JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY was a 19th-century political philosophy in the
United States that espoused greater democracy for the common man, as
that term was then defined. Originating with President Andrew Jackson
and his supporters, it became the nation's dominant political
worldview for a generation.
This era, called the Jacksonian Era (or
Second Party System
Second Party System ) by
historians and political scientists, lasted roughly from Jackson's
1828 election as president until slavery became the dominant issue
after 1854 and the
American Civil War
American Civil War dramatically reshaped American
politics. It emerged when the long-dominant Democratic-Republican
Party became factionalized during the early-to-mid 1820s. Jackson's
supporters began to form what would become the modern Democratic Party
and supporters of his political rival,
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams , created the
National Republican Party , which would later combine with other
anti-Jackson elements to form the Whig Party .
Broadly speaking, the era was characterized by a democratic spirit,
and built upon Jackson's equal political policy (subsequent to ending
what he termed a "monopoly" of government by elites). Even before the
Jacksonian era began, suffrage had been extended to a majority of
white male adult citizens, a result the Jacksonians celebrated.
Jacksonian democracy also promoted the strength of the presidency and
executive branch at the expense of Congress, while also seeking to
broaden the public's participation in government. The Jacksonians
demanded elected (not appointed) judges and rewrote many state
constitutions to reflect the new values. In national terms they
favored geographical expansion, justifying it in terms of Manifest
Destiny . There was usually a consensus among both Jacksonians and
Whigs that battles over slavery should be avoided.
Jackson's expansion of democracy was largely limited to Americans of
European descent, and voting rights were extended to adult white males
only. There was little or no progress (and in some cases regression)
for the rights of African-Americans and Native Americans.
Robert V. Remini argues that Jacksonian
stretches the concept of democracy about as far as it can go and
still remain workable....As such it has inspired much of the dynamic
and dramatic events of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries in
American history—Populism, Progressivism, the New and Fair Deals,
and the programs of the New Frontier and Great Society.
* 1 Philosophy
* 1.1 General principles
* 1.2 Election by the "Common Man"
* 1.3 Factions 1824–32
* 2 The new Democratic Party
* 2.1 Jacksonian
* 2.2 Reforms
* 3 Jacksonian Presidents
* 4 See also
* 5 Notes
* 6 References and bibliography
* 6.1 Primary sources
* 7 External links
A Democratic cartoon from 1833 shows Jackson destroying the bank
with his "Order for the Removal," to the annoyance of bank president
Nicholas Biddle, shown as the Devil himself. Numerous politicians and
editors who were given favorable loans from the Bank run for cover as
the financial temple crashes down. A famous fictional character Major
Jack Downing (right) cheers, "Hurrah! Gineral!"
Democracy was built on the following:
* Expanded Suffrage – The Jacksonians believed that voting rights
should be extended to all white men. By the end of the 1820s,
attitudes and state laws had shifted in favor of universal white male
suffrage , and by 1856 all requirements to own property and nearly
all requirements to pay taxes had been dropped.
Manifest Destiny – This was the belief that white Americans had
a destiny to settle the
American West and to expand control from the
Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific and that the West should be settled by
yeoman farmers. However, the
Free Soil Jacksonians, notably Martin Van
Buren , argued for limitations on slavery in the new areas to enable
the poor white man to flourish; they split with the main party briefly
in 1848. The Whigs generally opposed
Manifest Destiny and expansion,
saying the nation should build up its cities.
Patronage – Also known as the spoils system , patronage was the
policy of placing political supporters into appointed offices. Many
Jacksonians held the view that rotating political appointees in and
out of office was not only the right but also the duty of winners in
Patronage was theorized to be good because it
would encourage political participation by the common man and because
it would make a politician more accountable for poor government
service by his appointees. Jacksonians also held that long tenure in
the civil service was corrupting, so civil servants should be rotated
out of office at regular intervals. However, it often led to the
hiring of incompetent and sometimes corrupt officials due to the
emphasis on party loyalty above any other qualifications.
