid kepakepa and the enunciate koihonua.
Historical documentation of Hawaiian music does not extend prior to
the late 18th century, when non-Hawaiians (haoles) arrived on the
island. From 1778 onward,
Hawaii began a period of acculturation with
the introduction of numerous styles of European music, including the
hymns (himeni) introduced by Protestant missionary choirs.
Spanish-speaking Mexican cowboys (paniolos), were particularly
influential immigrants in the field of music, introducing string
instruments such as the guitar and possibly also the technique of
falsetto singing, while Portuguese immigrants brought the ukulele
-like braguinha . also immigrants from all over the world had brought
their own instruments along with them to the islands.
Elizabeth Tatar divided Hawaiian music history into seven periods,
beginning with the initial arrival of Europeans and their musical
cultures, spanning approximately from 1820 to 1872. The subsequent
period lasted to the beginning of the 20th century, and was marked by
the creation of an acculturated yet characteristically Hawaiian modern
style, while European instruments spread across the islands. Tatar's
third period, from 1900 to about 1915, saw the integration of Hawaiian
music into the broader field of American popular music, with the
invention of hapa haole songs, which use the
English language and only
superficial elements of Hawaiian music; the beginning of the Hawaiian
recording industry was in 1906, when the Victor Talking Machine
Company made the first 53 recordings in the state. By 1912, recorded
Hawaiian music had found an audience on the American mainland. Puerto
Rican immigration to
Hawaii began when
Puerto Rico 's sugar industry
was devastated by two hurricanes in 1899. The devastation caused a
worldwide shortage in sugar and a huge demand for the product from
Hawaii . Hawaiian sugarcane plantation owners began to recruit the
jobless, but experienced, laborers in Puerto Rico. They took with them
their music and in the early 1900s introduced what is known as Cachi
Cachi music , on the islands of Hawaii.
From 1915 to 1930, mainstream audiences outside of
increasingly enamored of Hawaiian music, though by this time the songs
marketed as Hawaiian had only peripheral aspects of actual Hawaiian
music. Tahitian and Samoan music had an influence on Hawaiian music
during this period, especially in their swifter and more intricate
rhythms. The following era, from about 1930 to 1960, has been called
the "Golden Age of Hawaiian music", when popular styles were adapted
for orchestras and big bands , and Hawaiian performers like Lani
John Kameaaloha Almeida and
Sol Hoʻopiʻi became
mainstream stars. In the 1960s, Hawaiian-style music declined in
popularity amid an influx of rock, soul and pop acts from the American
mainland. This trend reversed itself in the final period of Hawaiian
music history, the modern period beginning with the Hawaiian
Renaissance in the 1970s and continuing with the foundation of a
variety of modern music scenes in fields like indie rock , Hawaiian
hip hop and
LILIʻUOKALANI AND HENRI BERGER
Queen Liliʻuokalani was the last Queen of
Hawaii before the Hawaiian
monarchy was overthrown. She was also a musician and prolific composer
who wrote many musical works . She was best known for
Aloha \'Oe . A
compilation of her works, titled "The Queen's Songbook", was published
in 1999 by The Queen Lili\'uokalani Trust.
Lili'uokalani was one of many members of the Hawaiian royal family
with musical inclinations. They studied under a Prussian military
Henri Berger , who was sent by the
Kaiser at the request
Kamehameha V . Berger became fascinated by Hawaiian folk music, and
wrote much documentation on it. However, he also brought his own
musical background in German music , and heavily guided the Hawaiian
musicians and composers he worked with.
