The Info List - Janez Janša

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Ivan Janša (Slovene pronunciation: [ˈíːʋan ˈjàːnʃa];[1] born 17 September 1958), baptized and best known as Janez Janša,[2] [ˈjàːnɛs ˈjàːnʃa][3] is a Slovenian politician who was Prime Minister of Slovenia
from 2004 to 2008 and again from 2012 to 2013.[4][5] He has led the Slovenian Democratic Party
Slovenian Democratic Party
since 1993. Janša was Minister of Defence from 1990 to 1994, holding that post during the Slovenian War of Independence (June–July 1991). Janša became Prime Minister again in 2012, following an early election in December 2011. On 27 February 2013, Janša's second government was ousted in a vote of non-confidence, and Positive Slovenia's Alenka Bratušek
Alenka Bratušek
was tasked to form a new government.[6] On 5 June 2013, Janša was sentenced to two years in prison on corruption charges.[7] The ruling was confirmed by Slovenia's higher court on 28 April 2014[8] and unanimously overturned by the Constitutional Court of Slovenia
on 23 April 2015.[9]


1 Youth and education 2 Dissident

2.1 Involvement in the pacifist movement 2.2 Rapprochement with the Socialist Youth movement 2.3 Arrest and trial

3 Political career

3.1 1990–1994 Minister of Defence 3.2 1994–2004 in opposition 3.3 2004–2008 first Prime Minister term 3.4 2008–2011 in opposition 3.5 2011 election and aftermath 3.6 2012–2013: second Prime Minister term 3.7 2013: In opposition and court trial 3.8 2014: In prison

