Jaffa, in Hebrew Yafo (Hebrew: יפו,
Yāfō (help·info); Arabic: يَافَا, also called
Japho or Joppa), the southern and oldest part of Tel Aviv-Yafo, is an
ancient port city in Israel.
Jaffa is famous for its association with
the biblical stories of Jonah,
Saint Peter as well as the
mythological story of Andromeda and Perseus, and later for its
2.2 Bronze Age
2.3 Hebrew Bible: conquest to return from Babylon
2.4 Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian periods
2.5 Hellenistic to Byzantine periods
2.6 Medieval period
2.7 Ottoman period
2.8 British Mandate
2.9 Modern Israel
2.9.1 Boundary demarcation of Tel Aviv-Jaffa
2.9.2 Urban development
4.1 Socioeconomic and political problems
5.1 Sights and museums
5.2 Churches and monasteries
9 In Popular Culture
10 Notable residents
11 See also
14 External links
The town was mentioned in Egyptian sources and the
Amarna letters as
Yapu. Mythology says that it is named for Yafet, one of the sons of
Noah, the one who built it after the Flood. The Hellenist
tradition links the name to Iopeia, or Cassiopeia, mother of
Andromeda. An outcropping of rocks near the harbor is reputed to have
been the place where Andromeda was rescued by Perseus. Pliny the Elder
associated the name with Iopa, daughter of Aeolus, god of the wind.
The Arab geographer al-Muqaddasi referred to it as Yaffa.
See also: Timeline of Jaffa
Market at Jaffa, by Gustav Bauernfeind, 1877
Jaffa was built on a 40 metres (130 ft) high ridge, with
a broad view of the coastline, giving it a strategic importance in
military history. The tell of Jaffa, created through the
accumulation of debris and landfill over the centuries, made the hill
Archaeological evidence shows that the site of
Jaffa was inhabited
roughly in 7500 BCE.
The natural harbour of
Jaffa has been in use since the Bronze Age.
The city as such was established at the latest around 1800 BCE.
Jaffa is mentioned in an Ancient Egyptian letter from 1440 BCE. The
so-called story of the Taking of Joppa glorifies its conquest by
Pharaoh Thutmose III, whose general, Djehuty hid Egyptian soldiers in
sacks carried by pack animals and sent them camouflaged as tribute
into the Canaanite city, where the soldiers emerged and conquered it.
The story predates the Iliad's story of the
Trojan horse by two
The city is also mentioned in the
Amarna letters under its Egyptian
name Ya-Pho, ( Ya-Pu, EA 296, l.33). The city was under Egyptian rule
until around 800 BCE.
Hebrew Bible: conquest to return from Babylon
Jaffa is mentioned four times in the Hebrew Bible, as a city opposite
the territory given to the Hebrew
Tribe of Dan
Tribe of Dan (Joshua 19:46), as
port-of-entry for the cedars of Lebanon for
Solomon's Temple (2
Chronicles 2:16), as the place whence the prophet
Jonah embarked for
Jonah 1:3) and again as port-of-entry for the cedars of
Lebanon for the
Second Temple of
Jerusalem (Ezra 3:7).
Jaffa is mentioned in the
Book of Joshua
Book of Joshua as the territorial border of
the Tribe of Dan, hence the modern term "Gush Dan" for the center of
the coastal plain. The tribe of Dan did not manage to dislocate the
Philistines from Jaffa, but many descendants of Dan lived along the
coast and earned their living from shipmaking and sailing. In the
"Song of Deborah" the prophetess asks: "דן למה יגור
אוניות": "Why doth Dan dwell in ships?"
After Canaanite and
King David and his son King
Jaffa and used its port to bring the cedars used in
the construction of the
First Temple from Tyre.
The city remained in Israelite hands even after the split of the
united Kingdom of Israel.
Assyrian, Babylonian and Persian periods
In 701 BCE, in the days of King
Hezekiah (חזקיהו), Sennacherib,
king of Assyria, invaded the region from Jaffa. After a period of
Babylonian occupation, under Persian rule,
Jaffa was governed by
Phoenicians from Tyre.
Hellenistic to Byzantine periods
Alexander the Great's troops were stationed in Jaffa. It later became
a port of the
Seleucid Empire until it was taken over by the Maccabees
Maccabees x.76, xiv.5) and ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty.
During the First Jewish–Roman War,
Jaffa was captured and burned by
Cestius Gallus. The Roman Jewish historian
Josephus (Jewish War
2.507–509, 3:414–426) writes that 8,400 inhabitants were
massacred. Pirates operating from the rebuilt port incurred the wrath
of Vespasian, who razed the city and erected a citadel in its place,
installing a Roman garrison there.
New Testament account of
Saint Peter bringing back to life the
Dorcas (recorded in Acts of the Apostles, 9:36–42, takes place
in Jaffa, then called in Greek Ἰόππη (Latinized as Joppa). Acts
10:10–23 relates that, while Peter was in Jaffa, he had a vision of
a large sheet filled with "clean" and "unclean" animals being lowered
from heaven, together with a message from the
Holy Spirit telling him
to accompany several messengers to Cornelius in Caesarea Maritima.
Peter retells the story of his vision in Acts 11:4-17, explaining how
he had come to preach
Christianity to the gentiles.
In Midrash Tanna'im in its chapter Deuteronomy 33:19, reference is
Jose ben Halafta (2nd century) traveling through Jaffa. Jaffa
seems to have attracted serious Jewish scholars in the 4th and 5th
Jerusalem Talmud (compiled 4th and 5th century) in Moed
Ketan references Rabi Akha bar Khanina of Jaffa; and in Pesachim
chapter 1 refers to Rabi Pinchas ben Yair of Jaffa. The Babylonian
Talmud (compiled 5th century) in Megillah 16b mentions Rav Adda Demin
Leviticus Rabbah (compiled between 5th and 7th century)
mentions Rav Nachman of Jaffa. The
Pesikta Rabbati (written in the 9th
century) in chapter 17 mentions R. Tanchum of Jaffa.
