SIR JAMES ALEXANDER LOUGHEED, PC KCMG KC (/ˈlɔːhiːd/ LAW-heed
or /lɔːˈhiːd/ law-HEED ; 1 September 1854 – 2 November 1925)
was a businessman and politician from
* 1 Early life
* 2 Political career
* 3 Death and legacy
* 4 References
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Lougheed was born in
Canada West , to Irish Protestant
parents. The family moved to Weston (now a community within
Ontario ) when Lougheed was a child, and he attended King Street
Public School (now H. J. Alexander Public School ) and Weston High
Weston Collegiate Institute ). He attended the University
Toronto and he studied law at the
Osgoode Hall Law School in
Toronto and was sworn in as a solicitor in 1881. In 1887 he formed a
law practice with Peter McCarthy and two years later in 1889 He became
a QC .
In 1882 Lougheed moved with his brother to
Manitoba , and
Medicine Hat ,
Northwest Territories , following the newly
Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway main line. One year later he moved to
Calgary , then at the end of the CPR line.
He started a legal practice in
Calgary in the fields of real estate
and transportation law, with the CPR as one of his main clients. He
also invested heavily in real estate and opened a brokerage firm. His
Lougheed Building in downtown
Calgary still stands: it included the
GRAND theatre which was saved from demolition in 2004 by the Company
Theatre Junction The Grand .
In 1891 he and his wife, the former Belle Hardisty (1859–1936),
built a mansion called "Beaulieu" (now
Lougheed House ) in what is now
the Beltline district of
Calgary . Beaulieu became the centre of
Calgary's social scene, as the Lougheeds welcomed oil millionaires,
politicians, royalty, and entertainment stars to their home. He and
Belle had six children, four boys and two girls.
Lougheed had been a member of the federal Conservative Party since
his days in Toronto, and had campaigned for Sir
John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald .
Even so, his appointment to the Senate on 10 December 1889 (replacing
his wife's uncle, who had died) came as a surprise to many, as
Lougheed was only 35 years old at the time. However, he gained the
respect of both his fellow senators and his fellow Westerners due to
his staunch support of Western interests and his political abilities.
Lougheed spent the next 30 years living both in
Ottawa and in Calgary
In order to protect his legal interests, he brought a young lawyer
New Brunswick named
R. B. Bennett
R. B. Bennett to Calgary. Bennett and
Lougheed worked together for over 20 years until an acrimonious
dispute between the senator and the future prime minister caused each
to go his own way.
In the 1890s Lougheed emerged as the West's strongest voice in the
Senate. He was constantly in the position of having to remind members
of the Upper Chamber of the realities of life in the western provinces
and territories (
Alberta at the time being part of the Northwest
Territories ). He spoke out fiercely against certain provisions in the
act creating the province of Alberta, and declared that it would be
better to remain a territory than to have what he called archaic
education statutes forced on the province.
In 1906, he became Leader of the Opposition in the Senate . The
Conservatives were in opposition for many of Lougheed's early years as
a senator. He was knighted by George V in 1916, becoming the only
Albertan ever to receive the honour.
When the Conservatives took power following the 1911 election , he
became Leader of the Government in the Senate and minister without
portfolio in the government of Sir
Robert Borden . He was made
Chairman of the Military Hospitals Commission in 1915, and, as a
reward for this service, was knighted in 1916 (Order of St Michael and
St George ).
After Borden formed his wartime Union government , he appointed
Lougheed as Minister of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment in 1918. From
1920 until the Conservative Party's defeat in the 1921 election ,
Lougheed also served as Minister of Mines, Minister of the Interior
and Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in the government of
Arthur Meighen .
With the Liberals in power, Lougheed resumed his position as Leader
of the Opposition in the Senate until his death in 1925, aged 71.
Lougheed was a strict conservative in many ways. His relationship to
First Nations people could be both patriarchal and supportive.
Generally, he held the virtually ubiquitous Western view that First
Nations people were essentially unintelligent children who needed
white control in order to survive; this even though his own
mother-in-law was from a First Nation. However, when Indian Affairs
officials refused to allow the six Nations to participate in the first
Calgary Stampede in 1912, Lougheed with R.B. Bennett fought that
decision. He adhered to a strict interpretation of the British North
America Act , was against women voting, disliked social innovations,
and believed Canada's future was as a subordinate nation in the
Lougheed was also a successful businessman through his real estate,
newspapers, and other ventures in Calgary. He was a staunch advocate
of provincial status for what became
Alberta and argued that the
province rather than the federal government should have control of
natural resources. This argument was carried on by his grandson, Peter
Lougheed , when he was premier of
Alberta in the 1970s and 1980s.
DEATH AND LEGACY
Sir James Lougheed died of pneumonia , aged 71, in the
Hospital, and was buried in
Calgary on 8 November 1925.
The village of Lougheed,
Alberta , Mount Lougheed in the Rocky
Lougheed Island in
Nunavut are named after him.
Lougheed House (Beaulieu), built in 1891, has been restored and is
now a Heritage Centre in the Beltline district of Calgary.
* ^ Sanderson, Kay (1999). 200 Remarkable
Alberta Women. Calgary:
Famous Five Foundation. p. 12.
* ^ Centennial City
Calgary 1894-1994, University of Calgary, 1994,
James Alexander Lougheed
James Alexander Lougheed – Parliament of
* "James Alexander Lougheed". Dictionary of Canadian Biography
(online ed.). University of
Toronto Press. 1979–2016.
Mackenzie Bowell LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION IN THE SENATE OF CANADA
1906–1911 Succeeded by
Richard John Cartwright
Richard John Cartwright LEADER OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SENATE
1911–1921 Succeeded by