The Info List - Javanese Script

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The JAVANESE SCRIPT, natively known as _Aksara Jawa_ (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫꦗꦮaksarajawa) and _Hanacaraka_ (ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏhanacaraka), is an abugida developed by the Javanese people to write several Austronesian languages spoken in Indonesia , primarily the Javanese language and an early form of Javanese called Kawi , as well as Sanskrit , an Indo-Aryan language used as a sacred language throughout Asia. The Javanese script is a descendant of the Brahmi script and therefore has many similarities with the modern scripts of South India and Southeast Asia . The Javanese script, along with the Balinese script , is considered the most elaborate and ornate among Brahmic scripts of Southeast Asia.

The script was widely used by the court scribes of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands . Numerous efforts to standardize the script were made in the late 19th to early 20th-century, with the invention of the script's first metal type and the development of concise orthographic guidelines. However, further development was halted abruptly following World War II and especially during the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies , in which its use was prohibited, and the script's use has since declined. Today, everyday use of the Javanese script has been largely supplanted by the Latin alphabet .


* 1 Characteristics * 2 History

* 3 Aksara

* 3.1 Pasangan * 3.2 Additional Aksara

* 4 Sandhangan * 5 Numerals

* 6 Punctuation

* 6.1 Correction mark

* 7 Collation

* 8 Other usage

* 8.1 Sanskrit usage * 8.2 Sundanese usage * 8.3 Balinese usage

* 9 Indonesian and English Transcription into Javanese * 10 Font * 11 Unicode

* 12 Gallery

* 12.1 Manuscripts * 12.2 Public Signage * 12.3 Graphics

* 13 References * 14 External links


There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes varies accordingly to the language being written. Each letter represents a syllable, with an inherent vowel /a / or /ɔ /, which changes depending on the diacritics around the letter. Each consonant has a conjunct form called _pasangan_ which nullifies the inherent vowel of the previous syllable. In the word _aksara_ for example, the inherent vowel of the letter ka is nullified by the use of _pasangan_ in the following letter.

Punctuation includes the comma, period, colon, and quotation marks, as well as several decorative marks indicating poetic chapter and denoting rank in correspondence. Text is written from left to right and without word boundaries (_ Scriptio continua _).

Many of the letters are constructed from visually similar components, most notably n-shaped 'hills' and u-shaped 'valleys', arranged in different sequences. There are only a few components unique to certain characters and even fewer letters that are truly unique, resulting in a very uniform-looking script.


See also: Kawi script and Pallava alphabet _ 19th-century Javanese manuscript of Panji Angreni_, folio 10v.

The Javanese and Balinese alphabets are both modern variants of the Kawi script , a Brahmic script developed in Java around the ninth century. It was widely used in religious literature written in palm-leaf manuscripts called _lontar_. Over the Hindu-Buddhist period the letter forms changed into Javanese, and by the 17th century, the script was identifiable as in its modern form.

The Javanese script was mainly employed by court scribes centered in Surakarta and Yogyakarta , but the use was widespread among various courts of Java and the Lesser Sunda Islands. They are used to write historical accounts (_babad_), stories (_serat_), ancient verses (_kakawin_), and divination guides (_primbon_) among many others, with the most popular being copied and rewritten over the centuries.

The first Javanese metal type font was produced in the 1830s by the Dutch. Two other cursive type fonts were also produced in the early 20th-century. In 1926, an academic workshop in Sriwedari, Surakarta issued _Wewaton Sriwedari_ or the "Sriwedari Resolve" as the first standard for Javanese spelling and orthography. Since then, numerous guidelines on Javanese orthography have been published.

However, further development was halted abruptly during the second World War when the use of the Javanese script was prohibited during the Japanese occupation. Currently, there are no newspapers or magazines being printed in the Javanese script and it is mainly used for decorative or scholarly purposes. Everyday use of the script has been largely replaced by the Latin alphabet. As a preservation effort, the Indonesian government prescribed most elementary and junior-high schools in Javanese speaking areas to teach the script as a compulsory subject. Its use is also encouraged by the Central Javanese government in road signs and public signage alongside Indonesian as administered in the 2012 local legislation.