4 Accusations of plagiarism 5 Personal life 6 Books 7 References 8 External links

Youth and education[edit] Born to a Roman Catholic working-class family of Grosuplje, he was called Janez (a version of the same name, known as John in English) since childhood.[citation needed] His father was a member of the Slovenian Home Guard
Slovenian Home Guard
from Dobrova near Ljubljana
who had escaped Communist retaliation due to his young age.[10] Janša graduated from the University of Ljubljana
University of Ljubljana
with a degree in Defence Studies in 1982, and became a trainee in the Defence Secretariate of the Socialist Republic of Slovenia. In his younger years, when being a communist was advantageous for career, he was a member of the League of Communists and one of the leaders of its youth wing. He became president of the Committee for Basic People's Defence and Social Self-Protection of the Alliance of Socialist Youth of Slovenia
(ZSMS). Dissident[edit] Involvement in the pacifist movement[edit] In 1983, Janša wrote the first of his dissident articles about the nature of the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA).[citation needed] In the late 1980s, as Slovenia
was introducing democratic reforms and gradually lifting restrictions on freedom of speech, Janša wrote several articles criticising the Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
in the Mladina magazine (published by Alliance of Socialist Youth of Slovenia). As a result, his re-election as president of the Committee was blocked in 1984, and in 1985 his passport was withdrawn. He said that he made over 250 job applications in the following year without success, and was unable to secure publication of some articles.[citation needed] Other articles are documented in COBISS[citation needed] In this period he earned his living writing computer programs and acting as a mountaineering guide. Liberalization in the succeeding years allowed him to get work as secretary of the Journal for the Criticism of Science (1986) and later to begin publishing again in Mladina magazine. He became involved in the pacifist movement, and emerged as an important activist in the network of civil society organizations in Slovenia.[11] By the mid-1980s, he was one of the most prominent activist of the Slovenian pacifist movement.[12] In the mid-1980s, Janša was employed in the Slovenian software company Mikrohit;[13] in the years 1986/87, Janša founded, together with his friend Igor Omerza (later high-ranking politician of the Slovenian Democratic Union and the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia), his own software company Mikro Ada.[13] Rapprochement with the Socialist Youth movement[edit] In 1987, Janša was approached by the family of the late politician Stane Kavčič, who had been the most important exponent of the reformist fraction in the Slovenian Communist Party in the late 1960s, and Prime Minister of Slovenia
Prime Minister of Slovenia
between 1967 and 1972; he was asked to edit the manuscript of Kavčič's diaries.[14] Janša edited the volume together with Igor Bavčar.[15] The publication of the book was part of the political project of Niko Kavčič, former banker and prominent member of the reformist wing of the Communist Party, to establish a new Slovenian left wing political formation that would challenge the hardliners within the Communist Party.[15] In the spring of 1988, Janša ran for president of the Alliance of the Socialist Youth of Slovenia, a semi-independent youth organization of the Communist Party, which had been open, since 1986, also to non-party members. In his program, Janša proposed that the organization become independent of the Communist Party and transform itself into an association of all youth and civic associations; he also proposed that it rename itself "Alliance of Youth Organizations and Movements", and that it assume the role of the main civil society platform in Slovenia.[16] During that time, he also participated in the public discussions on the constitutional changes of Yugoslav and Slovenian constitution.[17] Arrest and trial[edit] On 30 May 1988, he was arrested together with three other Mladina journalists and a staff sergeant of the Yugoslav Army, Ivan Borštner. They were tried in a military court on charges of exposing military secrets, and given prison sentences. The trial was conducted in camera, with no legal representation for the accused, and in so-called Serbo-Croat (the official language in the Yugoslav army) rather than in Slovene.[citation needed] Janša was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment, initially in the maximum security prison at Dob, but following a public outcry, he was transferred to the open prison of Ig. The case became known as the JBTZ-trial and triggered mass protests against the government, which marked the beginning of the process of democratization, known as the Slovenian Spring. The Committee for the Defence of the Rights of Janez Janša was formed soon after his arrest, which became the largest grassroots civil society organization in Slovenia
with over 100,000 members.[citation needed] Some circumstances surrounding Janša's arrest have never been clarified, especially the role played by the Slovenian Communist leadership. Janša later, when membership of Communist Party was no longer prerequisite for good career, accused the Slovenian Communist leader Milan Kučan
Milan Kučan
of having accepted the Yugoslav Army's request for the arrest.[18] Niko Kavčič, who was at that time considered Janša's political mentor,[19] thought that the arrest was organized by the hardliners within the Slovenian Communist Party who were angered by the publication of Stane Kavčič's diaries and wanted to prevent the formation of an alternative reformist movement.[20] The philosopher Slavoj Žižek, who at the time also worked as a columnist for the Mladina
magazine, suggested that Janša was arrested because of his critical articles on the Yugoslav Army, and because the Army wanted to prevent his election as president of the Alliance of the Socialist Youth.[21] As a consequence of his arrest, he could not run for the position; nevertheless, the leadership of the organization decided to carry on with the elections despite Janša's arrest. In June 1988, Jožef Školč
Jožef Školč