Kamehameha V also, in 1847, sent to Germany for a "band Leader"
for "The Kings Own Band", now the Royal Hawaiian Band, William
Mersberg, from Weimar, Germany. He is
Henry Kaleialoha Allen 's great
Henry Kaleialoha Allen is "one of Hawaii's Living
Treasures of Hawaiian Music" and a master music educator and has been
honored many times on the Senate Floor and by the Legislature for
Guitars could have come to
Hawaii from several sources: sailors,
missionaries, or travelers to and from California. The most frequently
told story is that it accompanied the Mexican cowboys (vaqueros)
brought by King
Kamehameha III in 1832 in order to teach the natives
how to control an overpopulation of cattle . The Hawaiian cowboys
(paniolo) used guitars in their traditional folk music. The Portuguese
introduced an instrument called the braguinha, a small, four-stringed
Madeira variant of the cavaquinho ; this instrument was a precursor to
Steel-string guitars also arrived with the Portuguese in the 1860s
and slack-key had spread across the chain by the late 1880s. A ship
called the Ravenscrag arrived in
Honolulu on August 23, 1879, bringing
Portuguese field workers from
Madeira . Legend has it that one of the
men, João Fernandes, later a popular musician, tried to impress the
Hawaiians by playing folk music with a friend's braguinha ; it is also
said that the Hawaiians called the instrument
`ukulele (jumping flea)
in reference to the man's swift fingers. Others have claimed the word
means gift that came here or a corruption of ukeke lele (dancing ukeke
, a three-string bow).
The popularity throughout the 1920s of Hawaiian music, with its
unique slide-style of guitar playing, prompted the invention of the
electric guitar in 1931, as a lap steel guitar, the "frying pan" , by
George Beauchamp. Electric amplification allowed the Hawaiian-style
guitar to be heard in performances of larger popular bands.
LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURY
1913 sheet music cover
In the 1880s and 90s, King
David Kalakaua promoted Hawaiian culture
and also encouraged the addition of new instruments, such as the
ukulele and possibly steel guitar; Kalakaua died in 1891, and so it is
highly unlikely he would have heard it . Kalakaua's successor, his
sister Lili\'uokalani , was also a prolific composer and wrote several
songs, like "
Aloha 'Oe", which remain popular. During this period,
Hawaiian music evolved into a "new distinctive" style, using the
derivatives of European instruments; aside from the widespread string
instruments, brass bands like the
Royal Hawaiian Band performed
Hawaiian songs as well as popular marches and ragtimes.
In about 1889,
Joseph Kekuku began sliding a piece of steel across
the strings of a guitar, thus inventing steel guitar (kika kila); at
about the same time, traditional Hawaiian music with English lyrics
became popular. Vocals predominated in Hawaiian music until the 20th
century, when instrumentation took a lead role. Much of modern
slack-key guitar has become entirely instrumental.
From about 1895 to 1915, Hawaiian music dance bands became in demand
more and more. These were typically string quintets.
influenced the music, and English words were commonly used in the
lyrics. This type of Hawaiian music, influenced by popular music and
with lyrics being a combination of English and Hawaiian (or wholly
English), is called hapa haole (literally: half white) music. In 1903,
Albert "Sonny" Cunha composed My Waikiki Mermaid, arguably the first
popular hapa haole song (The earliest known hapa haole song, "Eating
of the Poi", was published in Ka Buke o na Leo Mele Hawaii...o na Home
Honolulu in 1888 ).
In 1927, Rose Moe (1908–1999), a Hawaiian singer, with her husband
Tau Moe (1908–2004), a Samoan guitarist, began touring with Madame
Riviere's Hawaiians. In 1929 they recorded eight songs in
Tokyo . Rose
and Tau continued touring for over fifty years, living in countries
such as Germany, Lebanon and India. They even performed in Germany as
late as 1938 when the Nazi racism was on the rise and people of a
darker color were regarded as inferior people; it is said that they
even performed for
Adolf Hitler himself. With their children, the Tau
Moe family did much to spread the sound of Hawaiian folk music and
hapa haole music throughout the world. In 1988, the
Tau Moe family
re-recorded the 1929 sessions with the help of musician and
ethnomusicologist Bob Brozman.
The 1920s also saw the development of a uniquely Hawaiian style of
jazz , innovated by performers at the Moana and Royal Hawaiian Hotels.
