Israeli-American
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Israeli Americans ( he, אָמֵרִיקָאִים יִשׂרָאֵליִם lit. ''Ameriqaim Yisra'elim'') are
Americans Americans are the and of the .; ; ''Ricketts v. Attorney General''897 F.3d 491, 494 n.3 (3d Cir. 2018) (" and are not ous. While all citizens are nationals, not all nationals are citizens."); ''United States v. Morin''80 F.3d 124, 126 (4th ...

Americans
who have Israeli citizenship either by descent or
Aliyah Aliyah (, ; he, עֲלִיָּה ''aliyah'', "ascent") is the immigration of Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites ...
, or are Americans of Israeli national origin. Reflecting Israel's population, while the vast majority are
Jewish Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), suc ...
, they also include the faiths of the
Arab-Israeli Arab citizens of Israel, or Arab Israelis, are Israeli citizens who are Arab. Many Arab citizens of Israel self-identify as Palestinian people, Palestinian and commonly self-designate themselves as Palestinian citizens of Israel or Israeli Pa ...

Arab-Israeli
minorities:
Christians Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic Monotheism, monotheistic religion based on the Life of Jesus in the New Testament, life and Teachings of Jesus, teachings of Jes ...
,
Druze Druze (; ar, درزي ' or ', plural ') are members of an Arabic-speaking esoteric ethnoreligious group originating in Western Asia. They practice Druzism, an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic, monotheistic, Syncretic religion, syncretic, and e ...

Druze
, and
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pron ...
; as well as other Jewish and non-Jewish ethnic groups of Israel.


History

Israelis began migrating to the United States shortly after the establishment of the State of Israel in May 1948. Thus, during the 1950s 21,376 Israeli immigrants came to the US and the 1960s saw 30,911 Israeli immigrants, often seen as the first wave of Israeli immigration to the United States whe
52,278 Israelis
emigrated to the US according to US Immigration data. A second wave of modest immigration continued with a total of 36,306 Israelis during 1970 to 1979, 43,669 in 1980 to 1989, 41,340 in 1990 to 1999 and 54,801 in 2000 to 2009. Since 2010, Israeli migration to the US has continued at around four thousand per year. The number of immigrants in the United States born in Israel is estimated by demographers to be close to 140,000, while the number of Israeli immigrants in the US is an issue that has been debated by laymen to be much larger, a phenomenon of overestimation of co-ethnic population common to many ethnic communities. Israeli immigration to the United States developed during the 1980s and 1990s due to a number of reasons, including continuing conflict with the
Palestinians The Palestinian people ( ar, الشعب الفلسطيني, ''ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī''), also referred to as Palestinians ( ar, الفلسطينيون, links=no, ''al-Filasṭīniyyūn''; he, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian A ...
and high taxes and lack of housing available in their homeland. Also, the acquisition of aspects of American culture (especially fashion and entertainment) in Israel caused many Israelis to want to have the economic and educational opportunities of the United States.


Demographics

Since the declaration of the state of Israel, and until today, many Israelis emigrated to the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
. The
2000 United States Census The United States census of 2000, conducted by the Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about ...
estimated that as many as 106,839 Israelis live in the United States nowadays, while other unsourced estimates say the number is much higher, around 500,000. A considerable numbers of Israelis, estimated broadly from 200,000 to three times that figure, have moved abroad in the recent decades (
Yerida Yerida ( he, ירידה ''yerida'', "descent") is emigration by Israeli Jews from the Israel, State of Israel (or in religious texts, Land of Israel). Yerida is the opposite of aliyah (, lit. "ascent"), which is immigration to Israel. Zionists are ...
). According to statistics from the
United States Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North Amer ...
, between 1949 and 2015, about 250,000 Israelis acquired permanent residency in the United States. The statistics did not track those who eventually moved back to Israel. In 2012, a Global Religion and Migration Database constructed by the Pew Research Center showed that there were a total of 330,000 native-born Israelis, including 230,000 Jews, living outside of Israel, in the United States and elsewhere around the world, approximately 4% of Israel's native-born Jewish population. Based on current estimates of Israel-born Jewish migrants to the U.S. of 140,000, two thirds of Jewish Israeli native emigrants have settled in the U.S. and the remaining third in Canada, Europe, South America, South Africa and the remainder of the world. In addition to native-born Israelis and Israelis who originally immigrated to Israel from other countries and then moved on to the United States, there have been American Jews who immigrated to Israel and became Israeli citizens, lived there for a certain period of time, and later returned to the United States. Israeli demographer Yinon Cohen estimated the number of American-born Israelis who had returned to the United States to be between 30,000 and 60,000 by 1990, and between 53,000 and 75,000 in 2000. The
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
calculated an 'expatriate rate' of 2.9 persons per thousand, putting Israel in the mid-range of expatriate rates among the 175
OECD The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; french: Organisation de Coopération et de Développement Économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 38 member countries, founded in 1961 to st ...