Strict constructionism – Like the Jeffersonians who strongly
believed in the
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions , Jacksonians
initially favored a federal government of limited powers. Jackson said
that he would guard against "all encroachments upon the legitimate
sphere of State sovereignty." However, he was not a states\' rights
extremist; indeed, the
Nullification Crisis would find Jackson
fighting against what he perceived as state encroachments on the
proper sphere of federal influence. This position was one basis for
the Jacksonians' opposition to the Second Bank of the
United States .
As the Jacksonians consolidated power, they more often advocated
expanding federal power, presidential power in particular.
Laissez-faire – Complementing a strict construction of the
Constitution, the Jacksonians generally favored a hands-off approach
to the economy, as opposed to the Whig program sponsoring
modernization, railroads, banking, and economic growth. The chief
spokesman amongst laissez-faire advocates was William Leggett of the
Locofocos in New York City.
* Opposition to banking – In particular, the Jacksonians opposed
government-granted monopolies to banks, especially the national bank,
a central bank known as the Second Bank of the
United States . Jackson
said, "The bank is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!" And he did
so. The Whigs, who strongly supported the Bank, were led by Henry
Daniel Webster , and Nicholas Biddle , the bank chairman.
Jackson himself was opposed to all banks because he believed they were
devices to cheat common people; he and many followers believed that
only gold and silver should be used to back currency, rather than the
integrity of a bank.
ELECTION BY THE "COMMON MAN"
An important movement in the period from 1800 to 1830—before the
Jacksonians were organized—was the expansion of the right to vote
toward including all white men. Older states with property
restrictions dropped them; all but Rhode Island, Virginia and North
Carolina by the mid 1820s. No new states had property qualifications
although three had adopted tax-paying qualifications – Ohio,
Louisiana, and Mississippi, of which only in Louisiana were these
significant and long lasting. The process was peaceful, and widely
supported, except in the state of Rhode Island. In Rhode Island, the
Dorr Rebellion of the 1840s demonstrated that the demand for equal
suffrage was broad and strong, although the subsequent reform included
a significant property requirement for anyone resident but born
outside of the United States. Free black men, however, lost voting
rights in several states during this period.
The fact that a man was now legally allowed to vote did not
necessarily mean he routinely voted. He had to be pulled to the polls,
which became the most important role of the local parties. They
systematically sought out potential voters and brought them to the
polls. Voter turnout soared during the 1830s, reaching about 80% of
adult white male population in the 1840 presidential election .
Tax-paying qualifications remained in only five states by 1860 –
Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and North
One innovative strategy for increasing voter participation and input
was developed outside the Jacksonian camp. Prior to the presidential
election of 1832 , the
Anti-Masonic Party conducted the nation's first
presidential nominating convention . Held in Baltimore, Maryland,
September 26–28, 1831, it transformed the process by which political
parties select their presidential and vice-presidential candidates.
The period 1824–32 was politically chaotic. The Federalist Party
First Party System were dead, and with no effective
opposition, the old
Democratic-Republican Party withered away. Every
state had numerous political factions, but they did not cross state
lines. Political coalitions formed and dissolved, and politicians
moved in and out of alliances.
Most former Republicans supported Jackson; others, such as Henry Clay
, opposed him. Most former Federalists, such as
Daniel Webster ,
opposed Jackson, although some like
James Buchanan supported him. In
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams pulled together a network of factions called
the National Republicans , but he was defeated by Jackson. By the late
1830s, the Jacksonian Democrats and the Whigs politically battled it
out nationally and in every state.
THE NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY
1837 cartoon plays on "Jackson" and "jackass," showing the
Democratic Party as a donkey. That remains its cartoon symbol into the
The spirit of Jacksonian
Democracy animated the party from the early
1830s to the 1850s, shaping the era, with the Whig Party the main
opposition. The new Democratic Party became a coalition of farmers,
city-dwelling laborers, and Irish Catholics.
The new party was pulled together by
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren in 1828 as
Andrew Jackson crusaded against the corruption of President John
Quincy Adams . The new party (which did not get the name "Democrats"
until 1834) swept to a landslide. As Norton et al. explain regarding
1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had finally prevailed.
Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political
leaders, and newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the
president. The Democrats became the nation's first well-organized
The platforms, speeches, and editorials were founded upon a broad
consensus among Democrats. As Norton et al. explain: The Democrats
represented a wide range of views but shared a fundamental commitment
to the Jeffersonian concept of an agrarian society. They viewed a
central government as the enemy of individual liberty and they
believed that government intervention in the economy benefited
special-interest groups and created corporate monopolies that favored
the rich. They sought to restore the independence of the
individual--the artisan and the ordinary farmer--by ending federal
support of banks and corporations and restricting the use of paper
Jackson vetoed more legislation than all previous presidents
combined. The long-term effect was to create the modern strong
presidency. Jackson and his supporters also opposed reform as a
movement. Reformers eager to turn their programs into legislation
called for a more active government. But Democrats tended to oppose
programs like educational reform and the establishment of a public
education system. They believed, for instance, that public schools
restricted individual liberty by interfering with parental
responsibility and undermined freedom of religion by replacing church
Jackson supported white supremacy, as did nearly every major
politician of the day. He looked at the Indian question in terms of
military and legal policy, not as a problem due to their race.
Indeed, in 1813 he adopted and treated as his own son a three-year-old
Indian orphan—seeing in him a fellow orphan that was "so much like
myself I feel an unusual sympathy for him." In legal terms, when it
became a matter of state sovereignty versus tribal sovereignty, he
went with the states and moved the Indians to fresh lands with no
white rivals in what became Oklahoma.
Jackson fulfilled his promise of broadening the influence of the
citizenry in government, although not without vehement controversy
over his methods.
Jacksonian policies included ending the bank of the United States,
expanding westward, and removing American Indians from the Southeast.
Jackson was denounced as a tyrant by opponents on both ends of the
political spectrum such as
Henry Clay and
John C. Calhoun
John C. Calhoun . This led
to the rise of the Whig Party .
Jackson created a spoils system to clear out elected officials in
government of an opposing party and replace them with his supporters
as a reward for their electioneering. With Congress controlled by his
enemies, Jackson relied heavily on the power of the veto to block
One of the most important of these was the
Maysville Road veto in
1830. A part of Clay's American System , the bill would have allowed
for federal funding of a project to construct a road linking Lexington
and the Ohio River, the entirety of which would be in the state of
Kentucky, Clay's home state. His primary objection was based on the
local nature of the project. He argued it was not the Federal
government's job to fund projects of such a local nature, and or those
lacking a connection to the nation as a whole. The debates in Congress
reflected two competing visions of federalism. The Jacksonians saw the
union strictly as the cooperative aggregation of the individual
states, while the Whigs saw the entire nation as a distinct entity.
In addition to Jackson, his second vice president and one of the key
organizational leaders of the Jacksonian Democratic Party , Martin Van
Buren , served as president. Van Buren was defeated in the next
William Henry Harrison
William Henry Harrison . Harrison died just 30 days into
his term, and his vice president,
John Tyler , quickly reached
accommodation with the Jacksonians. Tyler was then succeeded by James
K. Polk , a Jacksonian who won the election of 1844 with Jackson's
Franklin Pierce had been a supporter of Jackson as well.
James Buchanan served in Jackson's administration as Minister to
Russia and as Polk's Secretary of State, but he did not pursue
Jacksonian policies. Finally,
Andrew Johnson , who had been a strong
supporter of Jackson, became president following the assassination of
Abraham Lincoln in 1865.
Andrew Jackson presidential campaign, 1828
* Voting rights in the
Democratic Party (United States)
Democratic Party (United States)
* ^ Engerman , pp. 15, 36. "These figures suggest that by 1820 more
than half of adult white males were casting votes, except in those
states that still retained property requirements or substantial tax
requirements for the franchise – Virginia, Rhode Island (the two
states that maintained property restrictions through 1840), and New
York as well as Louisiana."
* ^ Warren, Mark E. (1999).
Democracy and Trust. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 9780521646871 .
Robert V. Remini (2011). The Life of Andrew Jackson.
HarperCollins. p. 307. ISBN 9780062116635 .
