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SIR JAMES ALEXANDER LOUGHEED, PC KCMG KC (/ˈlɔːhiːd/ LAW-heed or /lɔːˈhiːd/ law-HEED ; 1 September 1854 – 2 November 1925) was a businessman and politician from Alberta
Alberta
, Canada
Canada
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life * 2 Political career * 3 Death and legacy * 4 References

EARLY LIFE

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Lougheed was born in Brampton
Brampton
, Canada
Canada
West , to Irish Protestant parents. The family moved to Weston (now a community within Toronto
Toronto
, Ontario
Ontario
) when Lougheed was a child, and he attended King Street Public School (now H. J. Alexander Public School ) and Weston High School (now Weston Collegiate Institute
Weston Collegiate Institute
). He attended the University of Toronto
Toronto
and he studied law at the Osgoode Hall Law School
Osgoode Hall Law School
in Toronto
Toronto
and was sworn in as a solicitor in 1881. In 1887 he formed a law practice with Peter McCarthy and two years later in 1889 He became a QC .

In 1882 Lougheed moved with his brother to Winnipeg
Winnipeg
, Manitoba
Manitoba
, and then to Medicine Hat
Medicine Hat
, Northwest Territories
Northwest Territories
, following the newly laid Canadian Pacific Railway
Canadian Pacific Railway
main line. One year later he moved to Calgary
Calgary
, then at the end of the CPR line.

He started a legal practice in Calgary
Calgary
in the fields of real estate and transportation law, with the CPR as one of his main clients. He also invested heavily in real estate and opened a brokerage firm. His Lougheed Building in downtown Calgary
Calgary
still stands: it included the GRAND theatre which was saved from demolition in 2004 by the Company Theatre Junction The Grand .

In 1891 he and his wife, the former Belle Hardisty (1859–1936), built a mansion called "Beaulieu" (now Lougheed House
Lougheed House
) in what is now the Beltline district of Calgary
Calgary
. Beaulieu became the centre of Calgary's social scene, as the Lougheeds welcomed oil millionaires, politicians, royalty, and entertainment stars to their home. He and Belle had six children, four boys and two girls.

POLITICAL CAREER

Lougheed had been a member of the federal Conservative Party since his days in Toronto, and had campaigned for Sir John A. Macdonald . Even so, his appointment to the Senate on 10 December 1889 (replacing his wife's uncle, who had died) came as a surprise to many, as Lougheed was only 35 years old at the time. However, he gained the respect of both his fellow senators and his fellow Westerners due to his staunch support of Western interests and his political abilities. Lougheed spent the next 30 years living both in Ottawa
Ottawa
and in Calgary .

In order to protect his legal interests, he brought a young lawyer from New Brunswick named R. B. Bennett
R. B. Bennett
to Calgary. Bennett and Lougheed worked together for over 20 years until an acrimonious dispute between the senator and the future prime minister caused each to go his own way.

In the 1890s Lougheed emerged as the West's strongest voice in the Senate. He was constantly in the position of having to remind members of the Upper Chamber of the realities of life in the western provinces and territories ( Alberta
Alberta
at the time being part of the Northwest Territories ). He spoke out fiercely against certain provisions in the act creating the province of Alberta, and declared that it would be better to remain a territory than to have what he called archaic education statutes forced on the province.

In 1906, he became Leader of the Opposition in the Senate . The Conservatives were in opposition for many of Lougheed's early years as a senator. He was knighted by George V in 1916, becoming the only Albertan ever to receive the honour.

When the Conservatives took power following the 1911 election , he became Leader of the Government in the Senate and minister without portfolio in the government of Sir Robert Borden
Robert Borden
. He was made Chairman of the Military Hospitals Commission in 1915, and, as a reward for this service, was knighted in 1916 (Order of St Michael and St George ).

After Borden formed his wartime Union government , he appointed Lougheed as Minister of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment in 1918. From 1920 until the Conservative Party's defeat in the 1921 election , Lougheed also served as Minister of Mines, Minister of the Interior and Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs in the government of Arthur Meighen
Arthur Meighen
.

With the Liberals in power, Lougheed resumed his position as Leader of the Opposition in the Senate until his death in 1925, aged 71.

Lougheed was a strict conservative in many ways. His relationship to the First Nations
First Nations
people could be both patriarchal and supportive. Generally, he held the virtually ubiquitous Western view that First Nations people were essentially unintelligent children who needed white control in order to survive; this even though his own mother-in-law was from a First Nation. However, when Indian Affairs officials refused to allow the six Nations to participate in the first Calgary
Calgary
Stampede in 1912, Lougheed with R.B. Bennett fought that decision. He adhered to a strict interpretation of the British North America Act , was against women voting, disliked social innovations, and believed Canada's future was as a subordinate nation in the British Empire.

Lougheed was also a successful businessman through his real estate, newspapers, and other ventures in Calgary. He was a staunch advocate of provincial status for what became Alberta
Alberta
and argued that the province rather than the federal government should have control of natural resources. This argument was carried on by his grandson, Peter Lougheed , when he was premier of Alberta
Alberta
in the 1970s and 1980s.

DEATH AND LEGACY

Sir James Lougheed died of pneumonia , aged 71, in the Ottawa
Ottawa
Civic Hospital, and was buried in Calgary
Calgary
on 8 November 1925.

The village of Lougheed, Alberta
Alberta
, Mount Lougheed in the Rocky Mountains, and Lougheed Island
Lougheed Island
in Nunavut
Nunavut
are named after him.