A single letter in the Javanese script is called an _AKSARA_ (ꦲꦏ꧀ꦱꦫ), which stands for a syllable with an inherent vowel of /a/ or /ɔ/ depending on the letter's position relation to other letters. It can also depend on the speaker's dialect; speakers of Western Javanese dialects tend to pronounce the inherent vowel as /a/, while those of Eastern Javanese prefer /ɔ/. Rules determining the inherent vowel of a letter are described in _Wewaton Sriwedari_ as follows:

* A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /ɔ/ if the previous letter contains diacritics. * A letter stands for a syllable with the vowel /a/ if the following character contains diacritics. * The first letter of a word normally has the /ɔ/ vowel, unless it precedes two other letters without diacritics, in which case the first letter has the /a/ vowel.

There are a total of 53 letters in the Javanese script, but the number of represented phonemes vary accordingly to the language being written. For example, transcription of Sanskrit uses 33 consonants and 14 vowels, while the modern orthography (based on the Javanese language) uses 20 consonants and 5 vowels. The other letters have lost their original distinct pronunciations and are used instead for honorific purposes.

Consonant letters are as follows:


IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

TRANSCRIPTION ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

NGLEGéNA ꦲ ꦤ ꦕ ꦫ ꦏ ꦢ ꦠ ꦱ ꦮ ꦭ ꦥ ꦣ ꦗ ꦪ ꦚ ꦩ ꦒ ꦧ ꦛ ꦔ


ꦟ ꦖ1

ꦑ ꦝ ꦡ ꦯ


ꦓ ꦨ


ꦞ ꦙ

^1 Only found in non-initial position as ◌꧀ꦖ. ^2 Originally _jnya_ ꦗ꧀ꦚ, but later developed into a single letter.

Modern Javanese uses 20 consonants, and each consonant can be represented with up to 3 letter cases : a lower case called _NGLEGéNA_, an upper case called _MURDA_ or _gedé_, and the _MAHAPRANA_ case.

_Murda_ are similar to capital letters, but they are not used at the beginning of a sentence. They are used as honorifics in the first syllable of a proper name, usually that of a respected person or a place. Not all _nglegéna_ letters have a _murda_ form, and if a _murda_ letter is not available for a name's first syllable, the second letter is capitalized. If the second letter does not have a _murda_ either, the third letter is capitalized, and so on. Highly respected names may be all capitalized if the corresponding _murda_ are available.

_Mahaprana_ translates to "aspirated". They were originally aspirated consonants used in Sanskrit and Kawi transliterations. However, their occurrence is rare. Their proper usage in modern orthography is otherwise unknown, as there are no aspirated consonants in modern Javanese, and they are often omitted from books discussing the script.

To produce pure vowels, ꦲ _ha_ is used to represent zero consonant . Otherwise, there are also letters for pure vowels called _SWARA_ as follows:


AKSARA ꦄ ꦆ ꦈ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/


_Swara_ are used to differentiate proper names in a similar matter to _murda_. For example, the verb _ayu_ (graceful) is written with the syllable _ha_ (ꦲꦪꦸ) while the personal name _Ayu_ is written with _swara_ instead (ꦄꦪꦸ). _Swara_ are also used for words of foreign origin. The element Argon for example, is written with _swara_.


_PASANGAN_ is a counterpart of _aksara_, usually in subscript form, that eliminates the inherent vowel of the attaching syllable. It is used for consonant clusters or closed syllables that occur in the middle of a sentence. For example, _nda_ is made by attaching _pasangan da_ to the syllable _na_.


IPA /ha/ /na/ /tʃa/ /ra/ /ka/ /d̪a/ /t̪a/ /sa/ /wa/ /la/ /pa/ /ɖa/ /dʒa/ /ja/ /ɲa/ /ma/ /ɡa/ /ba/ /ʈa/ /ŋa/

TRANSCRIPTION ha na ca ra ka da ta sa wa la pa dha ja ya nya ma ga ba tha nga

NGLEGéNA ◌꧀ꦲ ◌꧀ꦤ ◌꧀ꦕ ◌꧀ꦫ ◌꧀ꦏ ◌꧀ꦢ ◌꧀ꦠ ◌꧀ꦱ ◌꧀ꦮ ◌꧀ꦭ ◌꧀ꦥ ◌꧀ꦝ ◌꧀ꦗ ◌꧀ꦪ ◌꧀ꦚ ◌꧀ꦩ ◌꧀ꦒ ◌꧀ꦧ ◌꧀ꦛ ◌꧀ꦔ


◌꧀ꦟ ◌꧀ꦖ

◌꧀ꦑ ◌꧀ꦣ ◌꧀ꦡ ◌꧀ꦯ



◌꧀ꦓ ◌꧀ꦨ



◌꧀ꦞ ◌꧀ꦙ


_Swara_ don't have a _pasangan_. However, the letter can be sub-scripted in similar manner to disambiguate proper names.