During the first centuries of Christianity,
Jaffa was a fairly
unimportant Roman and Byzantine locality, which only in the 5th
century became a bishopric. A very small number of its Greek or
Latin bishops are known.
Jaffa Museum in Old Saray building
Jaffa was conquered by Arabs. Under Islamic rule, it served as
a port of Ramla, then the provincial capital.
Jaffa was captured in
June 1099 during the First Crusade, and was the centre of the County
Jaffa and Ascalon, one of the vassals of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
One of its counts, John of Ibelin, wrote the principal book of the
Assizes of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. During the period of the
Crusades, the Jewish traveller
Benjamin of Tudela
Benjamin of Tudela (1170) sojourned at
Jaffa, and found there just one Jew, a dyer by trade.
Jaffa in 1187. The city surrendered to King Richard
the Lionheart on 10 September 1191, three days after the Battle of
Arsuf. Despite efforts by
Saladin to reoccupy the city in July 1192
(Battle of Jaffa) the city remained in the hands of the Crusaders. On
2 September 1192, the
Treaty of Jaffa was formally signed,
guaranteeing a three-year truce between the two armies. Frederick II
fortified the castle of
Jaffa and had two inscriptions carved into
city wall, one Latin and the other Arabic. The inscription, deciphered
in 2011, describes him as the "Holy Roman Emperor" and bears the date
"1229 of the Incarnation of our Lord Jesus the Messiah." In 1268,
Jaffa was conquered by Egyptian Mamluks, led by Baibars.
Jaffa in the early 17th century
The traveller Jean Cotwyk (Cotovicus) described
Jaffa as a heap of
ruins when he visited in 1598.
Jewish pre-school, c. 1890s
Boatmen waiting to land passengers, c. 1911
Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa
Jaffa was conquered by the Ottoman sultan Selim I. The 17th
century saw the beginning of the re-establishment of churches and
hostels for Christian pilgrims en route to
Jerusalem and the Galilee.
During the 18th century, the coastline around
Jaffa was often besieged
by pirates and this led to the inhabitants relocating to
Lod, where they relied on messages from a solitary guard house to
inform them when ships were approaching the harbour. The landing of
goods and passengers was notoriously difficult and dangerous. Until
well into the 20th century, ships had to rely on teams of oarsmen to
bring their cargo ashore.
On 7 March 1799
Napoleon captured the town in what became known as the
Siege of Jaffa, ransacked it, and killed scores of local inhabitants
as a reaction to his envoys being brutally killed when delivering an
ultimatum of surrender.
Napoleon ordered the massacre of thousands of
Muslim soldiers who were imprisoned having surrendered to the
French. Napoleon's deputy commissioner of war Moit described it
On 10 March 1799 in the afternoon, the prisoners of
Jaffa were marched
off in the midst of a vast square phalanx formed by the troops of
General Bon... The Turks, walking along in total disorder, had already
guessed their fate and appeared not even to shed any tears... When
they finally arrived in the sand dunes to the south-west of Jaffa,
they were ordered to halt beside a pool of yellowish water. The
officer commanding the troops then divided the mass of prisoners into
small groups, who were led off to several different points and shot...
Finally, of all the prisoners there only remained those who were
beside the pool of water. Our soldiers had used up their cartridges,
so there was nothing to be done but to dispatch them with bayonets and
knives. ... The result ... was a terrible pyramid of dead and dying
bodies dripping blood and the bodies of those already dead had to be
pulled away so as to finish off those unfortunate beings who,
concealed under this awful and terrible wall of bodies, had not yet
been struck down.
Many more died in an epidemic of bubonic plague that broke out soon
afterwards. The governor who was appointed after these devastating
events, Muhammad Abu-Nabbut, commenced wide-ranging building and
restoration work in Jaffa, including the
Mahmoudiya Mosque and Sabil
Abu Nabbut. During the 1834 Peasants' revolt in Palestine,
besieged for forty days by "mountaineers" in revolt against Ibrahim
Pasha of Egypt.
Residential life in the city was reestablished in the early 19th
century. In 1820, Isaiah Ajiman of Istanbul built a synagogue and
hostel for the accommodation of Jews on their way to the holy cities
of Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias and Safed. This area became known as
Dar al-Yehud (Arabic for "the house of the Jews"); and was the basis
of the Jewish community in Jaffa. The appointment of Mahmud Aja as
Ottoman governor marked the beginning of a period of stability and
growth for the city, interrupted by the 1832 conquest of the city by
Muhammad Ali of Egypt.
By 1839, at least 153
Sephardi Jews were living in Jaffa. The
community was served for fifty years by Rabbi Yehuda HaLevi miRagusa.
In the early 1850s, HaLevi leased an orchard to Clorinda S. Minor,
founder of a Christian messianic community that established Mount
Hope, a farming initiative to encourage local Jews to learn manual
trades, which the Messianics did in order to pave wave for the Second
Coming of Jesus. In 1855, the British Jewish philanthropist Moses
Montefiore bought the orchard from HaLevi, although Minor continued to
Seal of the Jewish community of
Jaffa (1892), bearing the biblical
phrase: "Unto the Great sea shall be your coast"
View of the port by Félix Bonfils, 1867–1870
American missionary Ellen Clare Miller, visiting
Jaffa in 1867,
reported that the town had a population of "about 5000, 1000 of these
being Christians, 800 Jews and the rest Moslems".
