HOME
        TheInfoList






There are three traditional types of schools in Islam: schools of jurisprudence, Sufi orders and schools of theology. Other types of Islamic denominations and movements have arisen in the modern era.

Overview

The original difference between Sunnis and Shias is over who the true first successor to Muhammad is. Shias believe Ali ibn Abi Talib is the true successor to Muhammad, while Sunnis consider Abu Bakr to hold that position. The Khawarij broke away from both the Shias and Sunnis during the First Fitna (the first Islamic Civil War) and subsequently opposed both the Shias and the Sunnis, often violently.

In addition, there are several differences within Sunni Islam and Shia Islam. Sunni Islam is separated into four main schools of jurisprudence, namely, Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali. These schools are named after Abu Hanifa, Malik bin Anas, al-Shafi'i, and Ahmad ibn Hanbal, respectively.[1]

Shia Islam, on the other hand, is separated into three major sects: Twelvers, Ismailis, and Zaydis. The vast majority of Shias are Twelvers (a 2012 estimate puts the figure as 94% of Shias being Twelvers)[2] to the extent that the term "Shia" frequently refers to Twelvers by default. All mainstream Twelver Shia Muslims follow the same school of thought, the Jafari school of thought (named after Jafar as-Sadiq,[1] the sixth Shia Imam). All four founders of the Sunni schools of thought gained knowledge, either directly or indirectly, through Jafar as-Sadiq.[citation needed]

Zaydis, also known as Fivers, follow the Zayidi school of thought (named after Zayd ibn Ali[1]). Isma'ilism is another offshoot of Shia Islam that later split into Nizari Ismaili and Musta’li Ismaili, and then Mustaali was divided into Hafizi and Taiyabi Ismailis.[3] Tayyibi Ismailis, also known as "Bohras", are split between Da'udi Bohras, Sulaymani Bohras, and Alavi Bohras.[4]

Similarly, Kharijites were initially divided into five major branches: Sufris, Azariqa, Najdat, Adjarites and Ibadis. Of these, Ibadis are the only surviving branch of Kharijites.

In addition to the aforementioned groups, new schools of thought and movements like Quranist Muslims, and African American Muslims later emerged independently.[5]

Sectarian divisions

1. Sunni Islam

The Salafi movement is an ultra-conservative[109] reform[110] movement within Sunni Islam that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and advocated a return to the traditions of the "devout ancestors" (the salaf). The doctrine can be summed up as taking "a fundamentalist approach to Islam, emulating the Prophet Muhammad and his earliest followers—al-salaf al-salih, the 'pious forefathers'....They reject religious innovation, or bid'ah, and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law)."[111] The movement is often divided into three categories: the largest group are the purists (or quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group are the activists, who get involved in politics; the smallest group are the jihadists, who form a small (yet infamous) minority.[111] Most of the violent Islamist groups come from the Salafi movement and their subgroups. In recent years, the Salafi doctrine has often been correlated with the jihad of terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and those groups in favor of killing innocent civilians.[112]<[113] The Salafi movement is often described as being synonymous with Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term "Wahhabi" derogatory.[114]

Islamic Modernism

Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism,[115][116][117][118][119] is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response"[120] attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.[121]

Wahhabism

The Wahhabi movement was created by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the Arabian peninsula, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. It is a strict orthodox form and a branch of sunni Islam, with fundamentalist views, believing in a strict literal interpretation of the Quran. The terms Wahhabism and Salafism are often used interchangeably, although the word Wahhabi is specific for followers of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism"[122][123] and causing disunity in Muslim communities, and criticized for its followers' destruction of historic sites.Salafi movement is an ultra-conservative[109] reform[110] movement within Sunni Islam that emerged in the second half of the 19th century and advocated a return to the traditions of the "devout ancestors" (the salaf). The doctrine can be summed up as taking "a fundamentalist approach to Islam, emulating the Prophet Muhammad and his earliest followers—al-salaf al-salih, the 'pious forefathers'....They reject religious innovation, or bid'ah, and support the implementation of sharia (Islamic law)."[111] The movement is often divided into three categories: the largest group are the purists (or quietists), who avoid politics; the second largest group are the activists, who get involved in politics; the smallest group are the jihadists, who form a small (yet infamous) minority.[111] Most of the violent Islamist groups come from the Salafi movement and their subgroups. In recent years, the Salafi doctrine has often been correlated with the jihad of terrorist organizations such as Al Qaeda and those groups in favor of killing innocent civilians.[112]<[113] The Salafi movement is often described as being synonymous with Wahhabism, but Salafists consider the term "Wahhabi" derogatory.[114]

Islamic Modernism

Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism,[115][116][117][118][119] is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response"Islamic Modernism, also sometimes referred to as Modernist Salafism,[115][116][117][118][119] is a movement that has been described as "the first Muslim ideological response"[120] attempting to reconcile Islamic faith with modern Western values such as nationalism, democracy, civil rights, rationality, equality, and progress.[121]

Wahhabism

The Wahhabi movement was created by Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab in the Arabian peninsula, and was instrumental in the rise of the House of Saud to power. It is a strict orthodox form and a branch of sunni Islam, with fundamentalist views, believing in a strict literal interpretation of the Quran. The terms Wahhabism and Salafism are often used interchangeably, although the word Wahhabi is specific for followers of Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab. Wahhabism has been accused of being "a source of global terrorism"[122][123] and causing disunity in Muslim communities, and criticized for its followers' destruction of historic sites.[124][125][126]

Population of the branches