* ^ Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Age of Jackson (1945)
* ^ Engerman , p. 14. "Property- or tax-based qualifications were
most strongly entrenched in the original thirteen states, and dramatic
political battles took place at a series of prominent state
constitutional conventions held during the late 1810s and 1820s."
* ^ Engerman , pp. 16, 35. "By 1840, only three states retained a
property qualification, North Carolina (for some state-wide offices
only), Rhode Island, and Virginia. In 1856 North Carolina was the last
state to end the practice. Tax-paying qualifications were also gone in
all but a few states by the Civil War, but they survived into the 20th
century in Pennsylvania and Rhode Island."
* ^ Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of
Democracy in the
United States (2nd ed. 2009) p 29
* ^ David S. Heidler and Jeanne T. Heidler, Manifest Destiny
(Greenwood Press, 2003).
* ^ M. Ostrogorski,
Democracy and the Party System in the United
* ^ Forrest McDonald, States' Rights and the Union: Imperium in
Imperio, 1776–1876 (2002) pp 97-120
* ^ William Trimble, "The social philosophy of the Loco-Foco
democracy." American Journal of Sociology 26.6 (1921): 705-715. in
* ^ Louis Hartz, Economic Policy and Democratic Thought:
Pennsylvania, 1776–1860 (1948)
* ^ Richard Hofstadter, "William Leggett, Spokesman of Jacksonian
Democracy." Political Science Quarterly 58.4 (1943): 581-594. in JSTOR
* ^ Lawrence H. White, "William Leggett: Jacksonian editorialist as
classical liberal political economist." History of Political Economy
18.2 (1986): 307-324.
* ^ Melvin I. Urofsky (2000). The American Presidents: Critical
Essays. Taylor & Francis. p. 106. ISBN 9780203008805 .
* ^ Bray Hammond, Banks and Politics in America, From the
Revolution to the Civil War (1957)
* ^ Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy
United States (2009) ch 2
* ^ Engerman , p. 8–9
* ^ Murrin, John M.; Johnson, Paul E.; McPherson, James M.; Fahs,
Alice; Gerstle, Gary (2012). Liberty, Equality, Power: A History of
the American People (6th ed.). Wadsworth, Cengage Learning. p. 296.
ISBN 978-0-495-90499-1 .
* ^ William G. Shade, "The Second Party System". in Paul Kleppner,
et al. Evolution of American Electoral Systems (1983) pp 77-111
* ^ Engerman , p. 35. Table 1
* ^ William Preston Vaughn, The
Anti-Masonic Party in the United
States: 1826–1843 (2009)
* ^ Richard P. McCormick, The Second American Party System: Party
Formation in the Jacksonian Era (1966).
* ^ Michael F. Holt, Political Parties and American Political
Development: From the Age of Jackson to the Age of Lincoln (1992)
* ^ Sean Wilentz, The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to
* ^ Mary Beth Norton; et al. (2014). A People and a Nation, Volume
I: to 1877. Cengage Learning. p. 348. ISBN 9781285974675 .
* ^ Mary Beth Norton; et al. (2007). A People and a Nation: A
History of the United States, Volume I: To 1877. Cengage Learning. p.
327. ISBN 0618947167 .
* ^ John Yoo, "
Andrew Jackson and Presidential Power." Charleston
Law Review 2 (2007): 521+ online.
* ^ Prucha, Francis Paul (1969). "Andrew Jackson's Indian policy: a
Journal of American History . 56 (3): 527–539. JSTOR
* ^ Michael Paul Rogin (1991). Fathers and Children: Andrew Jackson
and the Subjugation of the American Indian. Transaction Publishers. p.
189. ISBN 9781412823470 .
* ^ Theda Perdue and Michael D. Green, The Cherokee removal: a
brief history with documents (2005.)
* ^ Donald B. Cole, The Presidency of
Andrew Jackson (1993)
* ^ Wulf, Naomi (2001). "'The Greatest General Good': Road
Construction, National Interest, and Federal Funding in Jacksonian
America". European Contributions to American Studies. 47: 53–72.