By the beginning of the 20th century, the population of
swelled considerably. A group of Jews left
Jaffa for the sand dunes to
the north, where in 1909 they held a lottery to divide the lots
acquired earlier. The settlement was known at first as Ahuzat Bayit
(Hebrew: אחוזת בית), but an assembly of its residents changed
its name to
Tel Aviv on 21 May 1910. Other Jewish suburbs to Jaffa
were founded at about the same time. In 1904, rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook
(1864–1935) moved to Ottoman Palestine and took up the position of
Chief Rabbi of Jaffa. In 1917, the
Tel Aviv and
resulted in the Ottomans expelling the entire civilian population.
While Muslim evacuees were allowed to return before long, the Jewish
evacuees remained in camps (and some in Egypt) until after the British
Battle of Jaffa (1917)
Battle of Jaffa (1917) and Battle of Jerusalem
During the course of their campaign through Ottoman Palestine and the
Sinai against the Ottomans, the British took
Jaffa in November 1917
although it remained under observation and fire from the Ottomans. The
Jaffa in late December 1917 pushed back the Ottoman forces
Jaffa and the line of communication between it and Jerusalem
(which had been taken on December 11 in the Battle of Jerusalem).
British soldiers outside
Jaffa municipality building
Alhambra Cinema, 1937
A 1936 issue of Falastin newspaper which was established by Arab
Jaffa in 1911.
During the British Mandate, tension between the Jewish and Arab
population increased. A wave of Arab attacks during 1920 and 1921
caused many Jewish residents to flee and resettle in Tel Aviv,
initially a marginal Jewish neighborhood north of Jaffa. The Jaffa
riots in 1921, (known in Hebrew as Meoraot Tarpa) began with a May Day
parade that turned violent. Arab rioters attacked Jewish residents and
buildings killing 47 Jews and wounding 146. The Hebrew author
Yosef Haim Brenner
Yosef Haim Brenner was killed in the riots. At the end of 1922,
Jaffa had 47,799 residents and
Tel Aviv 15,000. By 1927, the
Tel Aviv was up to 38,000.
Still, during most of the 1920s
Tel Aviv maintained peaceful
co-existence. Most Jewish businesses were located in Jaffa, some
Jewish neighbourhoods paid taxes to the municipality of Jaffa, many
young Jews who could not afford the housing costs of
Tel Aviv resided
there, and the big neighbourhood of
Menashiya was by and large fully
mixed. The first electric company in the British Mandate of Palestine,
although owned by Jewish shareholders, had been named the Jaffa
Electric Company. In 1923, both
Tel Aviv had begun a rapid
process of wired electrification through a joint grid
The 1936–39 Arab revolt in British Palestine inflicted great
economic and infrastructural damage on Jaffa. It began on 19 April
1936 with a riot remembered as "the Bloody Day in Jaffa", which ended
with 9 Jews killed and scores injured. The Arab leadership
declared a general strike, which began in the
Jaffa Port, a place that
had already become a symbol of Arab resistance. Military
reinforcements were brought in from Malta and
Egypt to subdue the
rioting which spread throughout the country. The Old City, with its
maze of homes, winding alleyways and underground sewer system,
provided an ideal escape route for the rioters fleeing the British
In May, municipal services were cut off, the old city was barricaded,
and access roads were covered with glass shards and nails. In
June, British bombers dropped boxes of leaflets in Arabic requesting
the inhabitants to evacuate that same day. On the evening of 17
June 1936, 1500 British soldiers entered
Jaffa and a British warship
sealed off escape routes by sea. The British Royal Engineers blew up
homes from east to west, leaving an open strip that cut through the
heart of the city from end to end. On 29 June, security forces
implemented another stage of the plan, carving a swath from north to
south. The mandatory authorities claimed the operation was part of
a "facelift" of the old city.
Jaffa had a population of 101,580, of whom 53,930 were
Muslims, 30,820 were Jews and 16,800 were Christians. The
Christians were mostly Greek Orthodox and about one-sixth of them were
members of the Eastern Catholic Churches. One of the most prominent
members of the Arab Christian community was the Greek Orthodox Issa
El-Issa, publisher of the newspaper Falastin.
In 1947, the UN
Special Commission on Palestine recommended that Jaffa
be included in the planned Jewish state. Due to the large Arab
majority, however, it was instead designated as part of the Arab state
in the 1947 United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
Following the inter-communal violence which broke out following the
passing of the UN partition resolution the mayors of
Jaffa and Tel
Aviv tried to calm their communities. One of the main concerns for
the people of
Jaffa was the protection of the citrus fruit export
trade which had still not reached its pre-Second World War highs.
Eventually the bilateral orange-picking and exporting of both sides
continued although without a formal agreement.
At the beginning of 1948 Jaffa's defenders consisted of one company of
around 400 men organised by the Muslim Brotherhood. As in Haifa,
the irregulars intimidated the local population.
Ruins of the 'Serrani' after the Lehi bomb attack
Tel Aviv civilians trying to hide from Arab snipers shooting at the
Carmel market from Hassan Beck mosque on, 25 February 1948
On 4 January 1948 the Lehi detonated a truck bomb outside the 3-storey
'Serrani', Jaffa's Ottoman built Town Hall, killing 26 and injuring
hundreds. The driver was reported to be wearing the uniform of the
Royal Irish Fusiliers.
In February Jaffa's Mayor, Yussuf Haykal, contacted David Ben-Gurion
through a British intermediary trying to secure a peace agreement with
Tel Aviv. But the commander of the Arab militia in
On 25 April 1948, the
Irgun launched an offensive on Jaffa. This began
with a mortar bombardment which went on for three days during which
twenty tons of high explosive were fired into the town. On 27
April the British Government, fearing a repetition of the mass exodus
Haifa the week before, ordered the British Army to confront the
Irgun and their offensive ended. Simultaneously the
launched Operation Hametz, which overran the villages east of Jaffa
and cut the town off from the interior.