was elected as president of the Alliance of Socialist Youth instead of Janša.[16] As a protest against the Alliance's decision not to postpone the elections, Janša's broke all relations with the organization. Janša was released after serving about six months of sentence, and became editor in chief of the Slovene political weekly magazine Demokracija (Democracy). He remained in this position until the elections of May 1990. Political career[edit] 1990–1994 Minister of Defence[edit] In 1989, Janša was involved in the founding of one of the first opposition parties in Slovenia, the Slovenian Democratic Union (SDZ) and became its first vice-president, and later president of the Party Council. Following the first free elections in May 1990 he became the Minister of Defence in Lojze Peterle's cabinet, a position he held during the Slovenian war for independence in June and July 1991. Together with the Minister of Interior Igor Bavčar, Janša was the main organizer's of Slovenia's strategy against the Yugoslav People's Army. In 1992, when the Slovenian Democratic Union broke into a liberal and a conservative wing, the leaders of the liberal fraction wanted to propose Janša as the compromise president of the party, but he refused the offer.[22] After the party's final breakdown, he joined the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia
(now called Slovenian Democratic Party) and remained Defence Minister in the center-left coalition government of Janez Drnovšek
Janez Drnovšek
until March 1994. In May 1993, he was elected president of the Social Democratic Party of Slovenia with the support of Jože Pučnik,[citation needed] the party's previous leader, and was re-elected in 1995, 1999, 2001, 2005 and 2009. 1994–2004 in opposition[edit] In March 1994, Janša was dismissed by Prime Minister Janez Drnovšek as a consequence of the Smolnikar affair (also known as Depala Vas affair). The affair began when three military intelligence servicemen allegedly brutally arrested a civilian, hired by the Ministry of the Interior for espionage. Janša was never accused of direct responsibility for this action, but his public defence of the military agents who carried out the arrest provoked an outrage in the left wing sectors of the public opinion. Janša's stance triggered his dismissal and the removal of the Social Democratic Party from the ruling coalition. The official charges against the military servicemen involved were later dismissed, but the issue remains a point of controversy. Janša used the parliamentary debate on his dismissal for a radical criticism of the ruling coalition, including the Prime Minister Drnovšek and President Milan Kučan, whom he accused of abusing his informal connections for subversive political actions. Janša's dismissal caused a great stir in the public opinion, including mass demonstrations in his support.[citation needed] Already in the local elections in the same year, the Social Democratic Party rose significantly, becoming the main opposition force, and in the 1996 parliamentary elections Janša's party rose from around 3.5% to more than 16%, becoming the third largest political party in the country. During this period (1994–2000), Janša was frequently accused by political opponents of the radicalization of the public discourse. Some[who?] went as far as to accuse him of political extremism.[citation needed] Janša's former friend and fellow dissident Spomenka Hribar
Spomenka Hribar
heavily criticized him. She accused him of extreme nationalism and chauvinism, placing feelings over rationality, and exploiting patriotic emotions among the population. Condemning his irredentist claims towards Croatia, she even went as far as denouncing his policies as obvious neo-fascism.[23] Some[who?] political scientists also shared this view.[citation needed] The post-Marxist social scientist Rudi Rizman described Janša's political rhetoric as radical populism, close to demagoguery.[24] He also accused Janša of nationalist and xenophobic rhetoric, including verbal attacks against foreigners, especially from the other former Yugoslav states, and "communists".[25] Rizman and Craig Nation, who teaches Eastern European studies at the United States Army War College, have compared Janša with radical right-wing populist leaders of other European countries.[24] Spomenka Hribar heavily criticized Janša's tendency to think in terms of conspiracy and Rizman criticized him for relying on the notion of "Udbo-Mafija",[24][26] a term coined by the architect Edo Ravnikar[27] to denote the illegitimate structural connections between the Post-Communist elites. During Janša's premiership, sociologist Rizman still outlined elements of authoritarianism, populism, and nationalism in the Prime Minister's political style.[28] Others[who?] challenged this view. The sociologist Frane Adam
Frane Adam
rejected assessments of Janša's extremism, interpreting them as the product of a culture wars, aimed at blurring the structural tension between two types of elites: on one hand, the post-Communist elites aiming at maintaining their social positions and on the other hand the hitherto disenfranchised new elites, which found their political representation in right wing parties.[29] The writer Drago Jančar
Drago Jančar
advanced a similar interpretation of the animosity against Janša and of what he saw as unjustified accusations of right-wing populism.[30] Janša remained the leader of the opposition until 2004, with a short interim between June and November 2000, when he served as Defence Minister in the short-lived centre-right government of Christian democrat Andrej Bajuk. During this time he introduced chaplains to the armed forces. Between 2000 and 2004, Janša stayed in opposition. During this period, he supported the government's efforts for the integration into EU and NATO. Between 2002 and 2004, he established cordial relations with the President of the Republic Janez Drnovšek: in 2003, Drnovšek headed a round table on Slovenia's future based on Janša's recommendations.[31] Ahead of the 2004 electoral campaign, Janša turned towards moderation, tempering his radical language and attacks against alleged Communists. Still, some critics continued to point out his nationalistic rhetoric against immigrants.[28] 2004–2008 first Prime Minister term[edit]