OECD
countries examined in 2005. The
New York City metropolitan area The New York metropolitan area, also commonly referred to as the Tri-State area, is the largest metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surro ...
has now become by far the leading metropolitan gateway for Israeli immigrants legally admitted into the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
, with the
Los Angeles metropolitan area Greater Los Angeles, with a 2019 population of 18,710,563, is the second-largest urban region area in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a ...
now in a distant second place. Within the United States, as of April 2013, Israeli airline
El Al El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. (, he, אל על נתיבי אויר לישראל בע״מ), trading as El Al (Hebrew: , "Upwards", "To the Skies" or "Skywards", stylized as ELAL; ar, إل-عال), is the flag carrier of Israel. Since its inaugural ...

El Al
operated from
John F. Kennedy International Airport John F. Kennedy International Airport (colloquially referred to as JFK Airport) is an international airport in Queens, New York City, and one of the primary airports serving New York City. The airport is the busiest international air passeng ...
and
Newark Liberty International Airport Newark Liberty International Airport , originally Newark Metropolitan Airport and later Newark International Airport, is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an aerodrome with extended facilit ...
, both in the New York City metropolitan area, as well as from
Los Angeles International Airport Los Angeles International Airport , commonly referred to as LAX (with each of its letters pronounced individually), is the primary international airport serving Los Angeles Los Angeles (; es, Los Ángeles; "The Angels"), officially ...

Los Angeles International Airport
. The
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
metropolitan area is home to the largest
Jewish community Judaism ( he, יהדות, ''Yahadut''; originally from Hebrew , ''Yehudah'', " Judah", via Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is ...
outside
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, and the city proper contains the largest Jewish community in the world. In 2009, Steven M. Cohen and Judith Veinstein found that in New York, Jewish Israeli emigrants are highly affiliated with the Jewish community even though community affiliation is low in Israel. Israelis were found to be more connected to Judaism than their American counterparts in terms of synagogue membership and attendance,
kashrut ''Kashrut'' (also ''kashruth'' or ''kashrus'', ) is a set of dietary laws Some people do not eat various specific foods and beverages in conformity with various religious, cultural, legal or other societal prohibitions. Many of these prohibition ...
observance, participation in Jewish charity events and membership in Jewish community centers, among other indicators used by the study. In 1982, Pini Herman and David LaFontaine, in a study of Israeli emigrants in Los Angeles, found high levels of Jewish affiliation, Jewish organizational participation and concentration in Jewish neighborhoods by Israeli emigrants. Israeli emigrants who behaved in a comparatively secular manner in Israel tended to behave in a more devoutly Jewish manner in Los Angeles and Israeli emigrants who reported greater Jewish behaviors in Israel tended to engage in Jewish behaviors to a lesser degree in Los Angeles, thus both becoming more 'Americanized' in their Jewish behaviors.. Israelis tend to be disproportionately Jewishly active in their diaspora communities, creating and participating formal and informal organizations, participating in diaspora Jewish religious institutions and sending their children to Jewish education providers at a greater rate than local diaspora Jews.


By generations

Based on the 2013 Pew American Jewry Survey estimate base on Jews by religion/no religion/Jewish background who were born in Israel is 140,000 nationally. American Jews born in Israel had 40 thousand children under age 18 in their US households. Another estimated 170 thousand Jewish adults not born in Israel have at least one parent born in Israel, and these adults have an estimated 200 thousand children under the age of 18 who have at least one Israel-born grandparent. An additional 60 thousand American Jews reported that they had once "lived in Israel."


By state

The U.S. states by Israeli Americans as per the 2000 census:


Culture and organizations

Various Israeli-American communities have their own newspapers which are printed in Hebrew. Communities arrange cultural, entertainment and art events (including celebrations of the
Israeli independence day Independence Day ( he, יום העצמאות ''Yom Ha'atzmaut'', lit. "Day of Independence") is the national day of Israel, commemorating the Israeli Declaration of Independence in 1948. The day is marked by official and unofficial ceremonies an ...
which usually takes place in Israeli-American demographic centers), and some have the Israeli Network channel, which consists of a selection of live broadcasts as well as reruns of Television in Israel, Israeli television news broadcasts, entertainment programs and Israeli sport events. Hundreds of thousands of spectators view the annual Celebrate Israel Parade on Fifth Avenue (Manhattan), Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, which touts itself as the world's largest celebration of Israel. At the 2017 Celebrate Israel parade in Manhattan, Governor of New York, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo declared the Sunday Shimon Peres Day in New York and announced a new venture to promote heritage tourism, cultural heritage tourism between Israel and New York, as Cuomo marched alongside the son of the late Israeli leader. A variety of Hebrew language websites, newspapers and magazines are published in New York, Los Angeles, South Florida, and other U.S. regions. The Israeli Channel along with two other Hebrew-language channels are available via satellite broadcast nationally in the United States. Hebrew language Israeli programming on local television was broadcast in New York and Los Angeles during the 1990s, prior to Hebrew language satellite broadcast. Live performances by Israeli artists are a regular occurrence in centers of Israeli emigrants in the U.S. and Canada with audience attendance often in the hundreds. An Israeli Independence Day Festival has taken place yearly in Los Angeles since 1990 with thousands of Israeli emigrants and American Jews. In Los Angeles, a Council of Israeli Community was founded in 2001. In 2007, an Israel Leadership Council (ILC) was also organized in Los Angeles, later it was renamed Israeli-American Council, and it has been active in supporting activities for Israel, most recently in 2008, it sponsored with the local Jewish Federation and Israeli consulate a concert in support for the embattled population suffering rocket attacks of Sderot, Israel where the three frontrunners for the U.S. president, Hillary Clinton, Barack Obama, John McCain greeted the attendees by video and expressed their support for the residents of Sderot. An Israeli Business Network of Beverly Hills has existed since 1996. The Israeli-American Study Initiative (IASI), a start-up project based at the UCLA International Institute, is set out to document the lives and times of Israeli Americans—initially focusing on those in Los Angeles and eventually throughout the United States.


Economic contributions

According to CNN, Israeli companies are establishing entrepreneurial ventures in
New York City New York, often called New York City to distinguish it from , or NYC for short, is the in the United States. With a 2020 population of 8,804,190 distributed over , New York City is also the major city in the United States. Located at the s ...

New York City
at the rate of ten new startups per month.


Relationship with American Jews

Israeli Americans are generally seen as having less interaction with the non-Israeli Jewish American community and its institutions, often preferring to maintain ties of association with other Israeli Americans. Jewish Americans, especially religious Jewish Americans, tend to maintain correspondingly sparse contact with the Israeli American community besides participation in religious ceremonies. At one point, religious American Jews viewed "''yordim''" as being the antithesis of the Jewish people's "eternal hope" of aliyah, return and permanent settlement in Israel, but now consider them an important subgroup within the broader American Jewish community. An estimated 75% of Israeli Americans marry within the Jewish community, as opposed to about 50% of non-Israeli Jewish Americans. At the same time, younger Israelis in America are assimilating in increasing numbers.


Notable people


In popular culture

* Comedian-writer Robert Smigel came up with a ''Saturday Night Live'' sketch in 1990 called the "Sabra Shopping Network". Two years later, Smigel followed it up with "Sabra Price Is Right", starring Tom Hanks as a pushy Israeli game show host, Sandler and Rob Schneider as its presenters and Smigel as a cigarette-smoking announcer, all pushing shoddy electronics on hapless clientele. * The concept for the 2008 ''You Don't Mess with the Zohan'' movie, which was based on the skits "Sabra Shopping Network" and "Sabra Price Is Right", focused on Zohan Dvir, an Israel Defense Forces, IDF commando soldier, who stages his own death to fulfill his deepest dream—moving to New York to become a hairdresser. * At the end of the 2005 film ''Munich (2005 film), Munich'', the main character Avner (played by Eric Bana), who is an Israeli Mossad agent, decides to move from Israel to Brooklyn, New York, to reunite with his wife and their child.


See also

* Israelis * Israeli Australians * Israeli Canadians * Israeli British *
Yerida Yerida ( he, ירידה ''yerida'', "descent") is emigration by Israeli Jews from the Israel, State of Israel (or in religious texts, Land of Israel). Yerida is the opposite of aliyah (, lit. "ascent"), which is immigration to Israel. Zionists are ...
* History of Israelis in Los Angeles


References


Further reading

* Cohen, Nir. "State, Migrants, and the Negotiation of Second-Generation Citizenship in the Israeli Diaspora." ''Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies'' 16.2 (2007): 133-158
online
* Cohen, Yinon. “Socioeconomic Dualism: The Case of Israeli-Born Immigrants in the United States.” ''International Migration Review'' 23 (1989): 267–88. * Gold, Steven J. “Israeli Immigrants in the United States: The Question of Community.” ''Qualitative Sociology'' 17 (1994): 325–45. * Gold, Steven J. "Gender and social capital among Israeli immigrants in Los Angeles." ''Diaspora: A Journal of Transnational Studies'' 4.3 (1995): 267-301
excerpt
* Rosenthal, Mirra, and Charles Auerbach. “Cultural and Social Assimilation of Israeli Immigrants in the United States.” ''International Migration Review'' 26, no. 3 (Fall 1992): 982–91. * Rudolph, Laura C. "Israeli Americans." ''Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America,'' edited by Thomas Riggs, (3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014), pp. 493–503
online
{{Demographics of the United States Israeli American, Middle Eastern American Israeli diaspora in North America, United States Immigration to the United States Multiracial ethnic groups in the United States