The population of
Jaffa on the eve of the attack was between 50,000
and 60,000, with some 20,000 people having already left the town.
By 30 April, there were 15,000–25,000 remaining. In the
following days a further 10,000–20,000 people fled by sea. When the
Haganah took control of the town on 14 May around 4,000 people were
left. The town and harbour's warehouses were extensively
The city surrendered to the
Haganah on 14 May 1948 and shortly after
the British police and army left the city. The 3,800 Arabs who
Jaffa after the exodus were concentrated in the Ajami
district and subject to strict martial law.
Boundary demarcation of Tel Aviv-Jaffa
Alleyway in Jaffa's Old City
Former Hotel du Parc in Jaffa's American Colony
The boundaries of
Tel Aviv and
Jaffa became a matter of contention
Tel Aviv municipality and the Israeli government during
1948. The former wished to incorporate only the northern Jewish
suburbs of Jaffa, while the latter wanted a more complete
unification. The issue also had international sensitivity, since
the main part of
Jaffa was in the Arab portion of the United Nations
Partition Plan, whereas
Tel Aviv was not, and no armistice agreements
had yet been signed. On 10 December 1948, the government announced
the annexation to
Tel Aviv of Jaffa's Jewish suburbs, the Arab
neighborhood of Abu Kabir, the Arab village of Salama and some of its
agricultural land, and the working class Jewish area of Hatikva.
On 25 February 1949, the depopulated Arab village of Sheikh Muanis was
also annexed to Tel Aviv. On 18 May 1949, the Arab neighborhood of
Manshiya and part of Jaffa's central zone were added, for the first
time including land that had been in the Arab portion of the UN
partition plan. The government decided on a permanent unification
Tel Aviv and
Jaffa on 4 October 1949, but the actual unification
was delayed until 24 April 1950 due to concerted opposition from Tel
Israel Rokach. The name of the unified city was Tel
Aviv until 19 August 1950, when it was renamed as Tel Aviv-Yafo in
order to preserve the historical name Jaffa.
James Tissot "A Street in Jaffa", Brooklyn Museum
From the 1990s onwards, efforts have been made to restore Arab and
Islamic landmarks, such as the Mosque of the Sea and Hassan Bek
Mosque, and document the history of Jaffa's Arab population. Parts of
the Old City have been renovated, turning
Jaffa into a tourist
attraction featuring old restored buildings, art galleries, theaters,
souvenir shops, restaurants, sidewalk cafes and promenades. Many
artists have moved their studios from
Tel Aviv to the Old City and its
surroundings, such as the
Jaffa port, the American–Germany
Colony and the flea market. Beyond the Old City and tourist
sites, many neighborhoods of
Jaffa are poor and underdeveloped.
However, real-estate prices have risen sharply due to gentrification
projects in al-Ajami, Noga, and Lev Yafo. The municipality
of Tel Aviv-
Jaffa is currently working to beautify and modernize the
In the 19th century,
Jaffa was best known for its soap industry.
Modern industry emerged in the late 1880s. The most successful
enterprises were metalworking factories, among them the machine shop
run by the Templers that employed over 100 workers in 1910. Other
factories produced orange-crates, barrels, corks, noodles, ice,
seltzer, candy, soap, olive oil, leather, alkali, wine, cosmetics and
ink. Most of the newspapers and books printed in Ottoman Palestine
were published in Jaffa.
In 1859, a Jewish visitor, L.A. Frankl, found sixty-five Jewish
families living in Jaffa, 'about 400 soul in all.' Of these four were
shoemakers, three tailors, one silversmith and one watchmaker. There
were also merchants and shopkeepers and 'many live by manual labour,
porters, sailors, messengers, etc.'
Until the mid-19th century, Jaffa's orange groves were mainly owned by
Arabs, who employed traditional methods of farming. The pioneers of
modern agriculture in
Jaffa were American settlers, who brought in
farm machinery in the 1850s and 1860s, followed by the Templers and
the Jews. From the 1880s, real estate became an important branch
of the economy. A 'biarah' (a watered garden) cost 100,000 piastres
and annually produced 15,000, of which the farming costs were 5,000:
'A very fair percentage return on the investment.' Water for the
gardens was easily accessible with wells between ten and forty feet
deep. Jaffa's citrus industry began to flourish in the last
quarter of the 19th century. E.C. Miller records that 'about ten
million' oranges were being exported annually, and that the town was
surrounded by 'three or four hundred orange gardens, each containing
upwards of one thousand trees'. Shamuti oranges were the major
crop, but citrons, lemons and mandarin oranges were also grown.
Jaffa had a reputation for producing the best pomegranates.
According to a census conducted in 1922 by the British Mandate
Jaffa had a population of 47,799, consisting of 20,699
Muslims, 20,152 Jews and 6850 Christians., increasing to 51,866 in
the 1931 census, residing in 11,304 houses.
Jaffa has a heterogeneous population of Jews, Christians, and
Jaffa currently has 46,000 residents, of whom 30,000 are Jews
and 16,000 are Arabs. The 2010 film Port of Memory explores these
themes. Tabeetha School in
Jaffa was founded in 1863. It is owned
by the Church of Scotland. The school provides education in English to
children from Christian, Jewish and Muslim backgrounds.
Socioeconomic and political problems
Jaffa suffers from drug problems, high crime rates and violence. Some
Arab residents have alleged that the Israeli authorities are
attempting to Judaize
Jaffa by evicting Arab residents from houses
owned by the Amidar government-operated public housing company. Amidar
representatives say the residents are illegal squatters. The 2010
film Port of Memory explores these themes.
