James VI and I
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March
King of Scotland
King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of
England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and
English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms
of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their
own parliaments, judiciaries, and laws, though both were ruled by
James in personal union.
James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and a great-great-grandson
of Henry VII,
King of England
King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to
eventually accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the
Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was
compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed
during his minority, which ended officially in 1578, though he did not
gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded
the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died
without issue. He continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22
years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death
in 1625 at the age of 58. After the Union of the Crowns, he based
himself in England (the largest of the three realms) from 1603, only
returning to Scotland once in 1617, and styled himself "King of Great
Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament
for England and Scotland. In his reign, the
Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster and
British colonisation of the Americas
British colonisation of the Americas began.
At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than
those of any of his predecessors. He achieved most of his aims in
Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the
Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English
Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature
and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John
Donne, Ben Jonson, and Sir
Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing
literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author
of works such as
Daemonologie (1597), The True Law of Free Monarchies
Basilikon Doron (1599). He sponsored the translation of
the Bible into English that would later be named after him: the
Authorised King James Version. Sir
Anthony Weldon claimed that
James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet
associated with his character ever since. Since the latter half of
the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation
and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch. He was strongly
committed to a peace policy, and tried to avoid involvement in
religious wars, especially the
Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War (1618–1648) that
devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the
rise of hawkish elements in the
English Parliament who wanted war with
2 Rule in Scotland
2.2 Witch hunts
2.3 Highlands and Islands
2.4 Theory of monarchy
2.5 Literary patronage
3 Accession in England
4 Early reign in England
4.1 Gunpowder Plot
5 King and Parliament
5.1 Spanish match
6 King and Church
10 Titles, styles, honours, and arms
10.1 Titles and styles
12.1 Family tree
13 List of writings
14 See also
18 Further reading
19 External links
Portrait of James as a boy, after Arnold Bronckorst, 1574. National
Portrait Gallery, London.
James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second
husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were
Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor,
the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was
insecure, and she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a
Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's
difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels
and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David
Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, and as the eldest
son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of
Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised
"Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic
ceremony held at Stirling Castle. His godparents were Charles IX of
France (represented by John, Count of Brienne),
Elizabeth I of England
(represented by the Earl of Bedford), and Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of
Savoy (represented by ambassador Philibert du Croc).[a] Mary refused
to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky
priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was then the custom. The
subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured
men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests
took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them".
James's father, Darnley, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o'
Field, Edinburgh, perhaps in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James
inherited his father's titles of
Duke of Albany
Duke of Albany and Earl of Ross. Mary
was already unpopular, and her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James
Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, who was widely suspected of murdering
Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.[b] In June
Protestant rebels arrested Mary and imprisoned her in Loch Leven
Castle; she never saw her son again. She was forced to abdicate on 24
July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her
illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as
James (right) depicted aged 17 beside his mother Mary (left), 1583. In
reality, they were separated when he was still a baby.
The care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to
be conserved, nursed, and upbrought" in the security of Stirling
Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen
months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell,
Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567. The sermon at the coronation
was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of
most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of
Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk. The Privy Council
selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine (lay abbot of
Cambuskenneth), and David Erskine (lay abbot of Dryburgh) as James's
preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan
subjected James to regular beatings but also instilled in him a
lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to
turn James into a God-fearing,
Protestant king who accepted the
limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni
In 1568, Mary escaped from her imprisonment at Loch Leven Castle,
leading to several years of sporadic violence. The Earl of Moray
defeated Mary's troops at the Battle of Langside, forcing her to flee
to England, where she was subsequently kept in confinement by
Elizabeth. On 23 January 1570, Moray was assassinated by James
Hamilton of Bothwellhaugh. The next regent was James's paternal
grandfather Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox, who was carried
fatally wounded into
Stirling Castle a year later after a raid by
Mary's supporters. His successor, the Earl of Mar, "took a
vehement sickness" and died on 28 October 1572 at Stirling. Mar's
illness, wrote James Melville, followed a banquet at Dalkeith Palace
given by James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton.
Morton was elected to Mar's office and proved in many ways the most
effective of James's regents, but he made enemies by his
rapacity. He fell from favour when Frenchman Esmé Stewart, Sieur
d'Aubigny, first cousin of James's father Lord Darnley and future Earl
of Lennox, arrived in Scotland and quickly established himself as the
first of James's powerful favourites. Morton was executed on 2
June 1581, belatedly charged with complicity in Darnley's murder.
On 8 August, James made Lennox the only duke in Scotland. The
king, then fifteen years old, remained under the influence of Lennox
for about one more year.
Rule in Scotland
James in 1586, age 20
Lennox was a
Protestant convert, but he was distrusted by Scottish
Calvinists who noticed the physical displays of affection between him
and the king and alleged that Lennox "went about to draw the King to
carnal lust". In August 1582, in what became known as the Ruthven
Protestant earls of Gowrie and Angus lured James into
Ruthven Castle, imprisoned him,[c] and forced Lennox to leave
Scotland. During James's imprisonment (19 September 1582), John Craig,
whom the king had personally appointed Royal Chaplain in 1579, rebuked
him so sharply from the pulpit for having issued a proclamation so
offensive to the clergy "that the king wept".
After James was liberated in June 1583, he assumed increasing control
of his kingdom. He pushed through the Black Acts to assert royal
authority over the Kirk, and denounced the writings of his former
tutor Buchanan. Between 1584 and 1603, he established effective
royal government and relative peace among the lords, ably assisted by
John Maitland of Thirlestane who led the government until 1592. An
eight-man commission known as the
Octavians brought some control over
the ruinous state of James's finances in 1596, but it drew opposition
from vested interests. It was disbanded within a year after a riot in
Edinburgh, which was stoked by anti-Catholicism and led the court to
withdraw to Linlithgow temporarily.
One last Scottish attempt against the king's person occurred in August
1600, when James was apparently assaulted by Alexander Ruthven, the
Earl of Gowrie's younger brother, at Gowrie House, the seat of the
Ruthvens. Ruthven was run through by James's page John Ramsay and
the Earl of Gowrie was killed in the ensuing fracas; there were few
surviving witnesses. Given James's history with the Ruthvens and the
fact that he owed them a great deal of money, his account of the
circumstances was not universally believed.
In 1586, James signed the Treaty of Berwick with England. That and the
execution of his mother in 1587, which he denounced as a "preposterous
and strange procedure", helped clear the way for his succession south
of the border.[d] Queen Elizabeth was unmarried and childless, and
James was her most likely successor. Securing the English succession
became a cornerstone of his policy. During the Spanish Armada
crisis of 1588, he assured Elizabeth of his support as "your natural
son and compatriot of your country".
Anne of Denmark
Anne of Denmark attributed to John de Critz, c. 1605
Throughout his youth, James was praised for his chastity, since he
showed little interest in women. After the loss of Lennox, he
continued to prefer male company. A suitable marriage, however,
was necessary to reinforce his monarchy, and the choice fell on
fourteen-year-old Anne of Denmark, younger daughter of Protestant
Frederick II. Shortly after a proxy marriage in
Copenhagen in August
1589, Anne sailed for Scotland but was forced by storms to the coast
of Norway. On hearing that the crossing had been abandoned, James
Leith with a 300-strong retinue to fetch Anne personally
in what historian
David Harris Willson called "the one romantic
episode of his life".[e] The couple were married formally at the
Bishop's Palace in Oslo on 23 November and returned to Scotland on 1
May 1590, after stays at
Copenhagen and a meeting with
Tycho Brahe. By all accounts, James was at first infatuated with Anne
and, in the early years of their marriage, seems always to have showed
her patience and affection. The royal couple produced three
children who survived to adulthood: Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales,
who died of typhoid fever in 1612, aged 18; Elizabeth, later queen of
Bohemia; and Charles, his successor. Anne died before her husband in
Suspected witches kneeling before King James;
James's visit to Denmark, a country familiar with witch-hunts, sparked
an interest in the study of witchcraft, which he considered a
branch of theology. He attended the North Berwick witch trials,
the first major persecution of witches in Scotland under the
Witchcraft Act 1563. Several people were convicted of using witchcraft
to send storms against James's ship, most notably Agnes Sampson.
