The ISLE OF DOGS is an area in the East End of London that is bounded on three sides (east, south and west) by one of the largest meanders in the River Thames . The northern boundary has never been clearly or consistently defined but many accept it to be the (former) line of the West India South Dock . The name Isle of Dogs had no official status until 1987, with the creation of the Isle of Dogs Neighbourhood by Tower Hamlets London Borough Council .
* 1 Geology * 2 Etymology * 3 Districts
* 4 History
* 4.1 Origins * 4.2 Docks * 4.3 Industry * 4.4 London Docklands Development Corporation * 4.5 LDDC legacy * 4.6 Politics
* 5 Education
* 6 Transport
* 7 In the media * 8 See also * 9 References and notes * 10 Bibliography * 11 External links
The soil is alluvial and silty in nature, underlaid by clay or mud, with a peat layer in places.
The first known written mention of the Isle of Dogs is in the ‘Letters Nashe avoided arrest by fleeing the area. Samuel Pepys referred to the "unlucky Isle of Dogs." * the presence of Dutch engineers reclaiming the land from a disastrous flood. * the presence of gibbets on the foreshore facing Greenwich. * a yeoman farmer called _Brache_, this being an old word for a type of hunting dog. * the original docks located here were used for firewood importation and the phrase is linked to "fire dogs", the cross-beams beneath a hearth fire, hence Isle of Dogs. * the dogs of a later king, Henry VIII , who also kept deer in Greenwich Park . Again it is thought that his hunting dogs might have been kept in derelict farm buildings on the Island. * Isle of Dykes , which then got corrupted over the years.
The whole area was once simply known as _ Stepney Marsh_; Anton van den Wyngaerde 's "Panorama of London" dated 1543 depicts and refers to the Isle of Dogs. Records show that ships preparing to carry the English royal household to Calais in 1520 docked at the southern bank of the Island. The name _Isle of Dogges_ occurs in the _Thamesis Descriptio_ of 1588, applied to a small island in the south-western part of the peninsula. The name is next applied to the _Isle of Dogs Fam_ (originally known as _Pomfret Manor_) shown on a map of 1683. At the same time, the area was variously known as _Isle of Dogs_ or the _Blackwell levels_. By 1855, it was incorporated within the parish of Poplar under the aegis of the Poplar Board of Works. This was incorporated into the Metropolitan Borough of Poplar on its formation in 1900. Aerial view the Isle of Dogs in 2015. The O2 Arena can be seen on the Greenwich Peninsula to the right (east) of the Isle of Dogs.
After the building of the Docks (especially the West India Docks and the adjacent City Canal ), and with an increasing population, locals increasingly referred to the area as _The Island_. This area includes Millwall , Cubitt Town , and Blackwall . The south of the isle opposite Greenwich was once known as _North Greenwich_, now applied to the area around the Millennium Dome on the Greenwich Peninsula. Between 1986 and 1992 it enjoyed a brief formal existence, as the name _Isle of Dogs_ was applied to one of seven neighbourhoods to which power was devolved from the council. The neighbourhood was later abolished.
It was the site of the highest concentration of council housing in England but is now best known as the location of the Canary Wharf office complex. One Canada Square , also known as the Canary Wharf Tower, is the second tallest habitable building in Britain at 244 metres (801 ft). The peninsula is an area of social extremes, comprising some of the most prosperous and most deprived areas of the country; in 2004, nearby Blackwall was the 81st most deprived ward in England out of over 8,000, while the presence of Canary Wharf gives the area one of the highest average incomes in the UK. Discussing tower blocks issues other than safety, following the Grenfell Tower fire , The Times noted Lincoln Plaza was the 2016 winner of the Carbuncle Cup and describes the buildings as 'mediocre at best, ugly at worst' though it said Grenfell would force a reappraisal.
A map showing the wards of Poplar Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.
The Isle of Dogs is situated some distance downriver from the City of London . The area was originally sparsely populated marshland before its drainage and planting in the 13th century. A catastrophic flood occurred in 1488, resulting in the area returning to its previous marshy condition. This was not reversed until Dutch engineers re-drained it in the 17th century.
One road led across the Marshes to an ancient ferry, at Ferry Road. There was rich grazing on the marsh, and cattle were slaughtered in fields known as the _Killing Fields_, south of Poplar High Street.
The western side of the island was known as _Marsh Wall_, and the district became known as _Millwall_ with the building of the docks, and from the number of windmills constructed along the top of the flood defence.