Due to the loss of their original pronunciation or to accommodate foreign loan words, there are several _aksara_ that are re-categorized and added in the modern repertoire. Each of these additional _aksara_ has a _pasangan_, but they are devoid of _murda_ or _mahaprana_ case. They are as follows:



ꦉ ◌꧀ꦉ /rə/ re Pa cerek Originally /ɽ/, /l̪/, and /l̪:/ present in the early development of the script due to Sanskrit influence. Contemporary orthography established them as _GANTEN_, syllables with vowel /ə/ which replaces _ra+pepet_, _la+pepet_, and _la+pepet+tarung_ combination respectively. As it already carries a fixed vowel value, it may not be attached with vowel diacritics.

ꦊ ◌꧀ꦊ /lə/ le Nga lelet

ꦋ ◌꧀ꦋ /lɤ/ leu Nga lelet raswadi


ꦬ ◌꧀ꦬ /ra/ ra Ra agung Historically used by some writers to address royal figures.

ꦐ ◌꧀ꦐ /qa/ qa Ka sasak Traditional transliteration of /qa/ adopted from the Sasak language .


ꦲ꦳ ◌꧀ꦲ꦳ /ħa/ ha Rekan Most sounds not native to the Javanese language are indicated by adding U+A9B3 ◌꦳ JAVANESE SIGN CECAK TELU over similar-sounding syllable. The resulting letters are called _REKAN_ or _rekaan_, which is commonly used for Arabic and Dutch loanwords. Additional _rekan_ further extend Arabic and even add Chinese sounds, however their occurrence is rare.

ꦏ꦳ ◌꧀ꦏ꦳ /xa/ kha

ꦢ꦳ ◌꧀ꦢ꦳ /ða/ dza

ꦗ꦳ ◌꧀ꦗ꦳ /za/ za

ꦱ꦳ ◌꧀ꦱ꦳ /ʃa/ sya

ꦒ꦳ ◌꧀ꦒ꦳ /ɣa/ gha

ꦥ꦳ ◌꧀ꦥ꦳ /fa/ fa

ꦔ꦳ ◌꧀ꦔ꦳ /ʔa/ 'a

N/A ? the

N/A ? se

N/A ? nie

N/A ? hwe

N/A ? yo

N/A ? syo


Diacritics or dependent signs are called _sandhangan_ (ꦱꦟ꧀ꦝꦔꦤ꧀). They are as follow:


SANDHANGAN - ꦶ ꦸ ꦺ ꦺꦴ ꦼ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /e/ /o/ /ə/


NAME - wulu suku taling taling-tarung pepet


ꦀ /◌̃/ -m Sesigeg Panyangga Nasalizes vowel, parallel to the candrabindu (only used in the religious symbol om ).

ꦁ /-ŋ/ -ng Cecak Adds final /ŋ/ to a syllable. Parallel to anusvara .

ꦂ /-r/ -r Layar Adds final /r/ to a syllable.

ꦃ /-h/ -h Wignyan Adds final /h/ to a syllable. Parallel to visarga .

ꦽ /-rə/ -re Wyanjana Keret Medial consonant signs. Originally, these signs were _pasangan_ of U+A989 ꦉ JAVANESE LETTER PA CEREK, U+A9AA ꦪ JAVANESE LETTER YA, and U+A9AB ꦫ JAVANESE LETTER RA respectively. In current orthography, the use of _pasangan_ indicates that the letter is part of the following word while _wyanjana_ diacritics are used in consonant cluster of a single word.

ꦾ /-j-/ -y- Pengkal

ꦿ /-r-/ -r- Cakra

꧀ /-/ - Patèn / Pangkon Nullifies inherent vowel. Only used at the end of a sentence.


Main article: Javanese numerals

The Javanese numeral system has its own script, which only contains 0–9 numerals.


NUMERAL 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

ANGKA ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙ ꧐

NAME siji loro telu papat lima nem pitu wolu sanga nol

When writing numbers greater than 9, the above numbers are simply combined as one would do using the Arabic numerals . For example, 21 is written by combining the numeral 2 and 1 as so; ꧒꧑. Similarly, the number 90 would be the ꧙꧐.