James became obsessed with the threat posed by witches and wrote
Daemonologie in 1597, a tract inspired by his personal involvement
that opposed the practice of witchcraft and that provided background
material for Shakespeare's Tragedy of Macbeth. James personally
supervised the torture of women accused of being witches. After
1599, his views became more sceptical. In a later letter written
in England to his son Henry, James congratulates the prince on "the
discovery of yon little counterfeit wench. I pray God ye may be my
heir in such discoveries ... most miracles now-a-days prove but
illusions, and ye may see by this how wary judges should be in
Highlands and Islands
The forcible dissolution of the Lordship of the Isles by James IV in
1493 had led to troubled times for the western seaboard. He had
subdued the organised military might of the Hebrides, but he and his
immediate successors lacked the will or ability to provide an
alternative form of governance. As a result, the 16th century became
known as linn nan creach, the time of raids. Furthermore, the
effects of the Reformation were slow to affect the Gàidhealtachd,
driving a religious wedge between this area and centres of political
control in the Central Belt.
In 1540, James V had toured the Hebrides, forcing the clan chiefs to
accompany him. There followed a period of peace, but the clans were
soon at loggerheads with one another again. During James VI's
reign, the citizens of the
Hebrides were portrayed as lawless
barbarians rather than being the cradle of Scottish
nationhood. Official documents describe the peoples of the Highlands
as "void of the knawledge and feir of God" who were prone to "all kynd
of barbarous and bestile cruelteis". The Gaelic language, spoken
fluently by James IV and probably by James V, became known in the time
of James VI as "Erse" or Irish, implying that it was foreign in
nature. The Scottish Parliament decided that Gaelic had become a
principal cause of the Highlanders' shortcomings and sought to abolish
Scottish gold coin from 1609
It was against this background that James VI authorised the "Gentleman
Adventurers of Fife" to civilise the "most barbarous Isle of Lewis" in
1598. James wrote that the colonists were to act "not by agreement"
with the local inhabitants, but "by extirpation of thame". Their
Stornoway began well, but the colonists were driven out by
local forces commanded by Murdoch and Neil MacLeod. The colonists
tried again in 1605 with the same result, although a third attempt in
1607 was more successful. The
Statutes of Iona were enacted in
1609, which required clan chiefs to: send their heirs to Lowland
Scotland to be educated in English-speaking
provide support for
Protestant ministers to Highland parishes; outlaw
bards; and regularly report to Edinburgh to answer for their
actions. So began a process "specifically aimed at the extirpation
of the Gaelic language, the destruction of its traditional culture and
the suppression of its bearers."
In the Northern Isles, James's cousin Patrick Stewart, Earl of Orkney,
Statutes of Iona and was consequently imprisoned. His
natural son Robert led an unsuccessful rebellion against James, and
the Earl and his son were hanged. Their estates were forfeited,
Shetland islands were annexed to the Crown.
Theory of monarchy
James argued a theological basis for monarchy in The True Law of Free
In 1597–98, James wrote
The True Law of Free Monarchies and
Basilikon Doron (Royal Gift), in which he argues a theological basis
for monarchy. In the True Law, he sets out the divine right of kings,
explaining that kings are higher beings than other men for Biblical
reasons, though "the highest bench is the sliddriest to sit upon".
The document proposes an absolutist theory of monarchy, by which a
king may impose new laws by royal prerogative but must also pay heed
to tradition and to God, who would "stirre up such scourges as
pleaseth him, for punishment of wicked kings".
Basilikon Doron was written as a book of instruction for four-year-old
Prince Henry and provides a more practical guide to kingship. The
work is considered to be well written and perhaps the best example of
James's prose. James's advice concerning parliaments, which he
understood as merely the king's "head court", foreshadows his
difficulties with the English Commons: "Hold no Parliaments," he tells
Henry, "but for the necesitie of new Lawes, which would be but
seldome". In the True Law, James maintains that the king owns his
realm as a feudal lord owns his fief, because kings arose "before any
estates or ranks of men, before any parliaments were holden, or laws
made, and by them was the land distributed, which at first was wholly
theirs. And so it follows of necessity that kings were the authors and
makers of the laws, and not the laws of the kings."
In the 1580s and 1590s, James promoted the literature of his native
country. He published his treatise Some Rules and Cautions to be
Observed and Eschewed in Scottish Prosody in 1584 at the age of 18. It
was both a poetic manual and a description of the poetic tradition in
his mother tongue of Scots, applying Renaissance principles. He
also made statutory provision to reform and promote the teaching of
music, seeing the two in connection. One act of his reign urges the
Scottish burghs to reform and support the teaching of music in Sang
In furtherance of these aims, he was both patron and head of a loose
circle of Scottish Jacobean court poets and musicians known as the
Castalian Band, which included William Fowler and Alexander
Montgomerie among others, Montgomerie being a favourite of the
King. James was himself a poet, and was happy to be seen as a
practising member of the group.
By the late 1590s, his championing of native Scottish tradition was
reduced to some extent by the increasing likelihood of his succession
to the English throne. William Alexander and other courtier poets
started to anglicise their written language, and followed the king to
London after 1603. James's role as active literary participant and
patron made him a defining figure in many respects for English
Renaissance poetry and drama, which reached a pinnacle of achievement
in his reign, but his patronage of the high style in the Scottish
tradition, which included his ancestor James I of Scotland, became
Accession in England
Main article: Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns was symbolised in James's personal royal
heraldic badge after 1603, the
Tudor rose dimidiated with the Scottish
thistle ensigned by the royal crown.
Elizabeth I was the last of Henry VIII's descendants, and James was
seen as her most likely heir through his great-grandmother Margaret
Tudor, who was Henry VIII's oldest sister.[f] From 1601, in the last
years of Elizabeth's life, certain English politicians—notably her
chief minister Sir Robert Cecil[g]—maintained a secret
correspondence with James to prepare in advance for a smooth
succession. With the Queen clearly dying, Cecil sent James a draft
proclamation of his accession to the English throne in March 1603.
Elizabeth died in the early hours of 24 March, and James was
proclaimed king in London later the same day.
On 5 April, James left Edinburgh for London, promising to return every
three years (a promise that he did not keep), and progressed slowly
southwards. Local lords received him with lavish hospitality along the
route and James was amazed by the wealth of his new land and subjects,
claiming that he was "swapping a stony couch for a deep feather bed".
At Cecil's house, Theobalds in Hertfordshire, James was so in awe that
he bought it there and then, arriving in the capital on 7 May, nine
days after Elizabeth's funeral. His new subjects flocked to see
him, relieved that the succession had triggered neither unrest nor
invasion. On arrival at London, he was mobbed by a crowd of
His English coronation took place on 25 July, with elaborate
allegories provided by dramatic poets such as Thomas Dekker and Ben
Jonson. An outbreak of plague restricted festivities, but "the
streets seemed paved with men," wrote Dekker. "Stalls instead of rich
wares were set out with children, open casements filled up with
The kingdom to which James succeeded, however, had its problems.
Monopolies and taxation had engendered a widespread sense of
grievance, and the costs of war in Ireland had become a heavy burden
on the government, which had debts of £400,000.