Sights and museums
The Clock Square with its distinctive clocktower was built in 1906 in
Sultan Abdul Hamid II. The Saraya (governor's palace) was
built in the 1890s. Andromeda rock is the rock to which beautiful
Andromeda was chained in Greek mythology. The Zodiac alleys are a
maze of restored alleys leading to the harbor.
Jaffa Hill is a center
for archaeological finds, including restored Egyptian gates, about
3,500 years old.
Lighthouse is an inactive lighthouse located in
the old port.
Jaffa Museum of Antiquities is located in an 18th-century Ottoman
building constructed on the remains of a Crusader fortress. In 1811,
Abu Nabout turned it into his seat of government. In the late 19th
century, the governmental moved to the "New Saraya," and the building
was sold to a wealthy Greek-Orthodox family who established a soap
factory there. Since 1961, it has housed an archaeological museum,
which is currently closed to the general public.
The Libyan Synagogue (Beit Zunana) was a synagogue built by a Jewish
landlord, Zunana, in the 18th century. It was turned into a hotel and
then a soap factory, and reopened as a synagogue for Libyan Jewish
immigrants after 1948. In 1995, it became a museum.
Other museums and galleries in the area include the Farkash Gallery
Churches and monasteries
The Greek Orthodox Monastery of Archangel Michael (Patriarchate of
Jaffa Port also has Romanian and Russian communities
in its compound. Built in 1894, the Church of St. Peter and St.
Tabitha serves the Russian Orthodox Christian community, with services
in Russian and Hebrew; underneath the chapel nearby there is what is
believed to be the tomb of St Tabitha.
St. Peter's Church in Jaffa
St. Peter's Church is a
Roman-Catholic basilica and hospice
built in 1654 on the remains of a
Crusaders fortress, and commemorates
St Peter, as he brought the disciple
Tabitha back from the dead;
Napoleon is believed to have stayed there.
Easter parade in Jaffa, 2011
Immanuel Church, built 1904, serves today a
Lutheran congregation with
services in English and Hebrew.
The Saint Nicholas Armenian Monastery was built in the 17th century.
Al-Bahr Mosque overlooking
Al-Bahr Mosque, lit. the Sea Mosque, overlooking the harbour, is
depicted in a painting from 1675 by the Dutch painter Lebrun. It may
be Jaffa's oldest existing mosque, although the original date of
construction is unknown and changes to the structure have been made
since then, such as the addition of a second floor and reconstruction
of the upper part of the minaret. It was used by fishermen and sailors
frequenting the port, and residents of the surrounding area. According
to local legend, the wives of sailors living in
Jaffa prayed there for
the safe return of their husbands. The mosque was renovated in
Mahmoudia Mosque was built in 1812 by Abu Nabbut, governor of Jaffa
from 1810 to 1820. Outside the mosque is a water fountain (sabil)
Nouzha Mosque on
Jerusalem Boulevard is Jaffa's main mosque today.
The majority of excavations in
Jaffa are salvage in nature and are
conducted by the
Israel Antiquities Authority since the 1990s.
Excavations on Rabbi Pinchas Street, for example, in the flea market
have revealed walls and water conduits dating to the Iron Age,
Hellenistic period, early Islamic period, Crusader period and Ottoman
era. A limestone slab (50 cm × 50 cm or 20 in
× 20 in) engraved with a menorah discovered on Tanchum
Street is believed to be the door of a tomb.
Additional efforts to conduct research excavations at that site
included those of B. J. Isserlin (1950),
Ze'ev Herzog of Tel Aviv
University (1997-1999), and most recently the
Jaffa Cultural Heritage
Project (since 2007), directed by Aaron A. Burke (UCLA) and Martin
Peilstocker (Johannes-Gutenberg University).
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September
Collège des Frères de Jaffa, a French international school, is in
Jaffa flea market
Jaffa is served by the Dan Bus Company, which operates buses to
various neighborhoods of
Tel Aviv and Bat Yam.
The Red Line of the planned
Tel Aviv Light Rail will cross
to south along
Jaffa Railway Station
Jaffa Railway Station was the first railway station in the Middle
East. It served as the terminus for the Jaffa–
Jerusalem railway. The
station opened in 1891 and closed in 1948. In 2005–09, the station
was restored and converted into an entertainment and leisure venue
marketed as "HaTachana", Hebrew for "the station" (see homepage
In Popular Culture
Clash of the Titans is set in ancient Joppa. The 2009 Oscar-nominated
film Ajami is set in modern Jaffa.
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Asma Agbarieh (born 1974), Israeli Arab journalist and political
Shmuel Yosef Agnon
Shmuel Yosef Agnon (1888–1970), Nobel Prize-winning author
Yitzhak Ben-Zvi (1884–1963), historian, Labor Zionist leader, and
President of Israel
Yosef Eliyahu Chelouche
Yosef Eliyahu Chelouche (1870–1934), one of the founders of Tel
Joseph Constant (1892–1969), sculptor and writer
Ismail al-Faruqi (1921–1986), Palestinian-American philosopher
Lea Gottlieb (1918–2012), Israeli founder and fashion designer of
Victor Norris Hamilton (born c. 1919), Palestinian-born American
J. E. Hanauer (1850–1938), author, photographer, and Canon of St
Yizhar Harari (1908–1978), Zionist activist and Israeli politician
Nadia Hilou (1953–2015), Arab-Israeli politician
Issa El-Issa (1878–1950), Arab journalist
Raja El-Issa (1922–2008), Arab journalist
Michel Loève (1907–1979), probabilist and mathematical statistician
Haim Ramon (born 1950), Israeli politician
Sasha Roiz (born 1973), Canadian actor
Yosef Sapir (1902–72), Israeli politician
Rifaat Turk (born 1954), Arab-Israeli football player and manager, and
deputy mayor of Tel Aviv
Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa
County of Jaffa and Ascalon (under the Crusaders)
^ One example of this legend is the sixteenth-century French pilgrim
Denis Possot who recorded, "Jaffe, est le port de la Terre saincte,
anciennement nommé Joppe, faict et construict premierment en ville et
cité grande à merveilles et de grant renom, par Japhet, fils de
Noé." in his Le Voyage de la Terre Sainte (Geneva: Slatkine Reprints
1971, reprint of Paris edition, 1890, orig. 1532), p. 155.