Lougheed House
Lougheed House
(Beaulieu), built in 1891, has been restored and is now a Heritage Centre in the Beltline district of Calgary.

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.theatrejunction.com/about-us/theatre-junction-history/ * ^ Sanderson, Kay (1999). 200 Remarkable Alberta
Alberta
Women. Calgary: Famous Five Foundation. p. 12. * ^ Centennial City Calgary
Calgary
1894-1994, University of Calgary, 1994, page 51-52.

* * James Alexander Lougheed
James Alexander Lougheed
– Parliament of Canada
Canada
biography * "James Alexander Lougheed". Dictionary of Canadian Biography (online ed.). University of Toronto
Toronto
Press. 1979–2016. * The Lougheed House
Lougheed House
Calgary
Calgary
museum.

POLITICAL OFFICES

Preceded by Mackenzie Bowell
Mackenzie Bowell
LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION IN THE SENATE OF CANADA 1906–1911 Succeeded by Sir Richard John Cartwright
Richard John Cartwright

Preceded by Sir Richard John Cartwright
Richard John Cartwright
LEADER OF THE GOVERNMENT IN THE SENATE OF CANADA 1911–1921 Succeeded by Raoul Dandurand
Raoul Dandurand

Preceded by Hewitt Bostock LEADER OF THE OPPOSITION IN THE SENATE OF CANADA 1921–1925 Succeeded by William Benjamin Ross

* v * t * e

Ministers of the Interior

SECRETARIES OF STATE FOR THE PROVINCES (1867–73)

* Archibald * Howe * Aikins (acting) * Gibbs

MINISTERS OF THE INTERIOR OF CANADA (1873–1936)

* Campbell * Laird * Scott (acting) * Mills * J. Macdonald * Macpherson * White * J. Macdonald (acting) * Dewdney * Daly * H. Macdonald * Scott (acting) * Sifton * Laurier (acting) * Oliver * Rogers * Roche * Meighen * Lougheed * Stewart * Stevens (acting) * Bennett * Stewart * Murphy * Crerar

* v * t * e

Ministers of Veterans Affairs

MINISTERS OF SOLDIERS\' CIVIL RE-ESTABLISHMENT (1918–28)

* Lougheed * Manion * Béland * Elliott * Manion (acting) * Morand (acting) * Paquet * King

MINISTERS OF PENSIONS AND NATIONAL HEALTH (1928–44)

* King * Ralston * McLaren * Sutherland * Power * Mackenzie

MINISTERS OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (1944–PRESENT)

* Mackenzie * Gregg * Lapointe * Brooks * Churchill * Lambert * Teillet * Dubé * Laing * MacDonald * McKinnon * MacDonald * Lamontagne (acting) * Campbell * Hees * Merrithew * Campbell * McCreath * Collenette * Young * Mifflin * Baker * Duhamel * Pagtakhan * McCallum * Guarnieri * Thompson * Blackburn * Blaney * Fantino * O\'Toole * Hehr * O\'Regan

* v * t * e

Superintendents-General of Indian Affairs

* Langevin * Howe * Aikins (acting) * Gibbs * Campbell * Laird * Scott (acting) * Mills * Macdonald * White * Macdonald (acting) * Dewdney * Daly * H. Macdonald * Scott (acting) * Sifton * Laurier (acting) * Oliver * Rogers * Roche * Meighen * Lougheed * Stewart * Stevens (acting) * Bennett (acting) * Stewart * Mackenzie * Murphy * Crerar 1

1The offices of Minister of Immigration and Colonization, Minister of the Interior, Minister of Mines and Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs were abolished and the office of Minister of Mines and Resources was created and came in force on December 1, 1936.

* v * t * e

Ministers of Health

MINISTERS OF SOLDIERS\\' CIVIL RE-ESTABLISHMENT (1918–28)

* Lougheed (Senator) * Manion * Béland (Senator) * Elliott * Manion * Morand * Paquet * King

MINISTERS OF PENSIONS AND NATIONAL HEALTH (1928–44)1

* King * Ralston * MacLaren * Sutherland * Power * Mackenzie

MINISTERS OF HEALTH AND WELFARE CANADA (1944–96)

* Claxton * Brooks * Monteith * LaMarsh * MacEachen * Munro * Lalonde * Bégin * Crombie * Bégin * Epp * Beatty * Bouchard * Collins * Marleau * Dingwall

MINISTERS OF HEALTH (1996–)

* Dingwall * Rock * McLellan * Pettigrew * Dosanjh * Clement * Aglukkaq * Ambrose * Philpott * Petitpas Taylor

1The portfolio was divided to create the posts of Minister of National Health and Welfare and Minister of Veterans Affairs .

* v * t * e

Leaders and Representatives of the Government in the Senate

* Campbell * Letellier de Saint-Just * Scott * Campbell * Abbott * Bowell * Mowat * Mills * Scott * Cartwright * Lougheed * Dandurand * Ross * Dandurand * Willoughby * Meighen * Dandurand * King * Robertson * Macdonald * Haig * Aseltine * Brooks * Macdonald * Connolly * Martin * Perrault * Flynn * Perrault * Olson * MacEachen * Roblin * Murray * Fairbairn * Graham * Boudreau * Carstairs * Austin * LeBreton * Carignan * Harder

Government leaders listed in italics were not cabinet ministers.

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