Early reign in England
Main article: Jacobean era
Portrait after John de Critz, c. 1606
James survived two conspiracies in the first year of his reign,
despite the smoothness of the succession and the warmth of his
Bye Plot and Main Plot, which led to the arrest of Lord
Cobham and Sir Walter Raleigh, among others. Those hoping for a
change in government from James were disappointed at first when he
kept Elizabeth's Privy Councillors in office, as secretly planned with
Cecil, but James soon added long-time supporter Henry Howard and
his nephew Thomas Howard to the Privy Council, as well as five
In the early years of James's reign, the day-to-day running of the
government was tightly managed by the shrewd Cecil, later Earl of
Salisbury, ably assisted by the experienced Thomas Egerton, whom James
made Baron Ellesmere and Lord Chancellor, and by Thomas Sackville,
soon Earl of Dorset, who continued as Lord Treasurer. As a
consequence, James was free to concentrate on bigger issues, such as a
scheme for a closer union between England and Scotland and matters of
foreign policy, as well as to enjoy his leisure pursuits, particularly
James was ambitious to build on the personal union of the Crowns of
Scotland and England to establish a single country under one monarch,
one parliament, and one law, a plan that met opposition in both
realms. "Hath He not made us all in one island," James told the
English Parliament, "compassed with one sea and of itself by nature
indivisible?" In April 1604, however, the Commons refused his request
to be titled "King of Great Britain" on legal grounds.[i] In October
1604, he assumed the title "King of Great Britain" by proclamation
rather than by statute, though Sir
Francis Bacon told him that he
could not use the style in "any legal proceeding, instrument or
assurance" and the title was not used on English statutes. James
Parliament of Scotland
Parliament of Scotland to use it, and it was used on
proclamations, coinage, letters, and treaties in both realms.
James achieved more success in foreign policy. Never having been at
war with Spain, he devoted his efforts to bringing the long
Anglo–Spanish War to an end, and a peace treaty was signed between
the two countries in August 1604, thanks to skilled diplomacy on the
part of Robert Cecil and Henry Howard, now Earl of Northampton, which
James celebrated by hosting a great banquet. Freedom of worship
for Catholics in England, however, continued to be a major objective
of Spanish policy, causing constant dilemmas for James, distrusted
abroad for repression of Catholics while at home being encouraged by
Privy Council to show even less tolerance towards them.
Main article: Gunpowder Plot
A dissident Catholic, Guy Fawkes, was discovered in the cellars of the
parliament buildings on the night of 4–5 November 1605, the eve of
the state opening of the second session of James's first English
Parliament. He was guarding a pile of wood not far from 36 barrels of
gunpowder with which Fawkes intended to blow up Parliament House the
following day and cause the destruction, as James put it, "not
only ... of my person, nor of my wife and posterity also, but of
the whole body of the State in general". The sensational discovery
of the Gunpowder Plot, as it quickly became known, aroused a mood of
national relief at the delivery of the king and his sons. Salisbury
exploited this to extract higher subsidies from the ensuing Parliament
than any but one granted to Elizabeth. Fawkes and others
implicated in the unsuccessful conspiracy were executed.
King and Parliament
Main article: James I of England and the English Parliament
Portrait attributed to John de Critz, c. 1606. Dulwich Picture
The co-operation between monarch and Parliament following the
Gunpowder Plot was atypical. Instead, it was the previous session of
1604 that shaped the attitudes of both sides for the rest of the
reign, though the initial difficulties owed more to mutual
incomprehension than conscious enmity. On 7 July 1604, James had
angrily prorogued Parliament after failing to win its support either
for full union or financial subsidies. "I will not thank where I feel
no thanks due", he had remarked in his closing speech. "... I am
not of such a stock as to praise fools ... You see how many
things you did not well ... I wish you would make use of your
liberty with more modesty in time to come".
As James's reign progressed, his government faced growing financial
pressures, due partly to creeping inflation but also to the profligacy
and financial incompetence of James's court. In February 1610,
Salisbury proposed a scheme, known as the Great Contract, whereby
Parliament, in return for ten royal concessions, would grant a lump
sum of £600,000 to pay off the king's debts plus an annual grant of
£200,000. The ensuing prickly negotiations became so protracted
that James eventually lost patience and dismissed Parliament on 31
December 1610. "Your greatest error", he told Salisbury, "hath been
that ye ever expected to draw honey out of gall". The same pattern
was repeated with the so-called "Addled Parliament" of 1614, which
James dissolved after a mere nine weeks when the Commons hesitated to
grant him the money he required. James then ruled without
parliament until 1621, employing officials such as the merchant Lionel
Cranfield, who were astute at raising and saving money for the crown,
and sold baronetcies and other dignities, many created for the
purpose, as an alternative source of income.
Main article: Spanish match
Another potential source of income was the prospect of a Spanish dowry
from a marriage between Charles, Prince of Wales, and Infanta Maria
Anna of Spain. The policy of the Spanish match, as it was called,
was also attractive to James as a way to maintain peace with Spain and
avoid the additional costs of a war. Peace could be maintained as
effectively by keeping the negotiations alive as by consummating the
match—which may explain why James protracted the negotiations for
almost a decade.
Portrait by Paul van Somer, c. 1620. In the background is the
Banqueting House, Whitehall, by architect Inigo Jones, commissioned by
The policy was supported by the Howards and other Catholic-leaning
ministers and diplomats—together known as the Spanish Party—but
deeply distrusted in
Protestant England. When Sir
Walter Raleigh was
released from imprisonment in 1616, he embarked on a hunt for gold in
South America with strict instructions from James not to engage the
Spanish. Raleigh's expedition was a disastrous failure, and his
son Walter was killed fighting the Spanish. On Raleigh's return
to England, James had him executed to the indignation of the public,
who opposed the appeasement of Spain. James's policy was further
jeopardised by the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War, especially after
Protestant son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, was ousted
Bohemia by the Catholic Emperor Ferdinand II in 1620, and Spanish
troops simultaneously invaded Frederick's
Rhineland home territory.
Matters came to a head when James finally called a Parliament in 1621
to fund a military expedition in support of his son-in-law. The
Commons on the one hand granted subsidies inadequate to finance
serious military operations in aid of Frederick, and on the
other—remembering the profits gained under Elizabeth by naval
attacks on Spanish gold shipments—called for a war directly against
Spain. In November 1621, roused by Sir Edward Coke, they framed a
petition asking not only for war with Spain but also for Prince
Charles to marry a Protestant, and for enforcement of the
anti-Catholic laws. James flatly told them not to interfere in
matters of royal prerogative or they would risk punishment, which
provoked them into issuing a statement protesting their rights,
including freedom of speech. Urged on by the Duke of Buckingham
and the Spanish ambassador Gondomar, James ripped the protest out of
the record book and dissolved Parliament.
In early 1623, Prince Charles, now 22, and Buckingham decided to seize
the initiative and travel to Spain incognito, to win the infanta
directly, but the mission proved an ineffectual mistake. The
infanta detested Charles, and the Spanish confronted them with terms
that included the repeal of anti-Catholic legislation by Parliament.