* ^ "James K. Polk: Life in Brief". Miller Center. Retrieved June
REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
* Adams, Sean Patrick, ed. A Companion to the Era of Andrew Jackson
(2013). table of contents
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* Baker, Jean (1983). Affairs of Party: The Political Culture of
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* Benson, Lee (1961). The Concept of Jacksonian Democracy: New York
as a Test Case. New York: Atheneum. ISBN 0-691-00572-9 .
* Bugg, James L., Jr. (1952). Jacksonian Democracy: Myth or
Reality?. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Short essays.
* Cave, Alfred A. (1964). Jacksonian
Democracy and the Historians.
Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press.
* Cole, Donald B. (1984).
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren And The American
Political System. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN
* Cole, Donald B. (1970). Jacksonian
Democracy in New Hampshire.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-46990-9 . Uses
quantitative electoral data.
* Cheathem, Mark R. and Terry Corps, eds. Historical Dictionary of
the Jacksonian Era and
Manifest Destiny (2nd ed. 2016), 544pp
* Engerman, Stanley L.; Sokoloff, Kenneth L. (2005). "The Evolution
of Suffrage Institutions in the New World" (PDF): 14–16.
* Formisano, Ronald P. (1971). The Birth of Mass Political Parties:
Michigan, 1827-1861. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN
0-691-04605-0 . Uses quantitative electoral data.
* Formisano, Ronald P. (1983). The Transformation of Political
Culture: Massachusetts Parties, 1790s-1840s. New York: Oxford
University Press. ISBN 0-19-503124-5 . Uses quantitative electoral
* Formisano, Ronald P. (1999). "The 'Party Period' Revisited".
Journal of American History. Organization of American Historians. 86
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* Formisano, Ronald P. (1969). "Political Character, Antipartyism,
and the Second Party System". American Quarterly. The Johns Hopkins
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* Formisano, Ronald P. (1974). "Deferential-Participant Politics:
The Early Republic's Political Culture, 1789-1840". American Political
Science Review. American Political Science Association. 68 (2):
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* Hammond, Bray (1958). Andrew Jackson's Battle with the "Money
Power". Chapter 8, an excerpt from his Pulitzer-prize-winning Banks
and Politics in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War (1954).
* Hofstadter, Richard (1948). The American Political Tradition.
Chapter on AJ.
* Hofstadter, Richard. "William Leggett: Spokesman of Jacksonian
Democracy." Political Science Quarterly 58#4 (December 1943): 581-94.
* Hofstadter, Richard (1969). The Idea of a Party System: The Rise
of Legitimate Opposition in the United States, 1780-1840.
* Holt, Michael F. (1999). The Rise and Fall of the American Whig
Party: Jacksonian Politics and the Onset of the Civil War. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505544-6 .
* Holt, Michael F. (1992). Political Parties and American Political
Development: From the Age of Jackson to the Age of Lincoln. Baton
Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press. ISBN 0-8071-1728-5 .
* Howe, Daniel Walker. What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of
America, 1815–1848 (Oxford History of the United States) (2009),
Pulitzer Prize; surveys era from ant-Jacksonain perspective
* Howe, Daniel Walker (1991). "The Evangelical Movement and
Political Culture during the Second Party System". Journal of American
History. Organization of American Historians. 77 (4): 1216–1239.
JSTOR 2078260 . doi :10.2307/2078260 .
* Kohl, Lawrence Frederick (1989). The Politics of Individualism:
Parties and the American Character in the Jacksonian Era. New York:
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505374-5 .
* Kruman, Marc W. (1992). "The Second American Party System and the
Transformation of Revolutionary Republicanism". Journal of the Early
Republic. Society for Historians of the Early American Republic. 12
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* Lane, Carl. "The Elimination of the National Debt in 1835 and the
Meaning Of Jacksonian Democracy." Essays in Economic & Business
History 25 (2007). online
* McCormick, Richard L. (1986). The Party Period and Public Policy:
American Politics from the Age of Jackson to the Progressive Era. New
York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503860-6 .
* McCormick, Richard P. (1966). The Second American Party System:
Party Formation in the Jacksonian Era. Chapel Hill: University of
North Carolina Press. Influential state-by-state study.