Slack Key Guitar
Slack-key guitar (kī ho`alu in Hawaiian) is a fingerpicked playing
style, named for the fact that the strings are most often "slacked" or
loosened to create an open (unfingered) chord, either a major chord
(the most common is G, which is called "taro patch" tuning) or a major
7th (called a "wahine" tuning). A tuning might be invented to play a
particular song or facilitate a particular effect, and as late as the
1960s they were often treated as family secrets and passed from
generation to generation. By the time of the
Hawaiian Renaissance ,
though, the example of players such as
Auntie Alice Namakelua ,
Leonard Kwan ,
Raymond Kane , and
Keola Beamer had encouraged the
sharing of the tunings and techniques and probably saved the style
from extinction. Playing techniques include "hammering-on",
"pulling-off", "chimes" (harmonics), and "slides," and these effects
frequently mimic the falsettos and vocal breaks common in Hawaiian
The guitar entered Hawaiian culture from a number of
directions—sailors, settlers, contract workers. One important source
of the style was Mexican cowboys hired to work on the Big Island of
Hawaiʻi in the first half of the 19th century. These paniolo brought
their guitars and their music, and when they left, the Hawaiians
developed their own style of playing the instrument.
Slack key guitar evolved to accompany the rhythms of Hawaiian dancing
and the melodies of Hawaiian chant. Hawaiian music in general, which
was promoted under the reign of King
David Kalakaua as a matter of
national pride and cultural revival, drew rhythms from traditional
Hawaiian beats and European military marches, and drew its melodies
from Christian hymns and the cosmopolitan peoples of the islands
(although principally American).
An advertisement for the Broadway show "The Bird of Paradise"
In the early 20th century Hawaiians began touring the United States,
often in small bands. A Broadway show called Bird of Paradise
introduced Hawaiian music to many Americans in 1912 and the
Panama–Pacific International Exposition
Panama–Pacific International Exposition in
San Francisco followed in
1915; one year later, Hawaiian music sold more recordings than any
other style in the country. The increasing popularization of Hawaiian
music influenced blues and country musicians; this connection can
still be heard in modern country. In reverse, musicians like Bennie
Nawahi began incorporating jazz into his steel guitar , ukulele and
mandolin music, while the Kalama Quartet introduced a style of group
falsetto singing. The musician
Sol Hoʻopiʻi arose during this time,
playing both Hawaiian music and jazz, Western swing and country, and
developing the pedal steel guitar; his recordings helped establish the
Nashville sound of popular country music.
Lani McIntyre was another
musician who infused a Hawaiian guitar sound into mainstream American
popular music through his recordings with Jimmie Rodgers and Bing
Crosby . A 1916 advertisement for Hawaiian music records from
In the 1920s and 30s, Hawaiian music became an integral part of local
tourism , with most hotels and attractions incorporating music in one
form or another. Among the earliest and most popular musical
attractions was the
Hula Show, sponsored by
Kodak , in which a
Kodak film and took photographs of dancers and
musicians. The show ran from 1937 through 2002. Several vinyl LPs
featuring music from the
Hula Show were released by Waikiki
Records, with full color photographs of the show's performers. In the
first half of the 20th century, the mostly young men who hung around
Honolulu beaches, swimming and surfing, came to be known as the
Waikiki Beachboys and their parties became famous across
abroad; most of them played the ukulele all day long, sitting on the
beach and eventually began working for hotels to entertain tourists.
Popular Hawaiian music with English verse (hapa haole) can be
described in a narrow sense. Generally, songs are sung to the ukulele
or steel guitar. A steel string guitar sometimes accompanies. Melodies
often feature an intervallic leap, such as a perfect fourth or octave.
Falsetto vocals are suited for such leaps and are common in Hawaiian
singing, as is the use of microtones.
Rhythm is mostly in duple meter.
A musical scale that is unique to Hawaiian music imbues it with its
distinct feel, and so is aptly named the Hawaiian scale.
The Panama-Pacific Exposition in
San Francisco in 1915 introduced
Hawaiian steel guitar to mainland country music artists, and by the
1930s country stars Hoot Gibson and Jimmy Davis were making records
with Hawaiian musicians.