Though a treaty was signed, the prince and duke returned to England in
October without the infanta and immediately renounced the treaty, much
to the delight of the British people. Disillusioned by the visit
to Spain, Charles and Buckingham now turned James's Spanish policy
upon its head and called for a French match and a war against the
Habsburg empire. To raise the necessary finance, they prevailed
upon James to call another Parliament, which met in February 1624. For
once, the outpouring of anti-Catholic sentiment in the Commons was
echoed in court, where control of policy was shifting from James to
Charles and Buckingham, who pressured the king to declare war and
engineered the impeachment of
Lord Treasurer Lionel Cranfield, by now
made Earl of Middlesex, when he opposed the plan on grounds of
cost. The outcome of the Parliament of 1624 was ambiguous: James
still refused to declare or fund a war, but Charles believed the
Commons had committed themselves to finance a war against Spain, a
stance that was to contribute to his problems with Parliament in his
King and Church
James VI and I
James VI and I and religious issues
After the Gunpowder Plot, James sanctioned harsh measures to control
non-conforming English Catholics. In May 1606, Parliament passed the
Popish Recusants Act, which could require any citizen to take an Oath
of Allegiance denying the Pope's authority over the king. James
was conciliatory towards Catholics who took the Oath of
Allegiance, and tolerated crypto-Catholicism even at court.[j]
Henry Howard, for example, was a crypto-Catholic, received back into
the Catholic Church in his final months. On ascending the English
throne, James suspected that he might need the support of Catholics in
England, so he assured the Earl of Northumberland, a prominent
sympathiser of the old religion, that he would not persecute "any that
will be quiet and give but an outward obedience to the law".
Millenary Petition of 1603, the
Puritan clergy demanded the
abolition of confirmation, wedding rings, and the term "priest", among
other things, and that the wearing of cap and surplice become
optional. James was strict in enforcing conformity at first,
inducing a sense of persecution amongst many Puritans; but
ejections and suspensions from livings became rarer as the reign
continued. As a result of the
Hampton Court Conference
Hampton Court Conference of 1604, a
new translation and compilation of approved books of the Bible was
commissioned to resolve discrepancies among different translations
then being used. The Authorized King James Version, as it came to be
known, was completed in 1611 and is considered a masterpiece of
Jacobean prose. It is still in widespread use.
In Scotland, James attempted to bring the Scottish Kirk "so neir as
can be" to the English church and to reestablish episcopacy, a policy
that met with strong opposition from presbyterians.[k] James returned
to Scotland in 1617 for the only time after his accession in England,
in the hope of implementing Anglican ritual. James's bishops forced
Five Articles of Perth through a General Assembly the following
year, but the rulings were widely resisted. James left the church
in Scotland divided at his death, a source of future problems for his
Main article: Personal relationships of James VI and I
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham
George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham (1592–1628), by Peter Paul
James's sexuality is a matter of dispute. Throughout his life James
had close relationships with male courtiers, which has caused debate
among historians about their exact nature. After his accession in
England, his peaceful and scholarly attitude contrasted strikingly
with the bellicose and flirtatious behaviour of Elizabeth, as
indicated by the contemporary epigram Rex fuit Elizabeth, nunc est
regina Iacobus (Elizabeth was King, now James is Queen).
Some of James's biographers conclude that Esmé Stewart (later Duke of
Lennox), Robert Carr (later Earl of Somerset), and George Villiers
(later Duke of Buckingham) were his lovers. Sir John
Oglander observed that he "never yet saw any fond husband make so much
or so great dalliance over his beautiful spouse as I have seen King
James over his favourites, especially the Duke of Buckingham"
whom the King would, recalled Sir Edward Peyton, "tumble and kiss as a
mistress." Restoration of
Apethorpe Palace undertaken in
2004–08 revealed a previously unknown passage linking the
bedchambers of James and Villiers.
Some biographers of James argue that the relationships were not
Basilikon Doron lists sodomy among crimes "ye are
bound in conscience never to forgive", and James's wife Anne gave
birth to seven live children, as well as suffering two stillbirths and
at least three other miscarriages. Contemporary Huguenot poet
Théophile de Viau
Théophile de Viau observed that "it is well known that the king of
England / has union with the Duke of Buckingham".[m] Buckingham
himself provides evidence that he slept in the same bed as the King,
writing to James many years later that he had pondered "whether you
loved me now ... better than at the time which I shall never
forget at Farnham, where the bed's head could not be found between the
master and his dog". Buckingham's words may be interpreted as
non-sexual, in the context of seventeenth-century court life, and
Earl of Salisbury
Earl of Salisbury died in 1612, he was little mourned by
those who jostled to fill the power vacuum.[n] Until Salisbury's
death, the Elizabethan administrative system over which he had
presided continued to function with relative efficiency; from this
time forward, however, James's government entered a period of decline
and disrepute. Salisbury's passing gave James the notion of
governing in person as his own chief Minister of State, with his young
Scottish favourite Robert Carr carrying out many of Salisbury's former
duties, but James's inability to attend closely to official business
exposed the government to factionalism.
The Howard party, consisting of Northampton, Suffolk, Suffolk's
son-in-law Lord Knollys, and Charles Howard, Earl of Nottingham, along
with Sir Thomas Lake, soon took control of much of the government and
its patronage. Even the powerful Carr fell into the Howard camp,
hardly experienced for the responsibilities thrust upon him and often
dependent on his intimate friend Sir
Thomas Overbury for assistance
with government papers. Carr had an adulterous affair with
Frances Howard, Countess of Essex, daughter of the Earl of Suffolk,
whom James assisted in securing an annulment of her marriage to free
her to marry Carr.[o]
In summer 1615, however, it emerged that Overbury had been poisoned.
He had died on 15 September 1613 in the Tower of London, where he had
been placed at the King's request.[p] Among those convicted of
the murder were Frances and Robert Carr, the latter having been
replaced as the king's favourite in the meantime by Villiers. James
pardoned Frances and commuted Carr's sentence of death, eventually
pardoning him in 1624. The implication of the King in such a
scandal provoked much public and literary conjecture and irreparably
tarnished James's court with an image of corruption and
depravity. The subsequent downfall of the Howards left Villiers
unchallenged as the supreme figure in the government by 1619.
Portrait by Daniel Mytens, 1621
After about the age of fifty, James suffered increasingly from
arthritis, gout and kidney stones. He also lost his teeth and
drank heavily. The King was often seriously ill during the last
year of his life, leaving him an increasingly peripheral figure,
rarely able to visit London, while Buckingham consolidated his control
of Charles to ensure his own future.[q] One theory is that James may
have suffered from porphyria, a disease of which his descendant George
III of the United Kingdom exhibited some symptoms. James described his
urine to physician
Théodore de Mayerne
Théodore de Mayerne as being the "dark red colour
of Alicante wine". The theory is dismissed by some experts,
particularly in James's case, because he had kidney stones which can
lead to blood in the urine, colouring it red.
In early 1625, James was plagued by severe attacks of arthritis, gout,
and fainting fits, and fell seriously ill in March with tertian ague
and then suffered a stroke. He died at
Theobalds House on 27 March
during a violent attack of dysentery, with Buckingham at his
bedside.[r] James's funeral on 7 May was a magnificent but disorderly
affair. Bishop John Williams of Lincoln preached the sermon,
Solomon died in Peace, when he had lived about sixty
years ... and so you know did King James". The sermon was later
printed as Great Britain's Salomon [sic].
James was buried in Westminster Abbey. The position of the tomb was
lost for many years until his lead coffin was found in the Henry VII
vault in the 19th century, during an excavation.
On the ceiling of the Banqueting House, Rubens depicted James being
carried to heaven by angels.
James was widely mourned. For all his flaws, he had largely retained
the affection of his people, who had enjoyed uninterrupted peace and
comparatively low taxation during the Jacobean era. "As he lived in
peace," remarked the Earl of Kellie, "so did he die in peace, and I
pray God our king [Charles I] may follow him". The earl prayed in
vain: once in power, Charles and Buckingham sanctioned a series of
reckless military expeditions that ended in humiliating failure.
James had often neglected the business of government for leisure
pastimes, such as the hunt; and his later dependence on favourites at
a scandal-ridden court undermined the respected image of monarchy so
carefully constructed by Elizabeth.