Most of the numbers are similar to the syllable characters. To avoid confusion, numbers that show up in Javanese texts are indicated by "numeral indicators" called _pada pangkat_, written both before and after the number, following the pattern: text - indicator - numbers - indicator - text. For example; Tuesday, 19 March 2013 would be written as ꦱꦼꦭꦱ꧇꧑꧙꧇ꦩꦉꦠ꧀꧇꧒꧐꧑꧓꧇ (_selasa 19 maret 2013_).




꧊ Pada adeg Parentheses or quotation marks

꧋ Pada adeg-adeg Introduce a paragraph or section

꧌ and ꧍ Pada piseleh Functions similarly to _pada adeg_

꧈ Pada lingsa Functions similarly to a comma but not needed after a consonant-ending word that is represented by a _pangkon_. It acts as a period if preceded by _pangkon_.

꧉ Pada lungsi Period

꧇ Pada pangkat Numeral indicator or colon

ꧏ Pada rangkep Iteration mark . It functions similarly to 2 or 2 in the Indonesian Republican Spelling System . The character derives from the Arabic digit two but does not have a numeric use. It was proposed as a separate character because of the bidirectional properties of the Arabic digit.



꧁ and ꧂ Rerengan Flanks title

꧅ Pada luhur Introduces a letter to a person of older age or higher rank

꧄ Pada madya Introduces a letter to a person of equal age or rank

꧃ Pada andhap Introduces a letter to a person of younger age or lower rank

꧋꧐꧋ Pada guru Introduces a letter without age or rank distinction

꧉꧆꧉ Pada pancak Ends a letter

꧅ꦧ꧀ꦖ꧅ or ꧅ꦧ꧀ꦕ꧅ Purwapada Introduces a poem

꧅ꦟ꧀ꦢꦿ꧅ Madyapada Indicates a new song within a poem

꧅ꦆ꧅ Wasanapada Indicates the end of a poem.


There are two special marks to indicate error in writing, ꧞ _pada tirta tumétés_ and ꧟ _pada isèn-isèn_. Though only used in handwriting, the two are included in the Unicode range for the purpose of rendering Javanese texts. _Tirta tumétés_ is used in Yogyakarta , while _isèn-isèn_ is used in Surakarta . For example, a scribe wants to write _pada luhur_, but wrote _pada wu ..._, a scribe from Yogyakarta would write:


_Pada wu---luhur_

In Surakarta, it would be:



Javanese letters are commonly arranged in the _HANACARAKA_ SEQUENCE, as follows:


ꦲꦤꦕꦫꦏ _Hana caraka_ *

ꦢꦠꦱꦮꦭ _Data sawala_ *

ꦥꦝꦗꦪꦚ _Padha jayanya_ *

ꦩꦒꦧꦛꦔ _Maga bathanga_

of which the line-by-line translation would be:

_There (were) two messengers._ _(They) had animosity (among each other)._ _(They were) equally powerful (in fight)._ _Here are the corpses._

The sequence forms a poem of 4 verses narrating the myth of Aji Saka . However, the _hanacaraka_ sequence excludes _murda_ and _mahaprana_ letters.

Letters can also be arranged phonetically according to standard Sanskrit , called the _KAGANGA_ SEQUENCE, which is how the script is arranged in its Unicode range . The arrangement is as follows:







ꦏ /ka/ ka ꦕ /tʃa ca ꦛ /ʈa/ ṭa ꦠ /t̪a/ ta ꦥ /pa/ pa

ꦑ /kʰa/ kha ꦖ /tʃʰa/ cha ꦜ /ʈʰa/ ṭha ꦡ /t̪ʰa/ tha ꦦ /pʰa/ pha

ꦒ /ɡa/ ga ꦗ /dʒɑ/ ja ꦝ /ɖa/ ḍa ꦢ /d̪a/ da ꦧ ba ba

ꦓ /ɡʰa/ gha ꦙ /dʒʰɑ/ jha ꦞ /ɖʰa/ ḍha ꦣ /d̪ʰa/ dha ꦨ /bʰa/ bha

NASAL ꦔ /ŋa/ nga ꦚ /ɲa/ nya ꦟ /ɳa/ ṇa ꦤ /na/ na ꦩ /ma/ ma


ꦪ /ja/ ya

ꦮ /wa/ wa


ꦫ /ra/ ra ꦭ /la/ la


ꦯ /ɕa/ śa ꦰ ʂa ṣa ꦱ /sa/ sa

ꦲ /ha/ ha


SHORT AKSARA ꦄ ꦅ / ꦆ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦌ ꦎ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