The influx of thousands of American servicemen into
World War 2 created a demand for both popular swing rhythm and country
sounds. The western swing style, popular on the mainland since the
1930s, employed the steel guitar as a key element and was therefore a
natural evolution. Beginning in 1945, the Bell Record Company of
Honolulu responded to the demand with a series of releases by the
western swing band Fiddling Sam and his Hawaiian Buckaroos (led by
fiddler Homer H. Spivey, and including Lloyd C. Moore, Tiny Barton, Al
Hittle, Calvert Duke, Tolbert E. Stinnett and Raymond "Blackie"
Barnes). Between 1945–1950 Bell released some 40 sides by the
Hawaiian Buckaroos, including a set of square dance numbers.
In recent decades, traditional Hawaiian music has undergone a
renaissance, with renewed interest from both ethnic Hawaiians and
others. The islands have also produced a number of well-regarded rock
, pop , hip hop ,
Dubstep , soul and reggae performers, and many local
musicians in the clubs of Waikiki and
Honolulu play outside the
various "Hawaiian" genres.
Hawaii has its own regional music industry,
with several distinctive styles of recorded popular music. Hawaiian
popular music is largely based on
American popular music
American popular music , but does
have distinctive retentions from traditional Hawaiian music.
Hawaiian Renaissance was a resurgence in interest in Hawaiian
music, especially slack-key, among ethnic Hawaiians. Long-standing
Gabby Pahinui found their careers revitalized;
Pahinui, who had begun recording in 1947, finally reached mainstream
audiences across the United States when sessions on which Ry Cooder
played with him and his family were released as The Gabby Pahinui
Hawaiian Band, Vol. 1 on a major mainland label. Pahinui inspired a
legion of followers who played a mix of slack-key, reggae, country,
rock and other styles. The more traditional players included Leland
"Atta" Isaacs, Sr. ,
Sonny Chillingworth ,
Ray Kane ,
Leonard Kwan ,
Ledward Ka`apana ,
Dennis Pavao , while
Keola Beamer and Peter Moon
have been more eclectic in their approach. The Emerson brothers
rekindled the classic sound of Sol Ho'opi'i with the National steel
guitar on their vintage 1920s stylings.
George Kanahele 's Hawaiian
Music Foundation did much to spread slack-key and other forms of
Hawaiian music, especially after a major 1972 concert.
Don Ho (1930–2007), originally from the small
of Kaka'ako, was the most widely known Hawaiian entertainer of the
last decades of the 20th century. Although he did not play
"traditional" Hawaiian music, Ho became an unofficial ambassador of
Hawaiian culture throughout the world as well as on the American
mainland. Ho's style often combined traditional Hawaiian elements and
older 1950s and 1960s-style crooner music with an easy listening
Loyal Garner also embraced Hawaiian elements in her Vegas-style
lounge act and in the songs she recorded. A third notable performer,
Myra English , became known as the "Champagne Lady" after recording
the song "Drinking Champagne" by Bill Mack in 1963 became her
signature song in Hawaii, and she achieved considerable commercial
success both locally and abroad.
Jawaiian is a Hawaiian style of reggae music.
Reggae music is a genre
that evolved in the late 1960s and earlier in
Jamaica . It has become
popular across the world, especially among ethnic groups and races
that have been historically oppressed, such as Native Americans ,
Pacific Islanders , and Australian Aborigines . In Hawaii, ethnic
Hawaiians and others in the state began playing a mixture of reggae
and local music in the early 1980s, although it was not until the late
1980s that it became recognized as a new genre in local music. The
band Simplisity has been credited by
Quiet Storm Records as
originators of the
Jawaiian style. By the end of the 1980s, Jawaiian
came to dominate the local music scene, as well as spawning a backlash
Honolulu Star-Bulletin compared to the "disco sucks" movement
of the late 1970s.
Reggae culture as a whole began to dominate Hawaii, as many locals
can be seen sporting Bob Marley memorabilia, and lots of local
merchandise and souvenirs have been emblazoned with the red, yellow,
and green colors of the Hawaiian sovereignty as well as the Ethiopian
flag, a known symbol of the
Rastafari movement . The Rasta colors have
also become a symbol of local pride.
