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ISLAMIZATION

Islamizations LATE ANTIQUITY - MIDDLE AGES - MODERN

* Islamization * Spread of Islam
Islam
* Islamic missionary activity * Islamization of Palestine * Islamization of Jerusalem * Islamization of the Temple Mount * Islamization of Syria * Islamization of Egypt * Islamization of Iran * Islamicisation and Turkicisation of Xinjiang * Islamization of Bosnia and Herzegovina * Islamization of the Sudan region * Spread of Islam
Islam
in Southeast Asia * Spread of Islam
Islam
in Indonesia * Islamization of Albania * 1981 Meenakshipuram conversion * Conversion to Islam
Islam
in U.S. prisons * List of converts to Islam
Islam

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ISLAMIZATION (also spelled ISLAMISATION, see spelling differences ; Arabic : أسلمة‎‎ aslamah), ISLAMICIZATION or ISLAMIFICATION (pejorative MUHAMMADIZATION) is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan , Pakistan
Pakistan
, Iran , Malaysia , or Algeria . In contemporary usage, it may refer to the perceived imposition of an Islamist social and political system on a society with an indigenously different social and political background.

The English synonyms , muslimization and arabization , in use since before 1940 (e.g., Waverly Illustrated Dictionary) convey a similar meaning. MUSLIMIZATION has recently been used as a term coined to describe the overtly Muslim practices of new converts to the religion who wish to reinforce their newly acquired religious identity.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Arabization

* 2 Modern day (1970s to present)

* 2.1 Zia-ul-Haq\'s Islamization
Islamization
of Pakistan
Pakistan
* 2.2 Islamic Revolution of Iran * 2.3 Islamization of the Gaza Strip

* 3 See also

* 3.1 By area * 3.2 By method

* 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links

HISTORY

Main article: Spread of Islam
Islam
Further information: Islamic conquests , Islamization of Iran , and Ilkhanate

ARABIZATION

Main article: Arabization

Arabization describes a growing cultural influence on a non- Arab
Arab
area that gradually changes into one that speaks Arabic and/or incorporates Arab culture . It was most prominently achieved during the 7th-century Arabian Muslim conquests which spread the Arabic language, culture, and—having been carried out by Arabian Muslims as opposed to Arab Christians or Arabic-speaking Jews —the religion of Islam
Islam
to the lands they conquered. The result: some elements of Arabian origin combined in various forms and degrees with elements taken from conquered civilizations and ultimately denominated " Arab
Arab
", as opposed to "Arabian".

MODERN DAY (1970S TO PRESENT)

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Modern day Islamization
Islamization
appears to be a return of the individual to Muslim values, communities, and dress codes, and a strengthened community.

Another development is that of transnational Islam
Islam
, elaborated upon by the French Islam
Islam
researchers Gilles Kepel and Olivier Roy . It includes a feeling of a "growing universalistic Islamic identity" as often shared by Muslim immigrants and their children who live in non-Muslim countries:

The increased integration of world societies as a result of enhanced communications, media, travel, and migration makes meaningful the concept of a single Islam
Islam
practiced everywhere in similar ways, and an Islam
Islam
which transcends national and ethnic customs.

This does not necessarily imply political or social organizations:

Global Muslim identity does not necessarily or even usually imply organized group action. Even though Muslims recognize a global affiliation, the real heart of Muslim religious life remains outside politics—in local associations for worship, discussion, mutual aid, education, charity, and other communal activities.

A third development is the growth and elaboration of transnational military organizations. The 1980s and 90s, with several major conflicts in the Middle East
Middle East
, including the Arab–Israeli conflict , Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the 1980s and 2001, and the three Gulf Wars (1980–89 , 1990–91 , 2003 ) were catalysts of a growing internationalization of local conflicts. Figures such as Osama Bin Laden
Osama Bin Laden
and Abdallah Azzam have been crucial in these developments, as much as domestic and world politics.

ZIA-UL-HAQ\'S ISLAMIZATION OF PAKISTAN

Main article: Zia-ul-Haq\'s Islamization
Islamization

On December 2, 1978, General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq
delivered a nationwide address on the occasion of the first day of the Hijra calendar. He did this in order to usher in an Islamic system to Pakistan. In the speech, he accused politicians of exploiting the name of Islam, saying that "many a ruler did what they pleased in the name of Islam."

After assuming power the task that the government set to was its public commitment to enforce Nizam-e-Mustafa (Islamic System) a 180 degree turn from Pakistan's predominantly Common Law. As a preliminary measure to establish an Islamic society in Pakistan, General Zia announced the establishment of Sharia
Sharia
Benches . Speaking about the jurisdiction of the Sharia
Sharia
Benches, he remarked, "Every citizen will have the right to present any law enforced by the government before the ' Sharia
Sharia
Bench' and obtain its verdict whether the law is wholly or partly Islamic or un-Islamic."

But General Zia did not mention that the Sharia
Sharia
Benches' jurisdiction was curtailed by the following overriding clause: "(Any) law does not include the constitution, Muslim personal law, any law relating to the procedure of any court or tribunal or, until the expiration of three years, any fiscal law, or any law relating to the collection of taxes and fees or insurance practice and procedure." It meant that all important laws which affect each and every individual directly remained outside the purview of the Sharia
Sharia
Benches. However, he did not have a smooth sailing even with the clipped Sharia
Sharia
Benches. The Federal Sharia
Sharia
Bench declared rajm , or stoning , to be un-Islamic; Ziaul Haq reconstituted the court, which then declared rajm as Islamic.