Janez Janša's cabinet in 2004

Janša was for the first time Prime Minister of Slovenia
Prime Minister of Slovenia
from November 2004 to November 2008. During the term characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining EU, between 2005 and 2008 the Slovenian banks have seen loan-deposit ratio veering out of control, over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting private sector, leading to its unsustainable growth. It was also for the first time after 1992 that the President of Republic and the Prime Minister had represented opposing political factions for more than a few months. The relationship between Drnovšek and the government quickly became tense. After the landslide victory of the opposition candidate Danilo Türk
Danilo Türk
in the 2007 presidential election, Janša filed a Motion of Confidence in the government on 15 November 2007, stating that the opposition's criticism was interfering with the government's work during Slovenia's presidency over the European Union.[32] The government won the vote, held on 19 November, with 51 votes supporting it and 33 opposing it.[33] In the speech delivered after the vote, Janša announced, among other, an intensification of the fight against financial criminality and the illegal concentration of capital in the hands of single powerful managers, to whom he referred as tycoons. In the following months, the Slovenian police and public prosecution launched a full-scale investigation against some of the biggest companies in the country, namely against the Laško Brewery
Laško Brewery

Janša at the summit of the European People's Party

In the beginning of December 2011, several clips of the recordings of closed sessions of the Government of Slovenia
during the mandate of Janez Janša
Janez Janša
were published on the video-sharing website YouTube.[34][35] Allegations were made against Janez Janša
Janez Janša
that he tried to subordinate Slovenian media.[36] On 1 September 2008, some three weeks before the Slovenian parliamentary elections, allegations were made in Finnish TV in a documentary broadcast by the Finnish national broadcasting company YLE
that Janša had received bribes from the Finnish defense company Patria (73.2% of which is the property of the Finnish government) in the so-called Patria case.[37][38][39] Janša rejected all accusations as a media conspiracy concocted by left-wing Slovenian journalists, and demanded YLE
to provide evidence or to retract the story.[40] Janša's naming of individual journalists, including some of those behind the 2007 Petition Against Political Pressure on Slovenian Journalists, and the perceived use of diplomatic channels in an attempt to coerce the Finnish government into interfering with YLE
editorial policy, drew criticism from media freedom organizations, such as the International Press Institute[41][42] and European branch of International Federation of Journalists whose representative, Aidan White, IFJ general secretary, said "The (Janša's) government is distorting the facts, failing to tell Slovenians the truth and trying to pull the wool over the eyes of the European public about its attitude to media".[43] 2008–2011 in opposition[edit] In the November 2008 election, Janša's party was placed second and he was replaced as Prime Minister by Borut Pahor, the Social Democrat leader. After the onset of Financial crisis of 2007–2010
Financial crisis of 2007–2010
and European sovereign-debt crisis, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005–2008 over-borrowing; however, all the attempts to implement reforms that would help towards economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša's SDS, and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed on a referendum. 2011 election and aftermath[edit] In December 2011 Janša's party won the second place in the Slovenian parliamentary elections. Since the Prime Minister-designate of the first-placed party, Positive Slovenia, Zoran Janković failed to secure himself enough votes in the National Assembly,[44] and Danilo Türk, the President of Slovenia, declined to propose Janša as the Prime Minister, because Janša had been charged in the Patria bribery case, Janša was proposed as the Prime Minister by the coalition of the parties SDS, SLS, DeSUS, NSi, and the newly formed Gregor Virant's Civic List on 25 January 2012.[45] On 28 January he became the Prime-Minister elect.[46] His cabinet[47] was confirmed on 10 February, and Janša became the new Prime Minister with a handover from Pahor on the same day.[48][49] On 13 February the President received the new Government and wished them luck. Both parties agreed that good cooperation is crucial for success.[50] 2012–2013: second Prime Minister term[edit] During the second Prime Minister term, which lasted less than two years, Janez Janša
Janez Janša
responded to the weakening of Slovenian economy during the global economic crisis and European sovereign-debt crisis with opening up old ideological fronts against liberal media, and against public sector – especially educational and cultural sectors, accusing them of being under influence of members of old regime (called Udbomafia and "Uncles from Behind the Scenes" (In Slovene: "strici iz ozadja")[51]) and against everyone who doubted that austerity measures forced upon Slovenia
are right ones.[52][53] Slovenian political elites faced the 2012–2013 Slovenian protests demanding their resignation.[54][55][56][57] In January 2013, the 2012–2013 Investigation Report on the parliamentary parties' leaders by Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia
revealed that Janez Janša
Janez Janša
and Zoran Janković systematically and repeatedly violated the law by failing to properly report their assets.[58][58][59][60] It revealed his purchase of one of the real-estate was indirectly co-funded by a construction firm, a major government contractor.[58] It showed that his use of funds in the amount of at least 200.000 EUR, coming from unknown origin, exceeded both his income and savings.[58] Immediately after the release of the report, Civic List issued an ultimatum to Janša's party to find another party member to serve as a new PM.[61] Since Janša was ignoring the report and his party didn't offer any replacement for him, all three coalition parties and their leaders left the government within weeks and were subjected to ad hominem attacks by Janez Janša
Janez Janša
who accused the SLS's leader Radovan Žerjav of being "the worst (economics) minister in history of Slovenia", while the leader of the Civic List Gregor Virant has been mocked by Janša as engaging in "virantovanje" (a word game on kurentovanje, a Slovenian carnival festival).[62][63][64] On 27 February 2013, Janša's government fell, following a vote of no confidence over allegations of corruption and an unpopular austerity programme in the midst of the country's recession. Gregor Virant welcomed the outcome of the vote, stating that it will enable Slovenia to move forward, either to form a new government or to call for an early election.[65] 2013: In opposition and court trial[edit] Following the fall of his government, Janša decided not to resume his position as a member of the National Assembly. Instead, he decided to work for his party (SDS), write books, lecture at international institutes and help as a counsellor.[66] On 5 June 2013, the District Court in Ljubljana
ruled that Janša and two others had sought about €2m in commission from a Finnish firm, Patria, in order to help it win a military supply contract in 2006 (Patria case).[67] Janša was sentenced to two years while Tone Krkovič and Ivan Črnkovič, his co-defendants, were each sentenced to 22 months in prison. All three were also fined €37,000 each.[67][68] Janša has denied the accusations, claiming the whole process is politically motivated.[69] The following day, the Minister of Justice, Senko Pličanič, emphasised that the court ruling was not yet binding and therefore Janša was still presumed innocent.[70] Several hundred supporters had rallied outside the court to protest the ruling, while another group of people welcomed the outcome.[71] In his first response, Janša stated he will fight with all available legal and political means to overturn the ruling at the superior court.[72] He has also drawn parallels to the politically motivated JBTZ trial, where he was sentenced to prison 25 years ago.[72] Members of SDS, NSi and SLS, the opposition parties, condemned the ruling.[71] The coalition mostly abstained from comments. Borut Pahor, the President of Slovenia, stressed that the authority of the court should be respected, regardless of personal opinions.[73] The ruling was welcomed by the members of the Protest movement and Goran Klemenčič of the Commission for the Prevention of Corruption of the Republic of Slovenia, who stated that the fight against corruption in Slovenia must continue.[74] 2014: In prison[edit] After the Constitutional Court of Slovenia
with the majority of votes dismissed Janša's appeal due to him not having exhausted every other legal means available to him, on 20 June 2014 Janša started serving his prison term in Dob Prison, the largest Slovene prison. He was escorted there by about 3,000 supporters.[75] The influential German centre-right wing newspaper Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
reported the following day that the domestic Slovene and the international law experts recognised large violations of Janša's rights in the court case.[76] The case is to be reviewed by the Supreme Court, but this does not postpone the execution of the sentence that started just three weeks before the parliamentary election. Former constitutional judges criticised the decision of the Constitutional Court for being based on formalities instead of on the content, and commented that a large legal inconsistency in the process was discovered only in front of the Constitutional Court and that it will prevent the Supreme Court from not overturning the judgement.[77] On 12 December 2014 Janša was temporarily released from the prison pending the review of the case by the Constitutional Court.[78] The conviction was unanimously overturned by the Constitutional Court on 23 April 2015.[9] Accusations of plagiarism[edit] The largest and most notable Roman Catholic newspaper Družina and Janša have both claimed that very few individuals who managed to survive the Kočevski Rog massacre included Janša's father, although the story of the actual survivor France Dejak which was told in 1989 for the first time in Mladina,[79] was re-told in details as if it has been experienced by Janša's father. In 2008, it was reported by the newspaper Mladina
that Janez Janša copied a speech by Tony Blair, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. It was used in 2006 for the ceremony on the 15th anniversary of the Slovenian declaration of independence. His office responded with the claim that it was not copied but similar to Blair's speech, and that this were only a few phrases often used for such occasions. A few of these sentences were proclaimed the Spade of the Year by the newspaper Večer in 2006; the award is given annually to the best publicly expressed thought in Slovenia.[80] Personal life[edit] Janša is an active mountaineer, golfer, footballer, skier and snowboarder.[81] Since July 2009, Janša has been married to Urška Bačovnik (MD) from Velenje. The two had been dating since 2006.[82] In August 2011, their son Črtomir was born.[83] Their second son, Jakob, was born in August 2013.[84] Before his marriage to Urška Bačovnik, Janša was in a long-term relationship with Silva Predalič, who bore him two children, a son and a daughter.[81][85] Books[edit] Janša has published several books, the two of which are Premiki ("Manoeuvres", published in 1992 and subsequently translated into English under the title "The Making of the Slovenian State") and Okopi ("Barricades", 1994), in which he exposes his personal views on the problems of Slovenia's transition from Communism to a parliamentary democracy. In both books, but particularly in Okopi, Janša criticized the then president of Slovenia
Milan Kučan
Milan Kučan
of interfering in daily politics using the informal influence he had gained as the last chairman of the Communist Party of Slovenia. He published second edition of the same book: Dvajset let pozneje Okopi with some additional documents and personal views.

