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The Italic languages
Italic languages
are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples. They include Latin
Latin
and its descendants (the Romance languages) as well as a number of extinct languages of the Italian Peninsula, including Umbrian, Oscan, Faliscan and South Picene. With over 800 million native speakers, the Italic languages
Italic languages
are the second most widely spoken branch of the Indo-European family, after the Indo-Iranian languages. In the past, various definitions of "Italic" have prevailed. This article uses the classification presented by the Linguist List:[2] Italic includes the Latin
Latin
subgroup ( Latin
Latin
and the Romance languages) as well as the ancient Italic languages
Italic languages
(Faliscan, Osco-Umbrian and two unclassified Italic languages, Aequian
Aequian
and Vestinian). Venetic (the language of the ancient Veneti), as revealed by its inscriptions, shared some similarities with the Italic languages
Italic languages
and is sometimes classified as Italic. However, since it also shares similarities with other Western Indo-European branches (particularly Celtic languages), some linguists prefer to consider it as an independent Indo-European language. In the extreme view, Italic did not exist, but the different groups descended directly from Indo-European and converged because of geographic contiguity. That view stems in part from the difficulty in identifying a common Italic homeland in prehistory.[3] In the intermediate view, the Italic languages
Italic languages
are one of the ten or eleven major subgroups of the Indo-European language family
Indo-European language family
and might therefore have had an ancestor, Common Italic or Proto-Italic from which its daughter languages descended. Moreover, there are similarities between major groups, but how the similarities are to be interpreted is one of the major debated issues in the historical linguistics of Indo-European. The linguist Calvert Watkins went so far as to suggest, among the ten major groups, a four-way division of East, West, North and South Indo-European. He considered them to be "dialectical divisions within Proto-Indo-European which go back to a period long before the speakers arrived in their historical areas of attestation".[4] It is not to be considered a nodular grouping; in other words, there was not necessarily any common west Indo-European serving as a node from which the subgroups branched but a hypothesised similarity between the dialects of Proto-Indo-European that developed into the recognised families.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Branches 3 Characteristics 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Origins[edit]

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The main debate concerning the origin of the Italic languages
Italic languages
is the same as one that preoccupied Greek studies for the last half of the 20th century. The Indo-Europeanists for Greek had hypothesized (see Dorian invasion, Proto-Greek) that Greek originated outside Greece and was brought in by invaders. Analysis of the lexical items of Mycenaean Greek, an early form of Greek, raised the issue of whether Greek was formed within Greece from Indo-European elements brought in by migrants or by invaders, mixed with elements of indigenous languages. The issue was settled in favour of Greek being a language that developed from all of these elements but then also took its recognisable form all within Greece.[citation needed] A Proto-Italic homeland outside Italy
Italy
is just as elusive as the home of the hypothetical Greek-speaking invaders. No early form of Italic is available to match Mycenaean Greek. The Italic languages
Italic languages
are first attested in writing from Umbrian and Faliscan inscriptions from the 7th century BC. The alphabets used are based on the Old Italic alphabet, which is itself based on the Greek alphabet. The Italic alphabets themselves show minor influence from the Etruscan alphabet and somewhat more from the Ancient Greek alphabet. There is no guarantee that the intermediate phases between Italic and Indo-European will be found. The question of whether Italic originated outside Italy
Italy
or developed by assimilation of Indo-European and other elements within Italy, approximately on or within its current range there, remains. Silvestri says:[5]

...Common Italic... is certainly not to be seen as a prehistoric language that can largely be reconstructed, but rather as a set of prehistoric and proto-historic processes of convergence.

Bakkum defines Proto-Italic as a "chronological stage" without an independent development of its own, but extending over late Proto-Indo-European and the initial stages of Proto- Latin
Latin
and Proto-Sabellic. Meiser's dates of 4000 BC to 1800 BC, well before Mycenaean Greek, are described by him as "as good a guess as anyone's".[6] Gray and Atkinson come up by using their Bayesian phylogenetic model that the Italic branch separated from the Germanic branch 5500 years ago, roughly the start of the Bronze Age.[7] Branches[edit]

Languages of Central Italy
Italy
at the beginning of Roman expansion

The Italic family has two known branches:

Latino-Faliscan

Faliscan, which was spoken in the area around Falerii
Falerii
Veteres (modern Civita Castellana) north of the city of Rome Latin, which was spoken in west-central Italy. The Roman conquests eventually spread it throughout the peninsula and beyond, in the Roman Empire.