ISLAMIC REVOLUTION OF IRAN

Main article: Islamic Revolution of Iran

ISLAMIZATION OF THE GAZA STRIP

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Main article: Islamization of the Gaza Strip

The influence of Islamic groups in the Gaza Strip has grown since the 1980s, especially as poverty has risen and fighting with Israel began in 2000. The efforts to impose Islamic law and traditions continued when Hamas
Hamas
forcefully seized control of the area in June 2007 and displaced security forces loyal to the secular President Mahmoud Abbas . After the civil war ended, Hamas
Hamas
declared the "end of secularism and heresy in the Gaza Strip." For the first time since the Sudanese coup of 1989 that brought Omar al-Bashir to power, a Muslim Brotherhood group ruled a significant geographic territory. Gaza human rights groups accuse Hamas
Hamas
of restricting many freedoms in the course of these attempts.

While Ismael Haniyeh officially denied accusations that Hamas intended to establish an Islamic emirate, Jonathan Schanzer wrote that in the two years following the 2007 coup, the Gaza Strip has exhibited the characteristics of Talibanization
Talibanization
, a process whereby the Islamist organization imposes strict rules on women, discourages or punishes activities commonly associated with Western or Christian culture, oppresses non-Muslim minorities, imposes their own interpretation of sharia law, and deploys religious police to enforce these laws.

According to Human Rights Watch , the Hamas-controlled government of Gaza stepped up its efforts to "Islamize" Gaza in 2010, efforts that included the "repression" of civil society and "severe violations of personal freedom." Arab-Israeli journalist Khaled Abu Toameh wrote in 2009 that " Hamas
Hamas
is gradually turning the Gaza Strip into a Taliban -style Islamic entity." According to Mkhaimar Abusada, a political science professor at Gaza’s al-Azhar University , "Ruling by itself, Hamas
Hamas
can stamp its ideas on everyone (...) Islamizing society has always been part of Hamas
Hamas
strategy."

SEE ALSO

* Arabization * Spread of Islam
Islam
* Islam
Islam
in Europe * Islamization of knowledge * Islamic revival * Turkification
Turkification
* Ethnic cleansing * Eurabia * Islamic extremism * Islamic terrorism * Patriotic Europeans Against the Islamization of the Occident * Politics and sports * Talibanization
Talibanization
* Criticism of Islamism * Christianization
Christianization
* Judaization * Westernization

BY AREA

* All pages with a title containing Islamization
Islamization
of * Islamization of Bosnia and Herzegovina * Islamization of Egypt * Islamization of Europe * Islamization
Islamization
and cultural revolution of Iran * Islamization of Palestine , Jerusalem and the Temple Mount * Islamization of the Gaza Strip * Islamization of Syria * Islamization of Sudan * Islamization of Jerusalem * Islamization of Indonesia

BY METHOD

* Forced conversion to Islam
Islam
* Conversion to Islam
Islam
in prisons * Islamic missionary activity

REFERENCES

* ^ "Islamicization". The Free Dictionary. * ^ Kennedy, Charles (1996). "Introduction". Islamization
Islamization
of Laws and Economy, Case Studies on Pakistan. Anis Ahmad, Author of introduction. Institute of Policy Studies, The Islamic Foundation. p. 19. * ^ Lindley-Highfield, M. (2008) '"Muslimization", Mission and Modernity in Morelos: the problem of a combined hotel and prayer hall for the Muslims of Mexico'. Tourism Culture & Communication, vol. 8, no. 2, 85–96. * ^ Lapidus, p. 823 * ^ A B C Lapidus, p. 828–30 * ^ Hamas
Hamas
tries to detain woman walking with man, July 8, 2009, Diaa Hadid, The Guardian
The Guardian
* ^ Militants torch Gaza water park shut down by Hamas, Haaretz 19-09-2010 * ^ A B Gunmen torch Gaza beach club shuttered by Hamas, AFP 19-09-2010 * ^ "The Beleaguered Christians of the Palestinian-Controlled Areas, by David Raab". www.jcpa.org. Retrieved 2016-10-09. * ^ Khaled Abu Toameh, “Haniyeh Calls for Palestinian Unity,” Jerusalem Post, June 15, 2007 * ^ A B C D The Talibanization
Talibanization
of Gaza: A Liability for the Muslim Brotherhood. by Jonathan Schanzer. August 19, 2009. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology vol. 9 * ^ "In Gaza, prisoners twice over; Palestinians are being squeezed by the Israeli blockade and Hamas\' \'Islamizing\' actions," Bill Van Esveld, Bill Van Esveld is a Middle East
Middle East
researcher for Human Rights Watch, June 27, 2010, Los Angeles Times. * ^ Khaled Abu Toameh, As Hamas
Hamas
Tightens Its Grip, HudsonNY.org 07-08-2009 * ^ Hamas
Hamas
Bans Women Dancers, Scooter Riders in Gaza Push By Daniel Williams, Bloomberg, November 30, 2009

FURTHER READING

* Devin De Weese, Devin A, (1994), Islamization
Islamization
and Native Religion in the Golden Horde, Penn State Press, ISBN 0-271-01073-8 * Lapidus, Ira M. (2002), A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

EXTERNAL LINKS

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