Podružbljanje varnosti in obrambe ('The Socialization of Security and Defence', editor); Ljubljana: Republiška konferenca ZSMS, 1984. Stane Kavčič, Dnevnik in spomini ('The Memoirs of Stane Kavčič', co-edited with Igor Bavčar); Ljubljana: ČKZ, 1988. Na svoji strani ('On One's Own Side', collection of articles); Ljubljana: ČKZ, 1988. Premiki: nastajanje in obramba slovenske države 1988–1992; Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1992. English translation: The Making of the Slovenian State, 1988–1992: the Collapse of Yugoslavia; Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1994. Okopi: pot slovenske države 1991–1994 ('Trenches: the Evolution of the Slovenian State, 1991–1994'); Ljubljana: Mladinska knjiga, 1994. Sedem let pozneje ('Seven Years Later'). Ljubljana: Založba Karantanija, 1994. Osem let pozneje ('Eight Years Later', co-authored with Ivan Borštner and David Tasić); Ljubljana: Založba Karantanija, 1995. Dvajset let pozneje, Okopi II ('Twenty Years Later, Trenches II'). Ljubljana: Založba Mladinska knjiga, 2014.


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Fails Test of Leadership in European Union over Press Freedom Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine., The European Federation of Journalists (EFJ), 11 January 2008 ^ "Türk: Obžalujem neizvolitev. Zoran Janković ostaja resen kandidat" [Türk: I Regret the Non-Election. Zoran Janković Remains a Serious Candidate] (in Slovenian). MMC RTV Slovenia. 11 January 2012.  ^ "Foto: Janša: Za nami stoji 600.000 volivcev" [Photo: Janša: 600,000 Voters Stand Behind Us]. 24ur.com (in Slovenian).  ^ "Parliament Endorses Janša". Slovenia
Times. 28 January 2012.  ^ "Ministers in Slovenia's Tenth Cabinet (bio)". Slovenian Press Agency. 10 February 2012.  ^ "Janša Formally Takes Over from Pahor". Slovenian Press Agency. 10 February 2012.  ^ " Slovenia
gets new cabinet, two months after elections". Europe Online ate=10 February 2012.  ^ "President Receives New Govt, Highlights Cooperation". Slovenian Press Agency. 13 February 2012. [permanent dead link] ^ Uncles from Behind the Scenes (In Slovene: "Strici iz ozadja"), Dnevnik, 10. November 2012 ^ IMF calls time on austerity – but can Greece survive?, BBC News, 11 October 2012 ^ A Symposium of Law Experts. Political arbitrariness has gone wild. (In Slovene: "Posvet pravnikov. Samovolja politikov presega vse meje"), Dnevnik, 18 January 2013. ^ "Vstala bo država: Protesti v Ljubljani, Mariboru, Ajdovščini, na Ptuju in v Novi Gorici". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "Vseslovenska vstaja za boljše življenje". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "2. vseslovenska ljudska vstaja: ". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "Na tretji vseslovenski vstaji 20.000 ljudi: »Čas je, da dobimo nazaj našo državo!«". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ a b c d Official News on the Commission's website, 10 January 2013, Ljubljana, Slovenia. ^ Most powerful politicians do not know where they got the money (In Slovene: "Najmočnejša politika ne vesta odkod jima denar"), Delo, 9 January 2013 ^ Žerdin, A. (2013)There is no room for an unexplained sources of money in the public servants' budgets (In Slovene: "V bilancah funkcionarjev ni prostora za gotovino neznanega izvora"), Delo ^ Virant's party responded to Janša's ultimatum with their ultimatum (In Slovene: "Virantovi na Janšev ultimat z ultimatom"), Delo, 12 January 2013 ^ – Janša to Žerjav: The worst minister of the economy in the history of Slovenia
has left the government, MMC RTV Slovenija, 25 February 2013 ^ Section of Virant: Virantovanje resembles kurentovanje, MMC RTV Slovenija, 14 February 2013 ^ Desus has left the government, Delo, 12 January 2013 ^ "Znotraj DZ-ja jasna podpora, zunaj njega odzivi mešani". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ " Janez Janša
Janez Janša
bo pisal in predaval". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ a b "Ex-Slovenian PM Jansa convicted". 5 June 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2018 – via www.bbc.co.uk.  ^ Janša, Krkovič in Črnkovič krivi :: Prvi interaktivni multimedijski portal, MMC RTV Slovenija ^ "Ex-PM Janez Jansa sentenced to 2 years in prison for corruption in Patria arms deal case". 5 June 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "Pličanič: Z oceno političnega dometa obsodbe Janše treba počakati do pravnomočnosti sodbe" [Pličanič: It Must be Waited with the Evaluation of the Political Importance of the Conviction of Janša Until the Ruling Becomes Binding] (in Slovenian). Siol.net. 6 June 2013.  ^ a b "Odzivi: Sodba je fiasko, blamaža, zgodovinski dogodek". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ a b "Janez Janša: Sodba je sramota za Slovenijo, borili se bomo do konca". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "Pahor: Odločitve ustanov pravne države moramo spoštovati". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "KPK: Sodba v zadevi Patria ne more biti zadnja in edina". Retrieved 4 March 2018.  ^ "Janša Arrives at Dob Prison
Dob Prison
(adds)". Slovene Press Agency. 20 June 2014.  ^ "FAZ: V postopku proti Janši so bila kršena načela pravne države" [FAZ: The Principles of a Legal State Were Violated in the Process Against Janša]. Planet Siol.net (in Slovenian). 21 June 2014.  ^ "Odzivi: Nekdanji ustavni sodniki kritični do odločitve sodišča o Janševi pritožbi" [Responses: The Former Constitutional Judges Critical to the Decision of the Court about Janša's Appeal] (in Slovenian).  ^ "Ex- Slovenia
PM temporarily released from prison". Daily Mail Online. 12 December 2014.  ^ Bogomir Štefanič Jr. (2009). [1] Totalitarna kultura smrti in zgodba družine Janša. Družina. 25 March 2009. Accessed: 2012-04-01. (Archived by WebCite® at https://www.webcitation.org/66boYDLp5?url=http://www.druzina.si/icd/spletnastran.nsf/all/9C736E1DB0201F02C12575860035236D?OpenDocument ) ^ "Janša prepisal govor od Blaira" [Janša Copied His Speech from Blair]. Delo.si (in Slovenian and English). 21 June 2008.  ^ a b "Curriculum Vitae". Office of the Prime Minister. Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  ^ "Janez in Urška sta uradno zaročena" (in Slovenian). MMC RTV SLO. 9 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  ^ "Rodil se je Črtomir Janša". Slovenskenovice.si. Retrieved 2011-10-23.  ^ "Janša ima sina Jakoba" [Janša Has the Son Jakob] (in Slovenian). Slovenskenovice.si. 13 August 2008.  ^ "Janša poročen s Silvio" (in Slovenian). Vest.si. 27 October 2007. Archived from the original on 5 October 2008. Retrieved 20 September 2008. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Janez Janša.

