List of Islamic political parties
Islamism based in
Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam
Principles of State and Government
Ma'alim fi al-Tariq ("Milestones")
Governance of the Jurist ("Velayat-e faqih")
Heads of state
House of Saud
House of Thani
Jamāl al-Dīn al-Afghānī
Qazi Hussain Ahmad
Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
Abul A'la Maududi
Taqi al-Din al-Nabhani
Ata Abu Rashta
Criticism of Islamism
Islam and other religions
Islamic extremism has been defined by the British government as any
Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual
liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and
beliefs." Related terms include "Islamist extremism" and
On the other hand, many oppose the use of the term, fearing it could
"de-legitimize" the Islamic faith in general. Some have criticized
political rhetoric that associates non-violent
Islam) with terrorism under the rubric of "extremism".
2 UK High Court rulings
2.1 May 2016 appeal case
2.2 October 2016
Shakeel Begg case
3 Connection to Kharijites
4 Active Islamic extremist groups
5 See also
7 External links
The UK High Courts have ruled in two cases on Islamic extremism, and
Aside from those, two major definitions have been offered for Islamic
extremism, sometimes using overlapping but also distinct aspects of
extreme interpretations and pursuits of Islamic ideology:
The use of violent tactics such as bombing and assassinations for
achieving perceived Islamic goals (see
Jihadism [ Zeyno Baran, Senior
Fellow and Director of the Center for Eurasian Policy at the Hudson
Institute, prefers the term Islamist extremism])
An extremely conservative view of Islam, which does not necessarily
entail violence (see also
Islamic fundamentalism [Baran again
prefers the term Islamism]).
UK High Court rulings
There are two UK High Court cases that explicitly address the issue of
May 2016: An Appeal from the Crown Court and Central Criminal Court:
several individuals' cases considered together.
October 2016: In which the Judge concluded that Imam
Shakeel Begg is
an Islamic Extremist, and does not uphold Begg's claim that the BBC
had libelled him by saying so.
May 2016 appeal case
The judge refers to several grounds: section 20 of the 2006 Act; the
definition of “terrorism” in section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2000
and the decision of the Supreme Court in R v Gul.
Shakeel Begg case
Begg, a prominent Muslim public figure and Imam at Lewisham Islamic
Centre since 1998 lost his 2016 court case of
Libel against the BBC.
This case is noteworthy because the judge lists a 10-point definition
Islamic extremism that he used to determine the case:
In Charles Haddon-Cave's findings he wrote:
Extremist Islamic positions
118. In my view, the following constitute "extremist" Islamic
positions (or indicia thereof).
First, a 'Manichean' view of the world. A total, eternal 'Manichean'
worldview is a central tenet of violent Islamic extremism. It divides
the world strictly into 'Us' versus 'Them': those who are blessed or
saved (i.e. the "right kind" of Muslim) on the one hand and those who
are to be damned for eternity (i.e. the "wrong kind" of Muslim and
everyone else) on the other. For violent Islamic extremists, the
"wrong kind" of Muslim includes moderate
Sunni Muslims, all Shia
Muslims, and many others who are "mete for the sword" and can be
killed, and anyone who associates or collaborates" with them...
Second, the reduction of jihad (striving in God's cause) to qital
(armed combat) ('the Lesser Jihad')...
Third, the ignoring or flouting of the conditions for the declaration
of armed jihad (qital), i.e. the established Islamic doctrinal
conditions for the declaration of armed combat (qital) set out
Fourth, the ignoring or flouting of the strict regulations governing
the conduct of armed jihad, i.e. the stipulations in the Qur'an and
the Sunna for the ethics of conducting qital set out above. Thus, the
use of excessive violence, attacks on civilians, indiscriminate
'suicide' violence and the torture or the murder of prisoners would
constitute violation of these regulations of jihad...
Fifth, advocating armed fighting in defence of
Islam (qital) as a
universal individual religious obligation (fard al 'ayn)...
Sixth, any interpretation of Shari'a (i.e. religious law laid down by
the Qur'an and the Sunna) that required breaking the 'law of the
Seventh, the classification of all non-Muslims as unbelievers
Eighth, the extreme Salafist
Islamism doctrine that the precepts of
the Muslim faith negate and supersede all other natural ties, such as
those of family, kinship and nation...
Ninth, the citing with approval the fatwa (legal opinions) of Islamic
scholars who espouse extremist view...
Tenth, any teaching which, expressly or implicitly, encourages Muslims
to engage in, or support, terrorism or violence in the name of
Connection to Kharijites
Main article: Khawarij
According to some contemporary Muslim commentators, extremism within
Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites. From their
essentially political position, they developed extreme doctrines that
set them apart from both mainstream
Sunni and Shiʿa Muslims. The
Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to
Takfir, whereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and
therefore deemed them worthy of death.