TRANSCRIPTION a i u ṛ ḷ e o

LONG AKSARA ꦄꦴ ꦇ ꦈꦴ ꦉꦴ ꦋ ꦍ ꦎꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

TRANSCRIPTION ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au


SHORT SANDHANGAN - ◌ꦶ ◌ꦸ ◌ꦽ ◌꧀ꦊ ◌ꦺ ◌ꦺꦴ

IPA /a/ /i/ /u/ /ɽ/ /l̪/ /e/ /o/

TRANSCRIPTION a i u ṛ ḷ e o

LONG SANDHANGAN ◌ꦴ ◌ꦷ ◌ꦹ ◌ꦽꦴ ◌꧀ꦋ ◌ꦻ ◌ꦻꦴ

IPA /aː/ /iː/ /uː/ /ɽː/ /l̪ː/ /aːɪ/ /aːʊ/

TRANSCRIPTION ā ī ū ṝ ḹ ai au


The Javanese script is also used for writing Sundanese . But the script was modified and called _Cacarakan_ instead. It differs from Javanese by omitting the _dha_ and _tha_. A difference can also be seen in the simplification of the vowel /o/ into (ꦵ).


The Javanese and Balinese scripts are essentially typographic variants. Balinese script omits the consonants _dha_ and _tha_ from basic vocabulary but the characters are still used in numerous loan words from Sanskrit or Old Javanese .

Javanese script Balinese script


A mall in Surakarta , Central Java .

The Javanese script is also used to transliterate Indonesian words and English words, as can be witnessed in public places, especially in Surakarta and its surrounding area. Words from either Indonesian or English origin are written as they are pronounced in Javanese, not as they were written in Latin. For example, "Solo Grand Mall" transliterated as ꦱꦺꦴꦭꦺꦴꦒꦿꦺꦤ꧀ꦩꦭ꧀, which transliterates back as "solo gren mal" (pronounced /solo ɡren mɔl/).


Comparison of several Javanese fonts ꧋ꦱꦧꦼꦤ꧀ꦲꦸꦮꦺꦴꦁꦏꦭꦲꦶꦫꦏꦺꦏꦤ꧀ꦛꦶꦩꦂꦢꦶꦏꦭꦤ꧀ꦢꦂꦧꦺꦩꦂꦠꦧꦠ꧀ꦭꦤ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦲꦏ꧀ꦏꦁꦥꦝ꧉


JG AKSARA JAWA, by Jason Glavy

TULADHA JEJEG, by R.S. Wihananto

ATURRA, by Aditya Bayu

ADJISAKA, by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten

* first line of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Javanese.

As of 2013, there are several widely published fonts able to support Javanese, ANSI-based HANACARAKA/PALLAWA by Teguh Budi Sayoga, ADJISAKA by Sudarto HS/Ki Demang Sokowanten, JG AKSARA JAWA by Jason Glavy, CARAKAN ANYAR by Pavkar Dukunov, and TULADHA JEJEG by R.S. Wihananto, which is based on Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. Other fonts with limited publishing includes SURAKARTA made by Matthew Arciniega in 1992 for Mac 's screen font, and TJARAKAN developed by AGFA Monotype around 2000. There is also a symbol-based font called ATURRA developed by Aditya Bayu in 2012–2013. In 2014, Google introduced NOTO SANS JAVANESE as part of its Noto font series to support all the world's languages.

Due to the script's complexity, many Javanese fonts have different input methods compared to other Indic scripts and may exhibit several flaws. JG Aksara Jawa, in particular, may cause conflicts with other writing systems, as the font uses code points from other writing systems to complement Javanese's extensive repertoire. This is to be expected, as the font was made before the implementation of the Javanese script in Unicode .

Arguably, the most "complete" font, in terms of technicality and glyph count, is Tuladha Jejeg. It is capable of logical input-method and displaying complex syllable structure, and supports an extensive glyph repertoire including non-standard forms which may not be found in regular Javanese texts, by utilizing Graphite (SIL) smart font technology. However, as not many writing systems require such complex features, use is limited to programs with Graphite technology, such as Firefox browser, Thunderbird email client, and several OpenType word processors. The font was chosen for displaying Javanese script in the Javanese.