^ Another pilgrim, Sir Richard of Guylforde, wrote,"This Jaffe was
sometyme a grete Cytie [...] and it was one of the firste Cyties of
the worlde founded by Japheth, Noes sone, and beryth yet his name." in
the pilgrimage narrative from 1506, recorded by his chaplain in 1511,
edited by Sir Henry Ellis (London: Camden Society, 1851), p. 16.
^ Stacey Jennifer Miller, The Lion Temple of Jaffa: Archaeological
Investigations of the Late
Bronze Age Egyptian. Occupation in Canaan.
BA thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 2012
^ "TEL YAFO EXPEDITION: Excavations at Ancient
Jaffa (Joppa)". Tel
^ Aaron A. Burke and Martin Peilstöcker, The Egyptian
Jaffa, Popular Archaeology, 3 March 2013
^ "Judges Chapter 5 שׁוֹפְטִים". Judges 5:17 – Gilead
abode beyond the Jordan; and Dan, why doth he sojourn by the ships?
Asher dwelt at the shore of the sea, and abideth by its bays.
^ Rabbi Joseph Schwarz, Descriptive Geography and Brief Historical
Sketch of Palestine, archived from the original on 21 June 2011,
retrieved 31 May 2011
^ Michel Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, III, 627.
^ Michel Le Quien, Oriens Christianus, III, 625–30, 1291; Konrad
Eubel, Hierarchia catholica medii aevi, Munich, I, 297; II, 186.
^ Catholic Encyclopedia, 
^ Lorenzi, Rossella (15 November 2011), First Arabic Crusader
Inscription Found, Discovery News
^ Gotthard Deutsch and M. Franco (1903). "Jaffa". Jewish
^ Joannes Cotovicus (1619). Itinerarium Hierosolymitanum et Syriacum.
Antwerp. p. 135.
^ W. M. Thomson, The Land and the Book, c. 1860, page 515.
^ a b Jacques-François Moit (1814). Mémoires pour servir à
l'histoire des expéditions en Égypte et en Syrie. , quoted in
Véronique Nahoum-Grappe (2002). "The anthropology of extreme
violence: the crime of desecration". International Social Science
Journal. 54 (174): 549–557. doi:10.1111/1468-2451.00409.
^ Jaffa: a City in Evolution Ruth Kark, Yad Yitzhak Ben-Zvi,
Jerusalem, 1990, pp. 8–9
^ Thomson, page 515.
^ The digitalization project of the 19th century censuses in Eretz
Israel done under the auspices of Sir Moses Montefiore, retrieved 31
^ Friedman, Lior (5 April 2009). "The mountain of despair,".
Haaretz.com. Retrieved 25 August 2013.
^ Ellen Clare Miller, 'Eastern Sketches — notes of scenery,
schools and tent life in Syria and Palestine'. Edinburgh: William
Oliphant and Company. 1871. Page 97. See also Miller's populations of
Damascus, Jerusalem, Bethlehem,
Nablus and Samaria
^ Thompson (above) writing in 1856 has '25 years ago the inhabitants
of the city and gardens were about 6000; now there must be 15,000 at
least...' Considering the length of time he lived in the area this may
be a more accurate count.
^ Rav Hillel Rachmani. "Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook". Jewish Virtual
^ Friedman, Isaiah (1971). "German Intervention on Behalf of the
"Yishuv"", 1917 , Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 33, pp. 23–43.
^ Report of the Commission of Inquiry into the disturbances in the
British Mandate of Palestine
British Mandate of Palestine in May, 1921, with correspondence
relating thereto (Disturbances), 1921, Cmd. 1540, p. 60.
^ Honig, Sarah (30 April 2009). "Another Tack: The
May Day Massacre of
^ Ronen Shamir (2013) Current Flow: The Electrification of Palestine.
Stanford: Stanford University Press
^ Viton, Albert (3 June 1936). "Why Arabs Kill Jews". The Nation.
Retrieved 24 August 2016.
^ a b c d e f The Land That Become Israel: Studies in Historical
Geography, ed. Ruth Kark, Yale University Press & Magnes Press,
1989, "Aerial Perspectives of Past Landscapes," Dov Gavish, pp.