Office of the Slovenian Prime Minister

Political offices

New office Minister of Defence 1990–1994 Succeeded by Jelko Kacin

Preceded by Franci Demšar Minister of Defence 2000 Succeeded by Anton Grizold

Preceded by Anton Rop Prime Minister of Slovenia 2004–2008 Succeeded by Borut Pahor

Preceded by José Sócrates President of the European Council 2008 Succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy

Preceded by Borut Pahor Prime Minister of Slovenia 2012–2013 Succeeded by Alenka Bratušek

Party political offices

Preceded by Jože Pučnik President of the Democratic Party 1993–present Incumbent

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Prime Ministers of Slovenia

Prime Ministers of SR Slovenia (1945–1953)

Boris Kidrič Miha Marinko

Presidents of the Executive Council of SR Slovenia (1945–1990)

Miha Marinko Boris Kraigher Viktor Avbelj Janko Smole Stane Kavčič Andrej Marinc Anton Vratuša Janez Zemljarič Dušan Šinigoj

Prime Ministers of Slovenia (1990–present)

Lojze Peterle Janez Drnovšek Andrej Bajuk Janez Drnovšek Anton Rop Janez Janša Borut Pahor Janez Janša Alenka Bratušek Miro Cerar

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Presidents of the European Council

President-in-Office (1975–2009)

Liam Cosgrave Aldo Moro Gaston Thorn Joop den Uyl James Callaghan Leo Tindemans Anker Jørgensen Helmut Schmidt Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Jack Lynch Francesco Cossiga Charles Haughey Pierre Werner Dries van Agt Margaret Thatcher Wilfried Martens Anker Jørgensen Poul Schlüter Helmut Kohl Andreas Papandreou François Mitterrand Garret FitzGerald Bettino Craxi Jacques Santer Ruud Lubbers Wilfried Martens Felipe González François Mitterrand Giulio Andreotti Ruud Lubbers Aníbal Cavaco Silva John Major Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Jean-Luc Dehaene Jacques Chirac Felipe González Lamberto Dini Romano Prodi John Bruton Wim Kok Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Viktor Klima Gerhard Schröder Paavo Lipponen António Guterres Jacques Chirac Göran Persson Guy Verhofstadt José María Aznar
José María Aznar
López Anders Fogh Rasmussen Costas Simitis Silvio Berlusconi Bertie Ahern Jan Peter Balkenende Jean-Claude Juncker Tony Blair Wolfgang Schüssel Matti Vanhanen Angela Merkel José Sócrates Janez Janša Nicolas Sarkozy Mirek Topolánek Jan Fischer Fredrik Reinfeldt

Permanent President (since 2009)

Herman Van Rompuy Donald Tusk

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Yugoslav Wars

Overview Participants People

Wars and conflicts

Slovenian War of Independence (1991) Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
(1991–95) Bosnian War
Bosnian War

Croat–Bosniak War
Croat–Bosniak War

Kosovo War
Kosovo War
(1998–99) Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
Insurgency in the Preševo Valley
(1999–2001) 2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia
2001 insurgency in the Republic of Macedonia


Timeline of Yugoslav breakup Josip Broz Tito Brotherhood and unity League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatian Spring SANU Memorandum Contributions for the Slovenian National Program Anti-bureaucratic revolution JBTZ-trial Gazimestan speech RAM Plan Breakup of Yugoslavia Karađorđevo agreement Graz agreement Joint Criminal Enterprise Role of the media in the Yugoslav wars