1899 The Isle of Dogs, at the height of its commercial success
The urbanisation of the Isle of Dogs took place in the 19th century following the construction of the West India Docks , which opened in 1802. This heralded the area's most successful period, when it became an important centre for trade. The East India Docks were subsequently opened in 1806, followed by Millwall Dock in 1868. By the 1880s, the casual employment system caused Dock workers to unionise under Ben Tillett and John Burns . This led to a demand for _6d per hour_ (2.5p), and an end to casual labour in the docks. After a bitter struggle, the London Dock Strike of 1889 was settled with victory for the strikers, and established a national movement for the unionisation of casual workers.
The three dock systems were unified in 1909 when the Port of London Authority took control of the docks. With the docks stretching across from East to West with locks at each end, the Isle of Dogs could now once again almost be described as a genuine island.
Dock workers settled on the "island" as the docks grew in importance, and by 1901, 21,000 people lived there, largely dependent on the river trade on the Isle as well as in Greenwich and Deptford across the river to the south and west. The Isle of Dogs was connected to the rest of London by the London and Blackwall Railway , opened in 1840 and progressively extended thereafter. In 1902, the ferry to Greenwich was replaced by the construction of the Greenwich foot tunnel , and Island Gardens park was laid out in 1895 providing views across the river. The London and Blackwall Railway closed in 1926. Until the building of the Docklands Light Railway in 1987, the only public transport accessing and exiting the Island consisted of buses using its perimeter roads. These were frequently and substantially delayed by the movement of up to four bridges which allowed ships access to the West India Docks and Millwall Docks. The insular nature of the Island caused its separateness from the rest of London, and its unique nature.
During World War II , the docks were a key target for the German Luftwaffe and were heavily bombed. A significant number of local civilians were killed in the bombing and extensive destruction was caused on the ground, with many warehouses being totally destroyed and much of the dock system being put out of action for an extended period. Unexploded bombs from this period continue to be discovered today. Anti-aircraft batteries were based on Mudchute Farm; their concrete bases remain today.
After the war, the docks underwent a brief resurgence and were even upgraded in 1967. However, with the advent of containerisation , which the docks could not handle, they became obsolete soon afterwards. The docks closed progressively during the 1970s, with the last – the West India and Millwall docks – closing down in 1980. This left the area in a severely dilapidated state, with large areas being derelict and abandoned.
The Docks brought with them many associated industries, such as flour and sugar processing, and also ship building. On 31 January 1858 the largest ship of that time, the SS _Great Eastern_ designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel , was launched from the yard of Messrs Scott, Russell 93,000 now work in Canary Wharf alone.
It has been argued by some that the redevelopment has not benefited the long-term residents as much as it might, with accusations of a "land grab" of riverside sites for private apartment blocks during the period of relaxation of planning conditions under the LDDC. Some tensions remain, as in most areas of central London, between the close-knit island community and professionals who have more recently moved to the area. Today, this revolves around the former's need for family homes, against further development of small high-priced apartments.
The Island achieved notoriety in 1993 when Derek Beackon of the British National Party became a councillor for Millwall ward, in a by election . This was the culmination of years of resentment by local residents of perceived neglect by both Liberal Democrat and Labour Party politicians. Labour regained the ward in the full council election of May 1994, and held all three seats until a further by election in September 2004.
For details of education in the Isle of Dogs, see List of schools in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets .
There are four state primary schools located on the Isle of Dogs – Cubbit town, Arnhem Wharf, Harbinger School and St Edmunds. There is also an independent primary school, River House Montessori, located near South Quay.
A secondary school , called George Green\'s School , is located on the southern tip of the island, at Manchester Road, near Island Gardens. It is a Specialist Humanities School.
Canary Wharf College, is a free school on the Island which covers primary, secondary and sixth form education.
LONDON UNDERGROUND AND DLR STATIONS
The nearest London Underground station is Canary Wharf on the Jubilee line. Key areas including Regent\'s Park , The West End , Westminster , South Bank , Millennium Dome and the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park , are all within 20 minutes of Canary Wharf by Tube.
The DLR runs north-south through the Isle of Dogs. Docklands Light Railway stations are West India Quay , Canary Wharf , Heron Quays , South Quay , Crossharbour , Mudchute and Island Gardens . Key areas including the City of London , Tower Hill and Greenwich are all within 20 minutes of the Isle of Dogs by DLR.
