Islamic extremism
   HOME

TheInfoList



Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism, or radical Islam refer to
extremist Extremism is "the quality or state of being extreme" or "the advocacy of extreme measures or views". The term is primarily used in a political or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious beha ...
beliefs associated with the religion of
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
. These are controversial terms with varying definitions, ranging from academic understandings to the idea that all ideologies other than Islam have failed and are inferior to Islam. This can also extend to other sects of Islam that do not share such beliefs. Political definitions include the one used by the government of the
United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Some prefer to use Britain as shortha ...

United Kingdom
, which understands Islamic extremism as any form of
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs". It is not to be confused with
Islamic fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim majority countries should return to the fundamentals of an Islamic state, which truly show the essence of the system of Islam, in terms of its socio-p ...
or
Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism) is a political ideology which posits that modern State (polity), states and Administrative division, regions should be reconstituted in Constitution, constitutional, Economics, ...
, the former defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim-majority countries should return to the fundamentals of an Islamic state (though some see Islamic fundamentalism as a form of Islamic extremism) and the latter being a type of
political Islam Political Islam is any interpretation of Islam as a source of political identity and action. It can refer to a wide range of individuals and/or groups who advocate the formation of state and society according to their understanding of Islamic prin ...
.
Islamic terrorism Islamic terrorism (also Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism) refers to terrorist acts which are committed by fundamentalist Fundamentalism usually has a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Islamic terrorism
or
jihadism Jihadism is a neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that ...
is very often the result of Islamic extremism, although not in every case.


Definitions


Academic definition

The academic definition of radical Islam consists of two parts: * The first being: Islamic thought that states that all ideologies other than Islam, whether associated with the West (capitalism) or the East (communism or socialism) have failed and have demonstrated their bankruptcy. * The second being: Islamic thought that states that (semi)secular regimes are wrong because of their negligence of Islam.


United Kingdom High Courts definition

The UK High Courts have ruled in two cases on Islamic extremism, and provided definition. Aside from those, two major definitions have been offered for Islamic extremism, sometimes using overlapping but also distinct aspects of extreme interpretations and pursuits of
Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced , or (when the stress is on the first syllable) ( ...
ic ideology: * The use of violent tactics such as bombing and assassinations for achieving perceived Islamic goals (see
Jihadism Jihadism is a neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that ...
; or
Zeyno BaranZeyno Baran (born January 31, 1972) is a Turkish American scholar on issues ranging from US-Turkey relations to Islamist ideology to energy security in Europe and Asia. She was the Director of the Center for Eurasian Policy and a Senior Fellow at t ...
, Senior Fellow and Director of the Center for Eurasian Policy at the
Hudson Institute The Hudson Institute is a Conservatism in the United States, conservative United States of America, American think tank based in Washington, D.C. It was founded in 1961 in Croton-on-Hudson, New York, by futurist, military strategy, military strat ...
, prefers the term '' Islamist extremism'') * An extremely conservative view of Islam, which does not necessarily entail violence (see also
Islamic fundamentalism Islamic fundamentalism has been defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim majority countries should return to the fundamentals of an Islamic state, which truly show the essence of the system of Islam, in terms of its socio-p ...
aran again prefers the term ''Islamism''.


UK High Court rulings

There are two UK High Court cases that explicitly address the issue of Islamic extremism. * May 2016: An Appeal from the Crown Court and Central Criminal Court: several individuals' cases considered together.https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/r-v-kahar-and-others.pdf * October 2016: In which the Judge concluded that Imam
Shakeel BeggShakeel Begg is a prominent British Muslim Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pronounced ...
is an Islamic Extremist, and does not uphold Begg's claim that the BBC had libelled him by saying so.https://www.judiciary.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/shakeel-begg-v-bbc-judgment-final-20161028.pdf


May 2016 appeal case

The judge refers to several grounds: section 20 of the 2006 Act; the definition of "terrorism" in section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2000 and the decision of the Supreme Court in ''R v Gul''.


October 2016 Shakeel Begg case

Begg, a prominent Muslim public figure and Imam at Lewisham Islamic Centre since 1998 lost his 2016 court case of
Libel Defamation (also known as calumny, vilification, libel, slander, or traducement) is the oral or written communication of a false statement about another that unjustly harms their reputation and usually constitutes a tort A tort, in commo ...

Libel
against the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of ...