Brioni Agreement Dayton Agreement Agreement on Sub-Regional Arms Control International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY)

List of ICTY indictees

Human rights in Croatia Human rights in Serbia

Articles on nationalism:

Ethnic cleansing Greater Albania Greater Croatia United Macedonia Greater Serbia United Slovenia Anti-Serbian sentiment Islamophobia Albanian nationalism Bosnianism Croatian nationalism Macedonian nationalism Montenegrin nationalism Serbian nationalism Serbian–Montenegrin unionism Slovenian nationalism Yugoslavism

Ex-Yugoslav republics:

 Yugoslavia (SFRY)

 Croatia  Slovenia  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Macedonia  Yugoslavia (FRY)

Unrecognized entities:

  Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina

SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia SAO Krajina SAO Western Slavonia

  Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska

SAO Bosanska Krajina SAO Herzegovina SAO North-Eastern Bosnia SAO Romanija

 Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia (HRHB) Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia (APZB)

United Nations
United Nations

United Nations
United Nations
Transitional Authority for Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Sirmium (UNTAES) United Nations
United Nations
Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK)


Yugoslav People's Army
Yugoslav People's Army
(JNA) Yugoslav Territorial Defence (TO) Slovenian Territorial Defence
Slovenian Territorial Defence
(TORS) Yugoslav Army (VJ) Croatian Army (HV) BiH Territorial Defence (TORBIH) Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(ARBiH) Army of Republika Srpska
Republika Srpska
(VRS) Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina
Army of the Republic of Serb Krajina
(SVK) Croatian Defence Council
Croatian Defence Council

Military formations and volunteers:

Croatian Defence Forces
Croatian Defence Forces
(HOS) White Eagles Serb Guard (SG) Serb Volunteer Guard
Serb Volunteer Guard
(SDG) Scorpions Yellow Wasps Greek Volunteer Guard Wolves of Vučjak

External factors:

NATO United Nations
United Nations

United Nations
United Nations
Protection Force (UNPROFOR) United Nations
United Nations
Confidence Restoration Operation (UNCRO)


Ante Marković Borisav Jović Slobodan Milošević Momir Bulatović Milo Đukanović Vuk Drašković Milan Kučan Lojze Peterle Janez Janša Franjo Tuđman Stjepan Mesić Ante Paradžik
Ante Paradžik
† Dobroslav Paraga Alija Izetbegović Mate Boban Fikret Abdić Radovan Karadžić Biljana Plavšić Momčilo Krajišnik Mirko Jović Jovan Rašković
Jovan Rašković
† Milan Babić Goran Hadžić Milan Martić Vojislav Šešelj

Top military commanders:

Veljko Kadijević Života Panić Momčilo Perišić Janko Bobetko Martin Špegelj Gojko Šušak Mile Novaković Mile Mrkšić Ratko Mladić Rasim Delić Sefer Halilović Atif Dudaković Dragoljub Ojdanić Nebojša Pavković Vladimir Lazarević

Other notable commanders:

Blago Zadro
Blago Zadro
 † Blaž Kraljević
Blaž Kraljević
† Ante Gotovina Jovan Divjak Naser Orić Veselin Šljivančanin Milan Tepić
Milan Tepić
 † Đorđe Božović  † Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Vukašin Šoškoćanin
Veljko Milanković
Veljko Milanković
† Ljubiša Savić Dragan Vasiljković Željko Ražnatović Milorad Ulemek

Key foreign figures:

Lord Carrington Cyrus Vance Lord Owen Richard Holbrooke Robert Badinter

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Croatian War of Independence

Part of the Yugoslav Wars


Log Revolution SAO Krajina


Pakrac clash Plitvice Lakes incident 1991 siege of Kijevo Battle of Borovo Selo 1991 riot in Zadar 1991 protest in Split SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia Operation Stinger Dalj massacre Operation Labrador SAO Western Slavonia Battle of Vukovar Battle of Osijek Battle of Gospić Battle of Kusonje Battle of the Barracks Siege of Varaždin Barracks Siege of Bjelovar Barracks Battle of Zadar Battle of Šibenik 1991 Yugoslav campaign in Croatia Siege of Dubrovnik Bombing of Banski dvori Široka Kula massacre Lovas massacre Gospić massacre Baćin massacre Saborsko massacre Operation Otkos 10 Battle of Logorište Erdut massacre Battle of the Dalmatian channels Kostrići massacre Škabrnja massacre Vukovar massacre Vance plan Operation Whirlwind Paulin Dvor massacre Gornje Jame massacre Operation Orkan 91 Voćin massacre Joševica massacre Operation Devil's Beam Bruška massacre


Sarajevo Agreement 1992 European Community Monitor Mission helicopter downing Operation Baranja Operation Jackal Battle of the Miljevci Plateau Operation Tiger (1992) Operation Liberated Land Battle of Konavle Operation Vlaštica


Operation Maslenica Daruvar Agreement Operation Backstop Operation Medak Pocket Z-4 Plan Operation Winter '94


Operation Leap 1 Operation Flash Zagreb rocket attack Operation Leap 2 Operation Summer '95 Operation Storm Operation Maestral 2 Varivode massacre

Timeline of the Croatian War of Independence

Internment camps

Begejci camp Bučje camp Knin camp Lora prison camp Ovčara camp Sremska Mitrovica prison camp Stajićevo camp Velepromet camp