Under James the
Plantation of Ulster
Plantation of Ulster by English and Scots Protestants
began, and the English colonisation of North America started its
course with the foundation of Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607, and
Cuper's Cove, Newfoundland, in 1610. During the next 150 years,
England would fight with Spain, the Netherlands, and France for
control of the continent, while religious division in Ireland between
Protestant and Catholic has lasted for 400 years. By actively pursuing
more than just a personal union of his realms, he helped lay the
foundations for a unitary British state.
According to a tradition originating with anti-Stuart historians of
the mid-17th-century, James's taste for political absolutism, his
financial irresponsibility, and his cultivation of unpopular
favourites established the foundations of the English Civil War. James
bequeathed Charles a fatal belief in the divine right of kings,
combined with a disdain for Parliament, which culminated in the
execution of Charles and the abolition of the monarchy. Over the last
three hundred years, the king's reputation has suffered from the acid
description of him by Sir Anthony Weldon, whom James had sacked and
who wrote treatises on James in the 1650s.
Other influential anti-James histories written during the 1650s
include: Sir Edward Peyton's Divine Catastrophe of the Kingly Family
of the House of Stuarts (1652); Arthur Wilson's History of Great
Britain, Being the Life and Reign of King James I (1658); and Francis
Osborne's Historical Memoirs of the Reigns of Queen Elizabeth and King
James (1658). David Harris Willson's 1956 biography continued
much of this hostility. In the words of historian Jenny Wormald,
Willson's book was an "astonishing spectacle of a work whose every
page proclaimed its author's increasing hatred for his subject".
Since Willson, however, the stability of James's government in
Scotland and in the early part of his English reign, as well as his
relatively enlightened views on religion and war, have earned him a
re-evaluation from many historians, who have rescued his reputation
from this tradition of criticism.[s]
Representative of the new historical perspective is the 2003 biography
by Pauline Croft. Reviewer John Cramsie summarises her findings:
Croft's overall assessment of James is appropriately mixed. She
recognises his good intentions in matters like Anglo-Scottish union,
his openness to different points of view, and his agenda of a peaceful
foreign policy within his kingdoms' financial means. His actions
moderated frictions between his diverse peoples. Yet he also created
new ones, particularly by supporting colonisation that polarised the
crown's interest groups in Ireland, obtaining insufficient political
benefit with his open-handed patronage, an unfortunate lack of
attention to the image of monarchy (particularly after the
image-obsessed regime of Elizabeth), pursuing a pro-Spanish foreign
policy that fired religious prejudice and opened the door for
Arminians within the English church, and enforcing unpalatable
religious changes on the Scottish Kirk. Many of these criticisms are
framed within a longer view of James' reigns, including the legacy –
now understood to be more troubled – which he left Charles I.
Titles, styles, honours, and arms
Royal styles of
James VI, King of Scots
Royal styles of
James I, King of England
Titles and styles
In Scotland, James was "James the sixth, King of Scotland", until
1604. He was proclaimed "James the first, King of England, France, and
Ireland, defender of the faith" in London on 24 March 1603. On 20
October 1604, James issued a proclamation at Westminster changing his
style to "King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, Defender of the
Faith, etc." The style was not used on English statutes, but was
used on proclamations, coinage, letters, treaties, and in
Scotland. James styled himself "King of France", in line with
other monarchs of England between 1340 and 1800, although he did not
actually rule France.
As King of Scots, James bore the ancient royal arms of Scotland: Or, a
Gules armed and langued Azure within a double tressure
flory counter-flory Gules. The arms were supported by two unicorns
Argent armed, crined and unguled Proper, gorged with a coronet Or
composed of crosses patée and fleurs de lys a chain affixed thereto
passing between the forelegs and reflexed over the back also Or. The
crest was a lion sejant affrontée Gules, imperially crowned Or,
holding in the dexter paw a sword and in the sinister paw a sceptre
both erect and Proper.
Union of the Crowns
Union of the Crowns of England and Scotland under James was
symbolised heraldically by combining their arms, supporters and
badges. Contention as to how the arms should be marshalled, and to
which kingdom should take precedence, was solved by having different
arms for each country.
The arms used in England were: Quarterly, I and IV, quarterly 1st and
4th Azure three fleurs de lys Or (for France), 2nd and 3rd
lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant
within a tressure flory-counter-flory
Gules (for Scotland); III Azure
a harp Or stringed
Argent (for Ireland, this was the first time that
Ireland was included in the royal arms). The supporters became:
dexter a lion rampant guardant Or imperially crowned and sinister the
Scottish unicorn. The unicorn replaced the red dragon of Cadwaladr,
which was introduced by the Tudors. The unicorn has remained in the
royal arms of the two united realms. The English crest and motto was
retained. The compartment often contained a branch of the Tudor rose,
with shamrock and thistle engrafted on the same stem. The arms were
frequently shown with James's personal motto, Beati pacifici.
The arms used in Scotland were: Quarterly, I and IV Scotland, II
England and France, III Ireland, with Scotland taking precedence over
England. The supporters were: dexter a unicorn of Scotland imperially
crowned, supporting a tilting lance flying a banner Azure a saltire
Argent (Cross of Saint Andrew) and sinister the crowned lion of
England supporting a similar lance flying a banner
Argent a cross
Gules (Cross of Saint George). The Scottish crest and motto was
retained, following the Scottish practice the motto In defens (which
is short for In My Defens God Me Defend) was placed above the
As royal badges James used: the Tudor rose, the thistle (for Scotland;
first used by James III of Scotland), the
Tudor rose dimidiated with
the thistle ensigned with the royal crown, a harp (for Ireland) and a
fleur de lys (for France).
Coat of arms used from 1567 to 1603
Coat of arms used from 1603 to 1625 outside Scotland
Coat of arms used from 1603 to 1625 in Scotland
Further information: Descendants of James I of England
James I and his royal progeny, by Charles Turner, from a mezzotint by
Samuel Woodburn (1814), after Willem de Passe
James's queen, Anne of Denmark, gave birth to seven children who
survived beyond birth, of whom three reached adulthood:
Henry, Prince of Wales (19 February 1594 – 6 November 1612).
Died, probably of typhoid fever, aged 18.
Elizabeth, Queen of
Bohemia (19 August 1596 – 13 February
1662). Married 1613, Frederick V, Elector Palatine. Died aged 65.
Margaret (24 December 1598 – March 1600). Died aged 1.
Charles I, King of England, Scotland and Ireland (19 November
1600 – 30 January 1649). Married 1625, Henrietta Maria.
Succeeded James I & VI. Executed aged 48.
Robert, Duke of Kintyre (18 January 1602 – 27 May 1602). Died
aged 4 months.
Mary (8 April 1605 – 16 December 1607). Died aged 2.
Sophia (June 1607). Died within 48 hours of birth.