ROCK & ROLL
Rock and Roll
Rock and Roll music has long been popular in
Hawaii - numerous rock
and roll artists spent their developmental years in
The Association ,
The Electric Prunes
The Electric Prunes ,
7th Order , Vicious
Rumors , as well as guitarists
Marty Friedman and Charlie "Icarus"
Johnson ), and its local popularity dates back to the earliest days of
Elvis Presley 's career included several Hawaii-related
performances and records: a March 1961 live performance to raise money
for the construction of the
USS Arizona Memorial at the Pearl Harbor
Bloch Arena in March 1961, his
Hawaii Via Satellite
"comeback" record and concert in 1973, and three of his movies were
Girls! Girls! Girls! , and Paradise,
Hawaiian Style ).
Through the 60's and 70's, rock concerts were frequently held at
venues like the
Honolulu International Center and The
Waikiki Shell by
Jimi Hendrix ,
Led Zeppelin ,
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones , The
Eric Clapton ,
Deep Purple ,
Jeff Beck and many other top rock
The 3 day long Crater Festivals (held over the New Years and July 4th
holidays) at Diamond Head in the 60's and 70's were well attended
through the era, and frequently featured popular bands like Fleetwood
Mac , Journey and Santana (
Carlos Santana and
Buddy Miles actually
released their 1972 Crater Festival performance on the LP Carlos
Santana soprano, concert, tenor and baritone.
Queen Liliuokalani, the last Hawaiian Queen, believed that the name
for the ukulele means "The gift that came here". She believed this
because of the Hawaiian words "uku" which means "gift or reward" and
"lele" which means "to come."
The ukulele can be played with simple or elaborate strums, as well as
The ukulele is mostly recognized as being Hawaiian, even though it is
originally based on the Madeiran machete .
Koa wood is one of the more higher quality woods which creates a deep
and also clear sound for the ukulele. This makes Koa ukuleles very
distinguishable by sound. Because of this, koa wood is known as a
revered wood to create an ukulele. Not only are koa ukuleles
distinguishable by sound, but also by looks. They have a very unique
grain pattern and color that allows them to stand out more than the
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Ukeke is a Hawaiian musical bow played with the mouth. It is the
only stringed instrument indigenous to Hawaii.
\'OHE HANO IHU
The 'ohe hano ihu, (Hawaiian: `ohe = bamboo +hano = breath + ihu =
nose) or Traditional Hawaiian Nose Flute in English, is another type
of Hawaiian instrument that has cultural and musical importance. It is
made from a single bamboo section. According to Arts and Crafts of
Hawai`i by Te Rangi Hiroa, old flutes in the Bishop Museum collection
have a hole at the node area for the breath, and two or three
fingering holes. In the three-finger-hole specimen, one fingering hole
is placed near the breath hole. Lengths range from 10–21 inches
(250–530 mm). Oral tradition in various families states that numbers
of fingering holes ranged from one to four, and location of the holes
varied depending on the musical taste of the player.
Though primarily a courting instrument played privately and for
personal enjoyment, it also could be used in conjunction with chants,
song, and hula. Kumu hula (dance masters), were said to be able to
either make the flute sound as though it were chanting, or to chant as
they played. Kumu hula Leilehua Yuen is one of the few contemporary
Hawaiian musicians to perform with the nose flute in this manner.
Into the 19th and early 20th centuries, young men still used the 'ohe
hano ihu as a way to win the affection and love of a woman. Today,
the `ohe hano ihu is enjoying a resurgence of popularity.
Two different oral traditions explain the use of the nose for playing
the `ohe hano ihu. According to one, the `ohe hano ihu is played with
air from the nose rather than from the mouth because a person's hā,
breath, is expressive of the person's inner being. As the hā travels
from the na`ao, or gut, through the mouth, the hā can be used to lie.
When the hā travels through the nose, it cannot lie. Therefore, if a
young man loves a woman, that love will be expressed in the music he
plays with his `ohe hano ihu. According to the other tradition, the
instrument is played with the nose to enable the player to softly sing
or chant while playing.