Main article: Javanese ( Unicode block)

Javanese script was added to the Unicode Standard in October, 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode block for Javanese is U+A980–U+A9DF. There are 91 code points for Javanese script: 53 letters, 19 punctuation marks, 10 numbers, and 9 vowels:

JAVANESE Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F

U+A98x ꦀ ꦁ ꦂ ꦃ ꦄ ꦅ ꦆ ꦇ ꦈ ꦉ ꦊ ꦋ ꦌ ꦍ ꦎ ꦏ

U+A99x ꦐ ꦑ ꦒ ꦓ ꦔ ꦕ ꦖ ꦗ ꦘ ꦙ ꦚ ꦛ ꦜ ꦝ ꦞ ꦟ

U+A9Ax ꦠ ꦡ ꦢ ꦣ ꦤ ꦥ ꦦ ꦧ ꦨ ꦩ ꦪ ꦫ ꦬ ꦭ ꦮ ꦯ

U+A9Bx ꦰ ꦱ ꦲ ꦳ ꦴ ꦵ ꦶ ꦷ ꦸ ꦹ ꦺ ꦻ ꦼ ꦽ ꦾ ꦿ

U+A9Cx ꧀ ꧁ ꧂ ꧃ ꧄ ꧅ ꧆ ꧇ ꧈ ꧉ ꧊ ꧋ ꧌ ꧍

U+A9Dx ꧐ ꧑ ꧒ ꧓ ꧔ ꧕ ꧖ ꧗ ꧘ ꧙

꧞ ꧟

NOTES 1.^ As of Unicode version 10.0 2.^ Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points



_ Details. Gilded chapter separator in Serat Selarasa_, folio 10r. 18th-century.


_Babad Tanah Jawi_. 19th CE. *

_Serat Jatipustaka_. 19th CE. *

_Serat Bratayudha_. 20th CE. *

Stories of Amir Hamzah. Early 20th CE. *

Book title from 1898, showing European influence in Javanese.



Gajah Mada street sign, Surakarta . *

Slamet Riyadi street sign, Surakarta . *

Pakubowono X's inscription, Surakarta (1938). *

Bilingual plaque in Portuguese and Javanese at Tamansari , Yogyakarta *

One of the wall poems in Leiden , _Serat Kalatidha_.



The Special Region of Yogyakarta emblem honors the Javanese script


Stylized letters in the emblem of the Yogyakarta Sultanate *

Contemporary Javanese calligraphy


* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Kuipers, Joel (2003). _Indic Scripts of Insular Southeast Asia: Changing Structures and Functions_ Archived 2014-05-14 at the Wayback Machine .. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. * ^ _Javaans Schrift. (Semaian 8)_, W. van der Molen. Review by: RAECHELLE RUBINSTEIN. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Deel 150, 1ste Afl. (1994) , pp. 243-244. Published by: KITLV, Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. JSTOR 27864536 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Everson, Michael (2008-03-06). "L2/08-015R: Proposal for encoding the Javanese script in the UCS" (PDF). * ^ _A_ _B_ Soebadyo, Haryati (2002) _Indonesian Heritage 10: Bahasa dan Sastra_. Jakarta: Buku Anak Bangsa - Grolier International. ISBN 979-8926-23-4 * ^ Leinster, Troy (2012). _Nieuw Javaansch No.1_. The Hague * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Javanese Script Description". Script Source. Retrieved 2014-05-09. * ^ Daniels, Peter T; Bright, William. _The World's Writing Systems_. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ Soemarmo, Marmo (1995). _Javanese Script_. Ohio Working Papers in Linguistics and Language Teaching 14. 69-103. * ^ Adien Gunarta (2014-05-05). "Pengantar Tipografi Aksara Jawa oleh Aditya Bayu". Retrieved 2014-05-10. * ^ Campbell, George L. (2000). _Compendium of the World's Languages. Vol_. 1. New York: Routledge. * ^ Gallop, Annabel T. (2012) _Golden Letters: Writing Traditions of Indonesia_. Jakarta: Lontar Foundation. * ^ _A_ _B_ Darusuprapta (2003). _Pedoman Penulisan Aksara Jawa_. Yogyakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara. * ^ Florida, Nancy K. (1995). _Writing the Past, Inscribing the Future: History as Prophesy in Colonial Java_. Duke University Press. * ^ Pemerintahan Provinsi Jawa Tengah (2009). _Peraturan Daerah no. 9 tahun 2012, mengenai bahasa, sastra, dan aksara Jawa_. * ^ Komisi Kesustraan Sriwedari (1926). _Paugeran Sriwed