Ancestors of James VI and I
16. Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox
8. John Stewart, 3rd Earl of Lennox
17. Elizabeth Hamilton
4. Matthew Stewart, 4th Earl of Lennox
18. John Stewart, 1st Earl of Atholl
9. Elizabeth Stewart
19. Eleanor Sinclair
2. Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley
20. George Douglas, Master of Angus
10. Archibald Douglas, 6th Earl of Angus
21. Elizabeth Drummond
5. Margaret Douglas
22. Henry VII of England
Margaret Tudor (=13)
23. Elizabeth of York
1. James VI of Scotland and I of England
24. James III of Scotland
12. James IV of Scotland
25. Margaret of Denmark
6. James V of Scotland
Henry VII of England
Henry VII of England (= 22)
Margaret Tudor (=11)
Elizabeth of York
Elizabeth of York (= 23)
3. Mary, Queen of Scots
28. René II, Duke of Lorraine
14. Claude, Duke of Guise
29. Philippa of Guelders
7. Mary of Guise
30. François, Count of Vendôme
15. Antoinette de Bourbon
31. Marie de Luxembourg
Family of James VI and I
King of England
Elizabeth of York
King of England
King of Scots
6th Earl of Angus
3rd Earl of Lennox
Queen of England
King of Scots
4th Earl of Lennox
5th Lord of Aubigny
1st Earl of Moray
Queen of Scots
1st Duke of Lennox
James VI and I
List of writings
The Essayes of a Prentise in the Divine Art of Poesie, (also called
Some Reulis and Cautelis), 1584
His Majesties Poeticall Exercises at Vacant Houres, 1591
Newes from Scotland, 1591
The True Law of Free Monarchies, 1598
Basilikon Doron, 1599
A Counterblaste to Tobacco, 1604
An Apologie for the Oath of Allegiance, 1608
A Premonition to All Most Mightie Monarches, 1609
Cultural depictions of James I of England
^ As the Earl of Bedford was a Protestant, his place in the ceremony
was taken by Jean, Countess of Argyll.
Elizabeth I wrote to Mary: "My ears have been so astounded, my mind
so disturbed and my heart so appalled at hearing the horrible report
of the abominable murder of your late husband and my slaughtered
cousin, that I can scarcely as yet summon the spirit to write about
it ... I will not conceal from you that people for the most part
are saying that you will look through your fingers at this deed
instead of avenging it and that you don't care to take action against
those who have done you this pleasure." Historian John Guy nonetheless
concludes: "Not a single piece of uncontaminated evidence has ever
been found to show that Mary had foreknowledge of Darnley's
murder". In historian David Harris Willson's view, however: "That
Bothwell was the murderer no one can doubt; and that Mary was his
accomplice seems equally certain."
^ James's captors forced from him a proclamation, dated 30 August,
declaring that he was not being held prisoner "forced or constrained,
for fear or terror, or against his will", and that no one should come
to his aid as a result of "seditious or contrary reports".
^ James briefly broke off diplomatic relations with England over
Mary's execution, but he wrote privately that Scotland "could never
have been without factions if she had beene left alive".
^ James heard on 7 October of the decision to postpone the crossing
^ By the normal rules of succession James had the best claim to the
English throne, as the great-great-grandson of Henry VII. However,
Henry VIII's will had passed over the Scottish line of his oldest
sister Margaret in favour of that of their younger sister Mary. In the
event, Henry's will was disregarded.
^ James described Cecil as "king there in effect".
^ The introduction of Henry Howard (soon Earl of Northampton) and of
Thomas Howard (soon Earl of Suffolk) marked the beginning of the rise
of the Howard family to power in England, which culminated in their
dominance of James's government after the death of Cecil in 1612.
Henry Howard, son of poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, had been a
diligent correspondent with James in advance of the succession (James
referred to him as "long approved and trusted Howard"). His connection
with James may have owed something to the attempt by his brother
Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, to free and marry Mary, Queen of
Scots, leading to his execution in 1572. For details on the
Howards, see The Trials of Frances Howard by David Lindley. Henry
Howard is a traditionally reviled figure (Willson  called him "A
man of dark counsels and creeping schemes, learned but bombastic, and
a most fulsome flatterer") whose reputation was upgraded by Linda
Levy Peck's 1982 biography Northampton.
^ English and Scot, James insisted, should "join and coalesce together
in a sincere and perfect union, as two twins bred in one belly, to
love one another as no more two but one estate".
^ A crypto-Catholic was someone who outwardly conformed to
Protestantism but remained a Catholic in private.
^ In March 1605, Archbishop Spottiswood wrote to James warning him
that sermons against bishops were being preached daily in
^ Assessments of the Kirk at James's death are divided. Some
historians argue that the Scots might have accepted James's policies
eventually, others that James left the Kirk in crisis.
^ In the original: Et ce savant roy d'Angleterre / foutoit-il pas le
^ Northampton assumed the day-to-day running of government business,
and spoke of "the death of the little man for which so many rejoice
and few do as much as seem to be sorry."
^ The commissioners judging the case reached a 5–5 verdict, so James
quickly appointed two extra judges guaranteed to vote in favour, an
intervention which aroused public censure. When the son of one of the
added commissioners (Thomas Bilson) was knighted after the annulment,
he was given the nickname "Sir Nullity Bilson".
^ It is very likely that Overbury was the victim of a 'set-up'
contrived by the earls of Northampton and Suffolk, with Carr's
complicity, to keep him out of the way during the annulment
proceedings. Overbury knew too much of Carr's dealings with Frances
and he opposed the match with a fervour that made him dangerous,
motivated by a deep political hostility to the Howards. It cannot have
been difficult to secure James's compliance, because he disliked
Overbury and his influence over Carr. John Chamberlain reported
that the King "hath long had a desire to remove him from about the
lord of Rochester, as thinking it a dishonour to him that the world
should have an opinion that Rochester ruled him and Overbury ruled
^ Some historians (for example Willson) consider James, who was 58 in
1624, to have lapsed into premature senility; but he suffered
from an agonising species of arthritis which constantly left him
indisposed, as well as other ailments; and
Pauline Croft suggests that
James regained some control over his affairs in summer 1624, afforded
relief by the warm weather. She sees his continuing refusal to
sanction war against Spain as a deliberate stand against the
aggressive policies of Charles and Buckingham.
^ A medicine recommended by Buckingham had only served to make the
king worse, which led to rumours that the duke had poisoned him.
^ In recent decades, much scholarship has emphasised James's success
in Scotland (though there have been partial dissenters, such as
Michael Lynch), and there is an emerging appreciation of James's
successes in the early part of his reign in England.
^ Milling 2004, p. 155.
^ Rhodes, Richards & Marshall 2003, p. 1: "
James VI and I
James VI and I was
the most writerly of British monarchs. He produced original poetry, as
well as translation and a treatise on poetics; works on witchcraft and
tobacco; meditations and commentaries on the Scriptures; a manual on
kingship; works of political theory; and, of course, speeches to
parliament ... He was the patron of Shakespeare, Jonson, Donne,
and the translators of the "Authorized version" of the Bible, surely
the greatest concentration of literary talent ever to enjoy royal
sponsorship in England."
^ Smith 2003, p. 238: "The label 'the wisest fool in
Christendom', often attributed to
Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France but possibly
coined by Anthony Weldon, catches James's paradoxical qualities very
Anthony Weldon (1651), The Court and Character of King
James I, quoted by Stroud 1999, p. 27: "A very wise man was wont
to say that he believed him the wisest fool in Christendom, meaning
him wise in small things, but a fool in weighty affairs."
^ Croft 2003, p. 6: "Historians have returned to reconsidering
James as a serious and intelligent ruler"; Lockyer 1998,
pp. 4–6; Smith 2003, p. 238: "In contrast to earlier
historians, recent research on his reign has tended to emphasize the
wisdom and downplay the foolishness".
^ Davies 1959, pp. 47–57
^ Guy 2004, pp. 236–237, 241–242, 270; Willson 1963,
^ Guy 2004, pp. 248–250; Willson 1963, p. 16.
^ Willson 1963, p. 17.
^ Donaldson 1974, p. 99.
^ Thomson 1827, pp. 171–172.
^ Guy 2004, pp. 312–313.
^ Willson 1963, p. 18.
^ Guy 2004, pp. 364–365; Willson 1963, p. 19.
^ Letter of Mary to Mar, 29 March 1567, quoted by Stewart 2003,
p. 27: "Suffer nor admit no noblemen of our realm or any others,
of what condition soever they be of, to enter or come within our said
Castle or to the presence of our said dearest son, with any more
persons but two or three at the most."