Romance languages, the descendants of Latin
Latin
(evolved dialects of Latin)

Osco-Umbrian or Sabellian:

Oscan, which was spoken in the south-central region of the Italian Peninsula Umbrian (not to be confused with the modern Umbrian dialect of Italian), which was spoken in the north-central region Volscian Marsian, the language of the Marsi South Picene, in east-central Italy Sabine in Lazio
Lazio
and the central Apennines

The relationship of the Venetic language
Venetic language
to other Indo-European languages is still debated, but the majority of scholars agree that Venetic
Venetic
shared some similarities with the Italic languages, and so is often classified as Italic or as a separate branch transitional to Italic.[8] Some other languages belong to the Italic branch, but too little is known for further classification: Aequian, spoken by the Aequi
Aequi
just east of Rome, and Vestinian, spoken by the Vestini
Vestini
in northeast Italy. It is unknown whether the Indo-European language spoken by the Sicels in Sicily
Sicily
was Italic or not. As the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
extended its political dominion over the whole of the Italian peninsula, Latin
Latin
became dominant over the other Italic languages, which ceased to be spoken perhaps sometime in the 1st century AD. From Vulgar Latin, the Romance languages
Romance languages
emerged. It has also been proposed that the Lusitanian language
Lusitanian language
may have belonged to the Italic family.[9] Characteristics[edit]

Map showing the approximate extent of the centum (blue) and satem (red) areals.

From the point of view of Proto-Indo-European, the Italic languages are fairly conservative. In phonology, the Italic languages
Italic languages
are centum languages by merging the palatals with the velars ( Latin
Latin
centum has a /k/) but keeping the combined group separate from the labio-velars. In morphology, the Italic languages
Italic languages
preserve six cases in the noun and the adjective (nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, vocative) with traces of a seventh (locative), but the dual of both the noun and the verb has completely disappeared. From the position of both morphological innovations and uniquely shared lexical items, Italic shows the greatest similarities with Celtic and Germanic, with some of the shared lexical correspondences also being found in Baltic and Slavic.[10] See also[edit]

Italo-Celtic

References[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Italic". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ See under External links below. ^ Silvestri 1998, pp. 322–323. ^ Watkins 1998, pp. 31–33 ^ Silvestri 1998, p. 325 ^ Bakkum 2009, p. 54. ^ Gray & Atkinson 2003. ^ Gvozdanović, Jadranka (2012). "On the linguistic classification of Venetic. In Journal of Language Relationship." p. 34. ^ Francisco Villar (2000) Indoeuropeos y no indoeuropeos en la Hispania prerromana, Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, Spain ISBN 84-7800-968-X ^ Douglas Q., Adams (1997). Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 316–317. 

Library resources about Italic Languages

Online books Resources in your library Resources in other libraries

Bibliography[edit]

Adams, Douglas Q., and James P. Mallory. 1997. "Italic Languages." In The Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture. Edited by James P. Mallory and Douglas Q. Adams, 314–319. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn. Bakkum, G. C. L. M. 2009. The Latin
Latin
Dialect of the Ager Faliscus: 150 Years of Scholarship. Amsterdam: Vossiuspers UvA. Baldi, Philip. 2002. The Foundations of Latin. Berlin: de Gruyter. Beeler, Madison S. 1966. "The Interrelationships within Italic." In Ancient Indo-European Dialects: Proceedings of the Conference on Indo-European Linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963. Edited by Henrik Birnbaum and Jaan Puhvel, 51–58. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. Coleman, Robert. 1986. "The Central Italic Languages in the Period of Roman Expansion." Transactions of the Philological Society 84.1: 100–131. de Vaan, Michiel. 2008. Etymological Dictionary of Latin
Latin
and the Other Italic Languages. Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series 7. Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill. Dickey, Eleanor, and Anna Chahoud, eds. 2010. Colloquial and Literary Latin. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press. Gray, Russell D. and Quentin D. Atkinson. 2003. "Language-Tree Divergence Times Support the Anatolian Theory of Indo-European Origin." Nature 426.6965: 435-439. Joseph, Brian D., and Rex J. Wallace. 1991. "Is Faliscan a Local Latin Patois?" Diachronica 8:159–186. Pulgram, Ernst. 1968. The Tongues of Italy: Prehistory and History. New York: Greenwood. Rix, Helmut. 2002. Handbuch der italischen Dialekte. Vol. 5, Sabellische Texte: Die Texte des Oskischen, Umbrischen und Südpikenischen. Indogermanische Bibliothek. Heidelberg, Germany: Winter. Silvestri, Domenico. 1998. "The Italic Languages." In The Indo-European Languages. Edited by Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat, 322–344. London: Routledge. Tikkanen, Karin. 2009. A Comparative Grammar of Latin
Latin
and the Sabellian Languages: The System of Case Syntax. PhD diss., Uppsala Univ. Wallace, Rex E. 2007. The Sabellic Languages of Ancient Italy. Languages of the World: Materials 371. Munich: LINCOM. Watkins, Calvert. 1998. "Proto-Indo-European: Comparison and Reconstruction" In The Indo-European Languages. Edited by Anna Giacalone Ramat and Paolo Ramat, 25-73. London: Routledge.

External links[edit]

For a list of words relating to Italic languages, see the Italic languages category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

TM Texts Italic A list of all Italic texts in Trismegistos. Michael de Vaan (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin
Latin
and the other Italic Languages p.826, Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionaries Series, Brill Academic Publishers, (part available freely online) "Tree for Italic". Linguist List, Eastern Michigan University. 2010. Retrieved 4 April 2010.  "A Glossary of Indo-European Linguistic Terms". Institut für deutsche Sprache und Linguistik. 2009. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 16 September 2009. 

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