Active Islamic extremist groups
Some of the proponents of
Islam emphasise peaceful political
Sayyid Qutb in particular called for violence, and
those followers are generally considered Islamic extremists and their
stated goal is
Islamic revolution with the intent to force
Sharia law and/or an Islamic State Caliphate.
There are over 120 such groups active today. Below is
a list of major groups active.
This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Abdallah Azzam (founder)
Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden (1989–2011)
Ayman al-Zawahiri (present)
4,400 casualties 
Islam and establish "true Islamic states", implement Sharia
law, and rid the Muslim world of any non-Muslim influences and other
teachings of Islamic author Sayyid Qutb. The title translates to
"Organization of the Base of Jihad".
al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb
Kabylie Mountains, Algeria
AQIM is an Islamist militant organization which aims to overthrow the
Algerian government and institute an Islamic state.
Al-Mourabitoun- AKA:al-Qaeda West Africa
Mali, Niger, Libya
Under 100 (French claim)
Killed 27 in the 2015 Bamako hotel attack.
Affiliated branch of al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb listed above.
Yemen / AKA:
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula
Nasir al-Wuhayshi † (2011–15)
Qasim al-Raymi (2015–Present)
Over 250 killed in the
2012 Sana'a bombing and 2013 Sana'a attack.
AQAP is considered the most active of al-Qaeda's branches, or
"franchises," that emerged due to weakening central leadership.
The U.S government believes AQAP to be the most dangerous al-Qaeda
branch due to its emphasis on attacking the far enemy and its
reputation for plotting attacks on overseas targets.
al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent
India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Claims 6 killed in assassinations. Naval frigate hijacking attempted
AQIS is an Islamist militant organization which aims to fight the
Governments of Pakistan, India,
Bangladesh in order to
establish an Islamic state.
Boko Haram – West Africa Province of the Islamic State Caliphate
Northeastern Nigeria, Chad,
Niger and northern Cameroon.
Mohammed Yusuf † (founder)
Abubakar Shekau (current leader)
Estimates range between 500 and 9,000.
Since 2009, it has killed 20,000 and displaced 2.3 million.
Title means "Western Education is Sin", founded as a
fundamentalist sect and influenced by the Wahhabi movement, advocating
a strict form of
(acronym for Islamic Resistance Movement) AKA:
Muslim Brotherhood of
Since 1988 numerous rocket attacks and suicide bombers targeting
Founded as an offshoot of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Its 1988
founding charter, steeped in Islamic rhetoric, calls for jihad to take
all of historical Palestine, resulting in the destruction of Israel.
AKA: The Party of Allah
Sayyid Hassan Nasrallah
Since 1982 numerous rocket attacks and suicide bombers targeting
Shi'a Islamist militant group with Jihadic paramilitary wing.
Hezbollah was largely formed with the aid of the Ayatolla Khomeini's
followers in the early 1980s in order to spread Islamic
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Commonly known as ISIS, ISIL and
Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi
Iraq and Syria
30,000+ killed including Shia Muslims, Christians, Yazidis, other
minorities in the Middle East and many others around the world by ISIL
or groups associated or insprired by ISIL. Includes Boko Haram
Salafi jihadist militant group that follows a fundamentalist, Wahhabi
Sunni Islam. Originated as the Islamic State of Iraq
(ISI). Gained large swathes of territory in
Iraq in 2014 and is
currently at war with Iraq,
Syria and a coalition of 60 other
countries including the United States,
United Kingdom and France.
Jemaah Islamiyah -
Abu Bakar Bashir
Over 250 killed in bombings throughout Indonesia since 2002.
With a name meaning "Islamic Congregation", (frequently abbreviated
JI), is a Southeast Asian militant Islamist terrorist group
dedicated to the establishment of a Daulah Islamiyah (regional Islamic
caliphate) in Southeast Asia.
AKA: Pakistani Taliban
TTP is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups
protecting foreign terrorists hiding in the mountains of Pakistan.
(Not to be confused with Afghani Taliban.)
Book: Islamic terrorism
Book: Criticism of Islam
Book: List of Islamist terrorist attacks
Islamic extremism in the 20th-century Egypt
Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh
List of Islamist terrorist attacks
List of thwarted Islamist terrorist attacks
List of battles and other violent events by death toll
Islamic extremism in Northern Nigeria
Islamic extremism in the United States
Islamic extremism in Mali
Islamic State of Iraq
Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
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