^ Stewart 2003, p. 33; Willson 1963, p. 18.
^ Croft 2003, p. 11.
^ Willson 1963, p. 19.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 12–13.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 13, 18.
^ Spottiswoode, John (1851), History of the Church in Scotland,
Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd, vol. 2, p. 120.
^ Croft 2003, p. 13.
^ Thomson 1827, pp. 248–249.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 45; Willson 1963, pp. 28–29.
^ a b Croft 2003, p. 15.
^ Lockyer 1998, pp. 11–12; Stewart 2003, pp. 51–63.
David Calderwood quoted by Stewart 2003, p. 63: "So ended this
nobleman, one of the chief instruments of the reformation; a defender
of the same, and of the King in his minority, for the which he is now
unthankfully dealt with."
^ Stewart 2003, p. 63.
^ Lockyer 1998, pp. 13–15; Willson 1963, p. 35.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 66.
^ Law 1904, pp. 295, 297.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 17–18; Willson 1963, pp. 39, 50.
^ Croft 2003, p. 20.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 29, 41–42; Willson 1963, pp. 121–124.
^ Lockyer 1998, pp. 24–25; Stewart 2003, pp. 150–157.
^ Croft 2003, p. 45; George Nicolson quoted by Stewart 2003,
p. 154: "It is begun to be noted that the reports coming from the
King should differ"; Williams 1970, p. 61: "The two principal
characters were dead, the evidence of eyewitnesses was destroyed and
only King James's version remained"; Willson 1963, pp. 126–130.
^ Croft 2003, p. 22.
^ Lockyer 1998, pp. 29–31; Willson 1963, p. 52.
^ Croft 2003, p. 23.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 23–24.
^ Willson 1963, p. 85.
^ Stewart 2003, pp. 107–110.
^ Willson 1963, p. 85–95.
^ Croft 2003, p. 26.
^ Willson 1963, p. 103.
^ Keay & Keay 1994, p. 556; Willson 1963, pp. 103–105.
^ Keay & Keay 1994, p. 556.
^ Croft 2003, p. 27; Lockyer 1998, p. 21; Willson 1963,
pp. 105, 308–309.
^ Akrigg 1984, p. 220; Willson 1963, p. 309.
^ Hunter 2000, pp. 143, 166.
^ Hunter 2000, p. 174.
^ a b Thompson 1968, pp. 40–41.
^ a b c Hunter 2000, p. 175.
^ Rotary Club of
Stornoway 1995, pp. 12–13.
^ Hunter 2000, p. 176.
^ MacKinnon 1991, p. 46.
^ Croft 2003, p. 139; Lockyer 1998, p. 179
^ a b Willson 1963, p. 321.
^ James quoted by Willson 1963, p. 131: "Kings are called gods by
King David because they sit upon God His throne in
earth and have the count of their administration to give unto Him."
^ Croft 2003, p. 131–133.
^ Willson 1963, p. 133.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 134–135: "James wrote well, scattering
engaging asides throughout the text"; Willson 1963, p. 132:
Basilikon Doron is the best prose James ever wrote".
^ Croft 2003, p. 133.
^ Quoted by Willson 1963, p. 132.
^ Jack 1988, pp. 126–127.
^ See: Jack, R. D. S. (2000), "Scottish Literature: 1603 and all that
Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.", Association for
Scottish Literary Studies, retrieved 18 October 2011.
^ Jack, R. D. S. (1985), Alexander Montgomerie, Edinburgh: Scottish
Academic Press, pp. 1–2.
^ Jack 1988, p. 125.
^ Jack 1988, p. 137.
^ Spiller, Michael (1988), "Poetry after the Union 1603–1660", in
Craig, Cairns (general editor), The History of Scottish Literature,
Aberdeen University Press, vol. 1, pp. 141–152. Spiller points out
that the trend, although unambiguous, was generally more mixed.
^ See for example Rhodes, Neil (2004), "Wrapped in the Strong Arm of
the Union: Shakespeare and King James", in Maley, Willy; Murphy,
Andrew (eds), Shakespeare and Scotland, Manchester University Press,
^ Jack 1988, pp. 137–138.
^ Stewart 2003, pp. 159–161; Willson 1963, pp. 138–141.
^ Croft 2003, p. 48.
^ Lockyer 1998, pp. 161–162; Willson 1963, pp. 154–155.
^ Croft 2003, p. 49; Willson 1963, p. 158.
^ Croft 2003, p. 49; Martin 2016, p. 315; Willson 1963,
^ Croft 2003, p. 50.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 169.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 172; Willson 1963, p. 165.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 173.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 50–51.
^ a b c d e Croft 2003, p. 51.
^ Guy 2004, pp. 461–468; Willson 1963, p. 156.
^ Willson 1963, p. 156.
^ Croft 2003, p. 6.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 52–54.
^ Willson 1963, p. 250.
^ Willson 1963, pp. 249–253.
^ Croft 2003, p. 67; Willson 1963, pp. 249–253.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 52–53.
^ Croft 2003, p. 118.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 219.
^ Croft 2003, p. 64.
^ Croft 2003, p. 63.
^ Quoted by Croft 2003, p. 62.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 75–81.
^ Croft 2003, p. 80; Lockyer 1998, p. 167; Willson 1963,
^ Croft 2003, p. 93; Willson 1963, p. 348.
^ Willson 1963, p. 409.
^ Willson 1963, pp. 348, 357.
^ Schama 2001, p. 59.
^ Kenyon, J. P. (1978). Stuart England. Harmondsworth, England:
Penguin Books. pp. 88–89.
^ Willson 1963, pp. 369–370.
^ Croft 2003, p. 104; Willson 1963, pp. 372–373.
^ Willson 1963, p. 374–377.
^ Willson 1963, p. 408–416.
^ Lockyer 1998, p. 148; Willson 1963, p. 417.
^ Willson 1963, p. 421.
^ Willson 1963, p. 422.
^ James quoted by Willson 1963, p. 423: "We cannot with patience
endure our subjects to use such anti-monarchical words to us
concerning their liberties, except they had subjoined that they were
granted unto them by the grace and favour of our predecessors."
^ Willson 1963, p. 243.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 118–119; Willson 1963, pp. 431–435.
^ Cogswell 2005, pp. 224–225, 243, 281–299; Croft 2003,
p. 120; Schama 2001, p. 64.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 120–121.
^ Krugler 2004, pp. 63–64: "The aging monarch was no match for
the two men closest to him. By the end of the year, the prince and the
royal favourite spoke openly against the Spanish marriage and
pressured James to call a parliament to consider their now repugnant
treaties ... with hindsight ... the prince's return from
Madrid marked the end of the king's reign. The prince and the
favourite encouraged popular anti-Spanish sentiments to commandeer
control of foreign and domestic policy".
^ Croft 2003, p. 125; Lockyer 1998, p. 195.
^ Croft 2003, p. 126: "On that divergence of interpretation,
relations between the future king and the Parliaments of the years
1625–9 were to founder".
^ Stewart 2003, p. 225.
^ Willson 1963, p. 228.
^ Croft 2003, p. 162.
^ Akrigg 1984, pp. 207–208; Willson 1963, pp. 148–149.
^ Willson 1963, p. 201.
^ Croft 2003, p. 156; Stewart 2003, p. 205: "In seeking
conformity, James gave a name and a purpose to nonconformity";
Basilikon Doron quoted by Willson 1963, pp. 201, 209: "In things
indifferent, they are seditious which obey not the magistrates".
^ Croft 2003, p. 158.
^ Croft 2003, p. 157; Willson 1963, pp. 213–215.
^ Croft 2003, p. 157.