Independence of Croatia Persecution of Croats in Serbia during the war in Croatia

Category Commons

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Bosnian War

Part of the Yugoslav Wars


Bosnian side

Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina

1st Corps 2nd Corps 3rd Corps 4th Corps 5th Corps 6th Corps 7th Corps


Patriotic League Green Berets Black Swans Mujahideen Croatian Defence Forces

Croat side

Croatian Defence Council



Croatian Defence Forces Knights

Serb side

Army of Republika Srpska

1st Krajina Corps 2nd Krajina Corps 3rd Corps East Bosnia Corps Herzegovina Corps Sarajevo-Romanija Corps Drina Corps


Wolves of Vučjak White Eagles Serb Volunteer Guard Scorpions Yellow Wasps


Karađorđevo meeting Zulfikarpašić–Karadžić agreement RAM Plan Serb Autonomous Regions

Bosanska Krajina Herzegovina North-East Bosnia Romanija

Establishment of Republika Srpska Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
independence referendum Sarajevo wedding shooting Declaration of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina Battle of Bosanski Brod Sijekovac killings Bijeljina massacre 1992 anti-war protests in Sarajevo


Battle of Kupres Siege of Sarajevo Foča massacres Siege of Srebrenica Zvornik massacre Doboj Snagovo massacre Prijedor ethnic cleansing Sarajevo column incident Siege of Goražde Graz agreement Glogova massacre Lašva Valley ethnic cleansing Tuzla column incident Zaklopača massacre Vilina Vlas Siege of Doboj Bijeli Potok massacre Pionirska Street fire Operation Jackal Višegrad massacres

Bosanska Jagodina Paklenik Barimo Sjeverin

Čemerno massacre Siege of Bihać Ahatovići massacre Croat–Bosniak War Operation Vrbas '92 Operation Corridor 92  Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia Agreement on Friendship and Cooperation between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia Korićani Cliffs massacre


Kravica attack Duša killings Skelani massacre Štrpci Siege of Mostar Srebrenica shelling Ahmići massacre Trusina killings Sovići and Doljani massacres Vranica case Dobrinja mortar attack Battle of Žepče

Operation Irma Operation Neretva '93 Grabovica massacre Mokronoge massacre Stupni Do massacre Autonomous Province of Western Bosnia Operation Deny Flight Križančevo Selo killings


Operation Tvigi 94 First Markale massacre Banja Luka incident Washington Agreement  Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina Operation Bøllebank Attack on Spin magazine journalists Operation Tiger Battle of Kupres Operation Amanda Operation Spider Operation Winter '94


Operation Leap 1 Battle of Orašje Operation Leap 2 Split Agreement Operation Summer '95 Pale air strikes Tuzla shelling Battle of Vrbanja Bridge Srebrenica massacre


Battle for Vozuća Operation Miracle Operation Storm Second Markale massacre NATO
bombing campaign Operation Mistral 2 Operation Sana Operation Una Operation Southern Move Exodus of Sarajevo Serbs Dayton Agreement  Bosnia and Herzegovina

Internment camps

Silos Manjača Liplje Luka Omarska Keraterm Trnopolje Sušica Čelebići Batković Dretelj Uzamnica Heliodrom Gabela Vojno


Ethnic cleansing
Ethnic cleansing
and massacres

Bosnian genocide

Internment camps Rape Peace plans NATO
intervention Foreign support Foreign fighters

Timeline of the Bosnian War
Bosnian War
(Timeline of the Croat–Bosniak War)

Category Commons

Category Commons

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Municipality of Grosuplje


Administrative centre: Grosuplje


Bičje Blečji Vrh Brezje pri Grosupljem Brvace Cerovo Cikava Čušperk Dobje Dole pri Polici Dolenja Vas pri Polici Gabrje pri Ilovi Gori Gajniče Gatina Gorenja Vas pri Polici Gornji Rogatec Gradišče Hrastje pri Grosupljem Huda Polica Kožljevec Lobček Luče Mala Ilova Gora Mala Loka pri Višnji Gori Mala Račna Mala Stara Vas Mala Vas pri Grosupljem Male Lipljene Mali Konec Mali Vrh pri Šmarju Malo Mlačevo Medvedica Paradišče Pece Peč Plešivica pri Žalni Podgorica pri Podtaboru Podgorica pri Šmarju Polica Ponova Vas Praproče pri Grosupljem Predole Rožnik Sela pri Šmarju Šent Jurij Škocjan Šmarje–Sap Spodnja Slivnica Spodnje Blato Spodnje Duplice Tlake Troščine Udje Velika Ilova Gora Velika Loka Velika Račna Velika Stara Vas Velike Lipljene Veliki Vrh pri Šmarju Veliko Mlačevo Vino Vrbičje Zagradec pri Grosupljem Žalna Železnica Zgornja Slivnica Zgornje Duplice


Boštanj Boštjanska Vas Jerova Vas Perovo Razdrto Sap Šmarje Stranska Vas


Boštanj Castle Čušperk
Castle Grosuplje
Library Mount Mary Magdalene archeological site Praproče Mansion Račna Karst Field Zavrh Castle

Notable people

Louis Adamic Janez Janša

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 18029890 LCCN: nr90004210 ISNI: 0000 0001 0957 4199 GND: 119355752 BNF: cb167425675 (dat