* McKnight, Brian D., and James S. Humphreys, eds. The Age of Andrew
Jackson: Interpreting American History (Kent State University Press;
2012) 156 pages; historiography
* Mayo, Edward L. (1979). "Republicanism, Antipartyism, and
Jacksonian Party Politics: A View from the Nation's Capitol". American
Quarterly. The Johns Hopkins University Press. 31 (1): 3–20. JSTOR
2712484 . doi :10.2307/2712484 .
* Marshall, Lynn (1967). "The Strange Stillbirth of the Whig Party".
American Historical Review. American Historical Association. 72 (2):
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* Myers, Marvin (1957). The Jacksonian Persuasion: Politics and
Belief. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
* Pessen, Edward (1978). Jacksonian America: Society, Personality,
* Pessen, Edward (1977). The Many-Faceted Jacksonian Era: New
Interpretations. Important scholarly articles.
* Remini, Robert V. (1998). The Life of Andrew Jackson. Abridgment
of Remini's 3-volume biography.
* Remini, Robert V. (1959).
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren and the Making of the
* Rowland, Thomas J. Franklin B. Pierce: The Twilight of Jacksonian
Democracy (Nova Science Publisher's, 2012).
* Sellers, Charles (1991). The Market Revolution: Jacksonian
America, 1815-1846. Influential reinterpretation
* Shade, William G. "Politics and Parties in Jacksonian America,"
Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography Vol. 110, No. 4
(October 1986), pp. 483–507 online
* Shade, William G. (1983). "The Second Party System". In Kleppner,
Paul; et al. Evolution of American Electoral Systems. Uses
quantitative electoral data.
* Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr (1945). The Age of Jackson. Boston:
Little, Brown & Company. Winner of the
Pulitzer Prize for History .
* Sellers, Charles (1958). "
Andrew Jackson Versus the Historians".
Mississippi Valley Historical Review. Organization of American
Historians. 44 (4): 615–634.
JSTOR 1886599 . doi :10.2307/1886599 .
* Sharp, James Roger (1970). The Jacksonians Versus the Banks:
Politics in the States after the Panic of 1837. Uses quantitative
* Silbey, Joel H. (1991). The American Political Nation, 1838-1893.
* Silbey, Joel H. (1973). Political Ideology and Voting Behavior in
the Age of Jackson.
* Simeone, James. "Reassessing Jacksonian Political Culture: William
Leggett's Egalitarianism." American Political Thought 4#3 (2015):
359-390. in JSTOR
* Syrett, Harold C. (1953). Andrew Jackson: His Contribution to the
* Taylor, George Rogers (1949). Jackson Versus Biddle: The Struggle
over the Second Bank of the United States. Excerpts from primary and
* Van Deusen, Glyndon G. (1963). The Jacksonian Era: 1828-1848.
Standard scholarly survey.
* Wallace, Michael (1968). "Changing Concepts of Party in the United
States: New York, 1815-1828". American Historical Review. American
Historical Association. 74 (2): 453–491.
JSTOR 1853673 . doi
* Ward, John William (1962). Andrew Jackson, Symbol for an Age.
* Wellman, Judith. Grassroots Reform in the Burned-over District of
Upstate New York: Religion, Abolitionism, and
* Wilentz, Sean (1982). "On Class and Politics in Jacksonian
America". Reviews in American History. The Johns Hopkins University
Press. 10 (4): 45–63.
JSTOR 2701818 . doi :10.2307/2701818 .
* Wilentz, Sean (2005). The Rise of American Democracy: Jefferson to
Lincoln. Highly detailed scholarly synthesis.
* Wilson, Major L. (1974). Space, Time, and Freedom: The Quest for
Nationality and the Irrepressible Conflict, 1815-1861. Intellectual
history of Whigs and Democrats.
* Blau, Joseph L., ed. Social Theories of Jacksonian Democracy:
Representative Writings of the Period 1825–1850 (1954) online
* Eaton, Clement ed. The Leaven of Democracy: The Growth of the
Democratic Spirit in the Time of Jackson (1963) online edition
* American Political History Online
* Second Party System