Modern folklore says that the Hawaiian flute expresses "aloha "
because to hear the flute one must come close to the alo, "face" or
"presence" of the player to hear the hā, "divine breath" and so the
listener experiences "being in one another's presence sharing the
divine breath." While useful as a way to remember the contemplative
and personal nature of the traditional Hawaiian flute, there is no
actual etymological evidence, nor is there evidence in traditional
chants or stories, to support this etymology. In the Hawaiian
language, hā, breath, is unrelated to the word ha, a causative
prefix. a search of cognate words in related languages also reveals no
such etymologies for the word "aloha".
According to the book `Ohe, by Leilehua Yuen, the instrument was
popularized in the 1970s by members of the Beamer family who played it
during performances on tour in North America, as well as in the
Hawaiian Islands. Segments of the children's educational TV show,
Sesame Street, showing
Keola Beamer and Mr. Snuffalupagus, one of the
large puppet characters, playing `ohe hano ihu brought the instrument
to national attention. Winona Beamer, Keola Beamer's mother, a noted
kumu hula, also taught the use of the `ohe hano ihu in hula. Her
hānai daughter, Maile Beamer Loo, continues to preserve and teach
that legacy, and document such important aspects of Hawaiian musical
and performing heritage through the
Hula Preservation Society.
Notable late 20th Century and early 21st Century musicians of the`ohe
hano ihu include Mahi Beamer, Nona Beamer, Keola Beamer, Kapono
Beamer, Calvin Hoe, Nelson Kaai, Anthony Natividad, and Manu Josiah.
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The music that is considered popular or "underground" in
not necessarily correspond to similar genres in mainland areas of the
U.S.A. This is partly a result of Hawaiian music, which appeals to
many generations; in contrast, music like heavy metal or punk rock
appeals primarily to a more youthful generation, and is not considered
as commercially attractive to tourism.
Na mele paleoleo is an emerging
form of Hawaiian rap.
It is difficult to promote popular acts from the mainland due to its
geographical isolation, and the smaller group of people interested in
Bruno Mars from
Honolulu has 6 #1 Billboard Hot 100 hits, including
Uptown Funk " in 2015.
Yvonne Elliman , from Honolulu, had a #1 Hot
100 hit with the disco song "If I Can\'t Have You " from Saturday
Night Fever in 1978.
Bette Midler , also from Honolulu, had a #1 Hot
100 hit with "
Wind Beneath My Wings " in 1989.
Glenn Medeiros had a #1
Hot 100 hit in 1990 with "She Ain\'t Worth It " ft. Bobby Brown. Tane
Cain , who was raised in Hawaii, had a #37 Hot 100 hit with "Holdin\'
On " in 1982.
Hawaiian Music Hall of Fame
Na Hoku Hanohano Awards
Cachi Cachi music
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J K Unterberger, pgs. 465 - 473
* ^ A B C Manuel, pgs. 236 - 241
* ^ "HAWAII INTERNATIONAL JAZZ FESTIVAL". March 3, 2007. Archived
from the original on March 23, 2008. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
* ^ Harada, Wayne (April 20, 2007). "
Jazz fest on hold with death
of founder". The
Honolulu Advertiser. Honolulu, HI, USA: Black Press
Group Ltd . Retrieved September 13, 2012.
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* Kanahele, George S. ; Berger, John, eds. (2012) . Hawaiian Music &
Musicians (2nd ed.). Honolulu, HI, USA: Mutual Publishing, LLC. ISBN
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* Unterberger, Richie (1999). Music USA: The Rough Guide. London:
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* Indie blog, 2008: "
Country music musicians were drawn to Hawaiian
music when they first heard the Hawaiian steel guitar at the San
Francisco Pan Pacific Exposition in 1915. Soon, artists such as Hoot
Gibson and Jimmie Davis were recording with Hawaiians. Hawaii’s love
affair with country music dates back to World War II, the result of
the influx of great numbers of military personnel from the mainland
USA. Local record labels scrambled to release “hillbilly music” to
satisfy the new interest. Bell Records released recordings in 1945 by
Fiddling Sam & his Hawaiian Buckaroos.
* Rockwell, T. Malcolm, Hawaiian & Hawaiian
Guitar Records 1891 -
1960 (Mahina Piha Press © 2007) ISBN 978-0-615-14982-0 - ref.
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