^ Supplement to a Survey of Palestine (p. 12-13) which was prepared by
the British Mandate for the United Nations in 1946-7
^ A/RES/181(II)(A+B), Resolution 181 (II). Future government of
Palestine (UN Partition Plan details), United Nations General
Assembly, 29 November 1947, archived from the original on 16 April
2013, The area of the Arab enclave of
Jaffa consists of that part of
the town-planning area of
Jaffa which lies to the west of the Jewish
quarters lying south of Tel-Aviv, to the west of the continuation of
Herzl street up to its junction with the Jaffa-
Jerusalem road, to the
south-west of the section of the Jaffa-
Jerusalem road lying south-east
of that junction, to the west of Miqve
Israel lands, to the north-west
of Holon local council area, to the north of the line linking up the
north-west corner of Holon with the north-east corner of
Bat Yam local
council area and to the north of
Bat Yam local council area. The
question of Karton quarter will be decided by the Boundary Commission,
bearing in mind among other considerations the desirability of
including the smallest possible number of its Arab inhabitants and the
largest possible number of its Jewish inhabitants in the Jewish
^ Dov Joseph, 'The Faithful City', Simon and Schuster, 1960. Library
of Congress number: 60-10976. Page 24: 'In an exchange of letters
between Mayor Yisrael Rokach of
Tel Aviv and Mayor Youssef Haikal of
Jaffa, both agreed to call upon the residents to maintain peace and
^ 'A survey of Palestine', printed 1946–1947. Reprinted ISP,
Washington, 1991 ISBN 0-88728-211-3. Page 474: Exports of citrus
fruit total value in Palestine Pounds, 1938/39 = P£4,355,853. 1944/45
= P£1,474,854. Ironically, due to the Nazi conquest of the
Netherlands, Tel Aviv's trade in polished diamonds had increased over
three-fold to P£3,235,117. Page 476
^ a b c
Benny Morris (2004). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee
Problem Revisited. Cambridge University Press. pp. 115–.
ISBN 978-0-521-00967-6. (p. 114) And rifts among the
from the beginning subverted all efforts at peacemaking. In February,
Ben-Gurion wrote to Shertok that Heikal, through a British
intermediary,was trying to secure an agreement with
Tel Aviv but that
the new irregulars’ commander, ‘Abdul Wahab ‘Ali Shihaini, had
blocked him. .... According to Ben-Gurion, Shihaini had answered: ‘I
do not mind [the] destruction [of]
Jaffa if we secure [the]
destruction [of] Tel Aviv. As in Haifa, the irregulars intimidated the
local population, echoing the experience of 1936–1939. ‘. . . The
inhabitants were more afraid of their defenders-saviours than of the
Jews their enemies’, wrote Nimr al Khatib. (p. 115) But Arab
notables, through British intermediaries, continued to press for a
wider citrus agreement. ... In the end, a formal agreement was never
concluded. But neither was a complete blockade imposed on Jaffa, and
the bilateral orange-picking and -exporting continued largely
^ Herbert Pritzke 'Bedouin Doctor — The adventures of a German
in the Middle East', Translated by Richard Graves. Weidenfeld and
Nicolson, London. 1957. Copyright Ullstein and Co, Vienna, 1956. Page
149: 'At that time the Arab Brigade in
Jaffa consisted of seven
Germans, one hundred and fifty Jugoslavs, thirty Egyptians and two
hundred Lebanese and Syrians. There were very few Arabs among them as
these preferred irregular warfare with the National Guard ...'
^ The Scotsman newspaper, 6 January 1948
^ LeBor, Adam (21 January 2006). "Jaffa: Divided it fell". The
^ Walid Khalidi states that 25 civilians were killed and dates the
attack as occurring on 4 January. 'Before their Diaspora', 1984.
p.316, picture p.325
^ Morris, page 46. Attributes attack to 'LHI' (Lehi), doesn't number
and gives date as 4 January.
^ Benny Morris, 'The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem,
1947–1949', Cambridge University Press, 1987,
ISBN 0-521-33028-9. Page 47.
^ a b Morris, page 95.
^ Menachem Begin, 'The Revolt — story of the Irgun'. Translated
by Samuel Katz. Hadar Publishing, Tel Aviv. 1964. pp. 355–371.
^ a b Morris, page 100.
^ Begin, page 363.
^ Morris, page 101: 'On 18 May Ben-Gurion visited the conquered city
for the first time and commented:"I couldn't understand: Why did the
^ Jon Kimche, 'Seven Falen Pillars; The Middle East, 1915–1950'.
Secker and Warburg, London. 1950. Page 224 :'the orgy of looting
and wanton destruction which hangs like a black pall over almost all
the Jewish military successes.'
^ Karpel, Dalia (14 February 2008). "Wellsprings of memory". Haaretz
Israel News. Archived from the original on 25 March 2009.
^ Yoav Gelber, Independence Versus Nakba;
Kinneret–Zmora-Bitan–Dvir Publishing, 2004,
ISBN 965-517-190-6, p.104
^ Ravit Goldhaber & Izhak Schnell; Schnell (2007). "A Model of
Multidimensional Segregation in the Arab Ghetto in Tel Aviv-Jaffa".
Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie. 98 (5): 603–620.
^ a b c d e f g h Arnon
Golan (1995), The demarcation of Tel
Aviv-Jaffa's municipal boundaries, Planning Perspectives, vol. 10, pp.
^ Areas to Visit (PDF),
Tel Aviv Municipality, archived from the
original (PDF) on 12 July 2012, retrieved 18 December 2012, Today,
local fisherman still use the harbor and the main hangars of the port
have been restored and include art galleries
^ For example, Jonathan Kis-Lev's studio; see "A visit to the American
Colony in Jaffa".
Israel Traveler. 22 May 2011. Archived from the
original on 27 July 2013.
^ Ashley (20 September 2012),
Jaffa Flea Market: a Place to Sharpen
Those Haggling Skills!, The
Jaffa Flea Market [...] invites a younger,
hipper crowd to inspect its newly added art galleries"
^ Kloosterman, Karin (29 November 2006), "Changes in the air for
Ajami: A mixed Arab-Jewish neighborhood in
Jaffa balances itself
between rundown remnants of old-world charm and upscale
Israel won the bid to acquire 7.6 acres in prestigious area
Tel Aviv - will pay 211 million".
Tel Aviv American Colony buildings for sale".
^ a b c Jaffa: A City in Evolution Ruth Kark, Yad Yitzhak Ben-Zvi,
Jerusalem, 1990, pp. 256–257.