Canary Wharf Crossrail station is currently under construction and is due to open in 2018. Situated at the north of the Island, it will provide high-frequency, fast connections to the heart of the West End , Paddington Station , Heathrow Airport and Abbey Wood .
LONDON BUS ROUTES
RIVER BUS SERVICES
The Thames Clipper provides regular commuter services to Woolwich Arsenal Pier , Greenwich Pier in the east, and the City of London including St. Katherine's Dock, Tower Bridge , HMS _Belfast_ , Greater London Authority building, Tate Modern , Blackfriars , as well as the West End of London in the west on the commuter service. There is also a connecting shuttle service to Rotherhithe and the Tate to Tate service from Tate Modern to Tate Britain via London Eye .
PEDESTRIAN AND CYCLISTS
National Cycle Network route 1 runs through the foot tunnel (although cycles must not be ridden in the tunnel itself).
AIRPORT AND HELIPAD
There is also a helipad situated on the west of the Island and next to Ferguson's Wharf, which is privately run by Vanguard.
IN THE MEDIA
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In modern times the Isle of Dogs has provided locations for many blockbuster films, including the opening scenes of the James Bond film _ The World Is Not Enough _, and more recently _ Batman Begins _, _The Constant Gardener _, _Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix _, and _ Love Actually _.
The Isle of Dogs featured heavily in the 1980 British film _The Long Good Friday _.
In _ 28 Weeks Later _, the Isle of Dogs is the primary location of the film, being the only secure and quarantined area in all of Britain suitable for recivilization after a massive epidemic of the "Rage Virus" kills the entire population of Britain.
REFERENCES AND NOTES
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ The Isle of Dogs: Introduction, Survey of London: volumes 43 and 44: Poplar, Blackwall and Isle of Dogs (1994), pp. 375-87 accessed: 9 February 2007 * ^ "E. Cobham Brewer 1810–1897. Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. (1898)". Bartleby.com. Retrieved 27 June 2013. * ^ Tower Hamlets website Archived 29 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "An Account of the Hamlet of Poplar, in Middlesex". _The Universal magazine_. East London History Society. June 1795. Retrieved 19 September 2011. It is opposite Greenwich in Kent; and when our sovereigns had a palace near the site of the present magnificent hospital, they used it as a hunting-seat, and, it is said, kept the kennels of their hounds in this marsh. These hounds frequently making a great noise, the seamen called the place the Isle of Dogs. * ^ _A_ _B_ Archived 31 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Tower Hamlets Borough Council Election Maps 1964-2002 accessed: 9 February 2007 * ^ Welcome to the Canary Wharf Group plc website * ^ Isle of Dogs Community Foundation report August 2004 indicates that Blackwall was in the most deprived 1% of wards Archived 26 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Ward Data Report _Theme 3: Creating color:#555">(Subscription required (help)). * ^ John Burns is commemorated in the name given to a current Woolwich Ferry ) * ^ " World War II bomb found at Canary Wharf". BBC News. 28 July 2007. * ^ " Mudchute in WWII". Mudchute Park & Farm. Retrieved 19 February 2013. * ^ Ted Johns _The Daily Telegraph_ (London). 14 May 2004. * ^ Welcome to the Canary Wharf Group plc website Archived 3 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ James Steele, "The Market and Meaning in Contemporary British Architecture" accessed 13 February 2007 * ^ "Now we\'re all upwardly mobile" in _Regenerate Live_, February 2006. Accessed 13 February 2007. * ^ BBC "on this day" report accessed: 17 April 2007 * ^ "Welcome to River House Montessori School". _River House Primary School_. Retrieved 9 September 2015. * ^ " Canary Wharf College". _canarywharfcollege.co.uk_. Retrieved 9 September 2015. * ^ "Travelling to The O2". ThamesClippers. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
* ^ "Welcome to Vanguard Helipad". _vanguardhelipad.co.uk_. Retrieved 9 September 2015. * ^ "Five Best Film Scenes Set On The Thames", _Thames Leisure_, 11 May 2016, retrieved 20 June 2016
* Eve Hostettler, _The Isle of Dogs: 1066–1918: A Brief History, Volume I_ (London: Island History Trust, 2000) ISBN 0-9508815-4-6 * Eve Hostettler, _The Isle of Dogs: The Twentieth Century: A Brief History, Volume II_ (London: Island History Trust, 2001) ISBN 0-9508815-5-4