^ Croft 2003, p. 164.
^ Croft 2003, p. 166; Lockyer 1998, pp. 185–186; Willson
1963, p. 320.
^ Croft 2003, p. 167.
^ a b Bucholz & Key 2004, p. 208: "... his sexuality has
long been a matter of debate. He clearly preferred the company of
handsome young men. The evidence of his correspondence and
contemporary accounts have led some historians to conclude that the
king was homosexual or bisexual. In fact, the issue is murky."
^ Hyde, H. Montgomery (1970), The Love That Dared Not Speak its Name,
London: Heinemann, pp. 43–44.
^ e.g. Young, Michael B. (2000), King James and the History of
Homosexuality, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0-8147-9693-1;
Bergeron, David M. (1991), Royal Family, Royal Lovers: King James of
England and Scotland, University of Missouri Press.
^ Murphy, Timothy (2011), Reader's Guide To Gay & Lesbian Studies,
Routledge Dearborn Publishers, p. 312.
^ Bergeron, David M. (1999), King James and Letters of Homoerotic
Desire, Iowa City: University of Iowa Press, p. 348.
^ Ruigh, Robert E. (1971), The Parliament of 1624: Politics and
Foreign Policy, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, p. 77.
^ Graham, Fiona (5 June 2008), "To the manor bought", BBC News,
retrieved 18 October 2008.
^ e.g. Lee, Maurice (1990), Great Britain's Solomon:
James VI and I
James VI and I in
his Three Kingdoms, Urbana: University of Illinois Press,
^ Lockyer 1981, pp. 19, 21; Weir, Alison (1996), Britain's Royal
Families: The Complete Genealogy, Random House,
ISBN 0-7126-7448-9, pp. 249–251.
^ Norton, Rictor (8 January 2000), "Queen James and His Courtiers",
Gay History and Literature, retrieved 9 December 2015.
^ Gaudiani, Claire Lynn (1981), The Cabaret poetry of Théophile de
Viau: Texts and Traditions, Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag,
pp. 103–104, ISBN 978-3-87808-892-9, retrieved 9 December
^ Lockyer 1981, p. 22.
^ Bray, Alan (2003), The Friend, University of Chicago Press,
ISBN 0-226-07180-4, pp. 167–170; Bray, Alan (1994),
"Homosexuality and the Signs of Male Friendship in Elizabethan
England", pp. 42–44, In: Goldberg, Jonathan (editor), Queering the
Renaissance, Duke University Press, ISBN 0-8223-1385-5.
^ Ackroyd, Peter (2014), The History of England, Volume III: Civil
War, Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-230-70641-5, p. 45; Miller, John
(2004), The Stuarts, Hambledon, ISBN 1-85285-432-4, p. 38.
^ Willson 1963, p. 269.
^ Willson 1963, p. 333: "Finances fell into chaos, foreign
affairs became more difficult. James exalted a worthless favourite and
increased the power of the Howards. As government relaxed and honour
cheapened, we enter a period of decline and weakness, of intrigue,
scandal, confusion and treachery."
^ Willson 1963, pp. 334–335.
^ Willson 1963, p. 349.
^ Sir Francis Bacon, speaking at Carr's trial, quoted by Perry 2006,
p. 105: "Packets were sent, sometimes opened by my lord,
sometimes unbroken unto Overbury, who perused them, registered them,
made table-talk of them, as they thought good. So I will undertake the
time was, when Overbury knew more of the secrets of state, than the
^ Lindley 1993, p. 120.
^ Barroll 2001, p. 136: "Rumours of foul play involving Rochester
and his wife with Overbury had, however, been circulating since his
death. Indeed, almost two years later, in September 1615, and as James
was in the process of replacing Rochester with a new favourite, George
Villiers, the Governor of the Tower of London sent a letter to the
king informing him that one of the warders in the days before Overbury
had been found dead had been bringing the prisoner poisoned food and
medicine"; Lindley 1993, p. 146.
^ Lindley 1993, p. 145.
^ Willson 1963, p. 342.
^ Croft 2003, p. 91.
^ Davies 1959, p. 20: "Probably no single event, prior to the
attempt to arrest the five members in 1642, did more to lessen the
general reverence with which royalty was regarded in England than this
^ Croft 2003, pp. 98–99; Willson 1963, p. 397.
^ Croft 2003, p. 101; Willson 1963, pp. 378, 404.
^ Croft 2003, p. 101; Willson 1963, p. 379.
^ Willson 1963, p. 425.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 126–127.
^ Croft 2003, p. 101: "James never became a cypher"; Lockyer
1998, p. 174: "During the last eighteen months of his life James
fought a very effective rearguard action to preserve his control of
foreign policy ... he never became a cypher."
^ Röhl, John C. G.; Warren, Martin; Hunt, David (1998), Purple
Secret: Genes, "Madness" and the Royal Houses of Europe, London:
Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-04148-8.
^ e.g. Dean, Geoffrey (2002), The Turnstone: A Doctor's Story.,
Liverpool University Press, pp. 128–129.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 127–128; Willson 1963, pp. 445–447.
^ John Chamberlain quoted in Croft 2003, p. 129 and Willson 1963,
p. 447: "All was performed with great magnificence, but ...
very confused and disorderly."
^ Croft 2003, pp. 129–130.
^ Stanley, Arthur (1886), Historical Memorials of Westminster Abbey,
London: John Murray, pp. 499–526.
^ Croft 2003, p. 130.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 348: "A 1627 mission to save the
La Rochelle ended in an ignominious siege on the Isle of Ré, leaving
the Duke as the object of widespread ridicule."
^ Croft 2003, p. 129.
^ Croft 2003, p. 146.
^ Croft 2003, p. 67.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 3–4: "Often witty and perceptive but also
prejudiced and abusive, their status as eye-witness accounts and their
compulsive readability led too many historians to take them at face
value"; Lockyer 1998, pp. 1–4.
^ For more on the influence of Commonwealth historians on the
tradition of tracing Charles I's errors back to his father's reign,
see Lindley 1993, p. 44.
^ Croft 2003, p. 6; Lockyer 1998, p. 4.
^ Wormald 2011.
^ Croft 2003, pp. 1–9, 46.
^ Cramsie, John (June 2003), "The Changing Reputations of Elizabeth I
and James VI & I", Reviews and History: Covering books and digital
resources across all fields of history (review no. 334)
^ Velde, Francois, Proclamation by the King, 24 March 1603,
heraldica.org, retrieved 9 February 2013.
^ Velde, Francois, Proclamation by the King, 20 October 1604,
heraldica.org, retrieved 9 February 2013.
^ Willson 1963, pp. 252–253.
^ Pinches, John Harvey; Pinches, Rosemary (1974), The Royal Heraldry
of England, Heraldry Today, Slough, Buckinghamshire: Hollen Street
Press, ISBN 0-900455-25-X, pp. 159–160.
^ a b c Pinches and Pinches, pp. 168–169.
^ a b Brooke-Little, J. P. (1978) , Boutell's Heraldry Revised
edition, London: Frederick Warne, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4, pp. 213,
^ Stewart 2003, pp. 140, 142.
^ Stewart 2003, p. 248: "Latter day experts have suggested
enteric fever, typhoid fever, or porphyria, but at the time poison was
the most popular explanation ... John Chamberlain wrote that it was
'verily thought that the disease was no other than the ordinary ague
that had reigned and raged all over England'."
^ Barroll 2001, p. 27; Willson 1963, p. 452.
^ Croft 2003, p. 55; Stewart 2003, p. 142; Willson 1963,
^ a b c d e f g h i j k Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 27, 41.
^ a b c d e Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 27.
^ a b Louda & Maclagan 1999, p. 41.
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