^ Dr Frankl, translated by P. Beaton, 'The Jews in the East'. Volume
1. Hurst and Blackett, London, 1859. Page 345. He adds 'The community
is poor, and receives no alms from any quarter.' which resulted in
some envy of the 'our bethren' in Jerusalem.
^ Jaffa: A City in Evolution Ruth Kark, Yad Yitzhak Ben-Zvi,
Jerusalem, 1990, pp. 244–246.
^ Thompson, page 517.
^ Jaffa: A City in Evolution Ruth Kark, Yad Yitzhak Ben-Zvi,
Jerusalem, 1990, p.262.
^ Miller, page 97: 'The orange gardens are the finest in the East; and
during the late winter and early spring, little white sailed vessels
from Greece, Constantinople and the islands of the Archipelago, lie in
calm weather at a short distance from the coast, waiting to carry away
^ Jaffa: A City in Evolution Ruth Kark, Yad Yitzhak Ben-Zvi,
Jerusalem, 1990, pp. 242.
^ Thomson p.517: Sidon has best bananas,
Jaffa the best pomegranates,
oranges of Sidon are more juicy and have richer flavour.
hang on the trees much later, and will bear shipping to distant
^ Barron, 1923, p .6
^ Mills, 1932, p. 13
Jerusalem Archived 5 October 2014 at Archive.is
^ a b 'Port of Memory (2010) on IMDb
^ "History of Tabeetha". Tabeetha School in Jaffa. Retrieved 18
^ Hai, Yigal (28 April 2007). "Protesters rally in
Jaffa against move
to evict local Arab families". Haaretz.
^ "Tel aviv yafo". Tel-Aviv/Yafo Municipality. [not in citation
^ Pliny the Elder. "v.69". Natural History.
Jaffa Museum". Archived from the original on 2008-12-26.
^ "Project Partners". The
Jaffa Cultural Heritage Project. The Jaffa
Museum of Archaeology. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
^ "В день памяти праведной Тавифы на
подворье Русской духовной миссии в
Яффо совершена праздничная Литургия"
[On the feast day of
Tabitha of righteous memory, a festive liturgy
performed in the courtyard of the Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in
Jaffa]. Russian Orthodox Church. 9 November 2009.
^ "Al-Bahr mosque in Jaffa". ArchNet Digital Library. Archived from
the original on 29 June 2011.
^ "History of Jaffa", ArtMag, Université Européenne de la Recherche,
retrieved 18 December 2012
^ "Sabil Abu Nabbut". ArchNet Digital Library. Archived from the
original on 4 June 2011.
Archaeology News in Israel". Biblical Productions. 2008. Archived
from the original on 1 January 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
^ HaTachana official website
See also: Bibliography of the history of Jaffa
Barron, J. B., ed. (1923). Palestine: Report and General Abstracts of
the Census of 1922. Government of Palestine.
Levine, Mark (2005). Overthrowing Geography, Jaffa, Tel Aviv, and the
Struggle for Palestine, 1880–1948. Berkeley: University of
California Press. ISBN 0-520-23994-6.
Yahav, Dan (2004). Yafo, kalat ha-yam : me-ʻir roshah
li-shekhunot ʻoni, degem le-i-shiṿyon merḥavi (in Hebrew). Tel
Aviv: Tamouz. OCLC 59707598.
Chelouche, Yosef Eliyahu (2005). Arashat Hayai: 1870–1930 (English:
Reminiscences of My Life: 1870–1930) (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv: Babel.
ISBN 965-512-096-1. OCLC 62317894.
Šārôn Rôṭbard, Šārôn (2005). ʻÎr levānā, ʻîr
šeḥôrā (English: White City, Black City) (in Hebrew). Tel Aviv:
Babel. ISBN 978-965-512-096-7. OCLC 260080254.
Lebor, Adam (2007). City of Oranges. Arabs and Jews in Jaffa. New
York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 0-7475-8602-0.
Morris, Benny (1987). The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem,
1947–1949. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
"Jaffa — Bride of the Sea" or "Yaffo — Kalat Hayam"
2000, By Israeli artist Natali Lipin (views of the city Old Jaffa).
Language — Hebrew/English.
Segev, Tom (1998). 1949, the First Israelis. New York: Henry Holt.
Weill-Rochant, Catherine (2008). L'atlas de Tel Aviv :
1908–2008 (in French). Paris: CNRS Éditions.
Yavin, Shmuel (2006). Bauhaus in Jaffa: Modern Architecture in an
Ancient City. Tel Aviv: Bauhaus Center Tel Aviv.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Jaffa.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Jaffa.
Jaffa in 1880 Map, Map 13: IAA,  Coordinates: East longitude,
34.45; North latitude, 32.3
Jaffa Cultural Heritage Project
Jaffa Old City Photos in Cafetorah.com, archived from the original on
4 March 2016
Jaffa in Cafetorah.com, archived from the original on 28 March
Neff, Donald (April–May 1994). "Arab
Jaffa seized before Israel's
creation in 1948". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs: 75.
"JAFFA (Hebr. Yafo; A. V. Joppa; Greek, Joppe; Arabic, Yaffa)". Jewish
Schaalje, Jacqueline (May 2001). "Jaffa". The Jewish Magazine.
The Old City of Yafo (Travel photos of Old
Jaffa and its port), Common
"Jaffa". World Cities Images. Archived from the original on
Tel Aviv Virtual Tours – Clock Square Jaffa". 3Disrael.com.
(no plugin needed)
Jaffa Old Harbour (photo gallery)". tel aviv 4 fun.
Coordinates: 32°3′N 34°45′E / 32.050°N 34.750°E /
Towns and fortresses depopulated during the First Jewish–Roman War