BBC
. This case is noteworthy because the judge lists a 10-point definition of Islamic extremism that he used to determine the case: In
Charles Haddon-Cave Sir Charles Anthony Haddon-Cave (born 20 March 1956), styled The Rt Hon Lord Justice Haddon-Cave, is a British judge serving in the Court of Appeal of England and Wales A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, ...
's findings he wrote:
Extremist Islamic positions 118. In my view, the following constitute "extremist" Islamic positions (or indicia thereof). * First, a 'Manichean' view of the world. A total, eternal 'Manichean' worldview is a central tenet of violent Islamic extremism. It divides the world strictly into 'Us' versus 'Them': those who are blessed or saved (i.e. the "right kind" of Muslim) on the one hand and those who are to be damned for eternity (i.e. the "wrong kind" of Muslim and everyone else) on the other. For violent Islamic extremists, the "wrong kind" of Muslim includes moderate Sunni Muslims, all Shia Muslims, and many others who are "mete for the sword" and can be killed, and anyone who associates or collaborates" with them... * Second, the reduction of jihad (striving in God's cause) to qital (armed combat) ('the Lesser Jihad')... * Third, the ignoring or flouting of the conditions for the declaration of armed jihad (qital), i.e. the established Islamic doctrinal conditions for the declaration of armed combat (qital) set out above... * Fourth, the ignoring or flouting of the strict regulations governing the conduct of armed jihad, i.e. the stipulations in the Qur'an and the Sunna for the ethics of conducting qital set out above. Thus, the use of excessive violence, attacks on civilians, indiscriminate 'suicide' violence and the torture or the murder of prisoners would constitute violation of these regulations of jihad... * Fifth, advocating armed fighting in defence of Islam (qital) as a universal individual religious obligation (fard al 'ayn)... * Sixth, any interpretation of Shari'a (i.e. religious law laid down by the Qur'an and the Sunna) that required breaking the 'law of the land'... * Seventh, the classification of all non-Muslims as unbelievers (kuffar)... * Eighth, the extreme Salafist Islamism doctrine that the precepts of the Muslim faith negate and supersede all other natural ties, such as those of family, kinship and nation... * Ninth, the citing with approval the fatwa (legal opinions) of Islamic scholars who espouse extremist view... * Tenth, any teaching which, expressly or implicitly, encourages Muslims to engage in, or support, terrorism or violence in the name of Allah.


Key influences of radical Islam


Early Islam

According to the academic definition of radical Islam, the second condition for something to be called radical Islam, is that it is antigovernmental. Consequently, a government is a condition for radical Islam. However, even though the
peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
was established in 1648 and thus introduced the
nation state A nation state is a political unit where the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newsp ...
, the writings of the formative centuries of Islamic history are influential to the contemporary writings that were coined radical after the concept of the nation state was established in the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
as well. Key influences of radical Islam that stem from early Islam include:


Kharijites

Islamic extremism dates back to the
early history of Islam The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, and cultural developments of Islamic civilization. Most historians believe that Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the f ...
with the emergence of the
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the ash-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة‎, ''ash-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civi ...
in the 7th century CE. The original schism between
Kharijites The Kharijites ( ar, الخوارج, ''al-Khawārij'', singular , ''khāriji''), also called the ash-Shurat (Arabic: الشراة‎, ''ash-Shurāt''), were an Islamic sect that appeared in the first century of Islam during the First Muslim Civi ...
,
Sunnis Sunni Islam () is by far the largest branch of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pr ...
, and Shiʿas among
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is pron ...
was disputed over the political and religious succession to the guidance of the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
(''Ummah'') after the death of the
Islamic prophet Prophets in Islam ( ar, الأنبياء في الإسلام, translit=al-ʾAnbiyāʾ fī al-ʾIslām) are individuals in Islam who are believed to spread God in Islam, God's message on Earth and to serve as models of ideal human behaviour. Som ...
Muhammad Muhammad ibn AbdullahHe is referred to by many appellations, including Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah's Apostle, Last Prophet of Islam, and others; there are also many variant spellings of Muhammad, such as Mohamet, Mohammed, ...

Muhammad
. From their essentially political position, the Kharijites developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shiʿa Muslims. Shiʿas believe
Ali ibn Abi Talib , house = Quraysh The Quraysh ( ar, قُرَيْشٌ, ) are a mercantile Arab tribe that historically inhabited and controlled the city of Mecca Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah () and commonly shortened to Makkah,Quran ...
is the true successor to Muhammad, while Sunnis consider
Abu Bakr , image = Rashidun Caliph Abu Bakr as-Șiddīq (Abdullah ibn Abi Quhafa) - أبو بكر الصديق عبد الله بن عثمان التيمي القرشي أول الخلفاء الراشدين.svg , title = Al-Siddiq Atiq , ...
to hold that position. The Kharijites broke away from both the Shiʿas and the Sunnis during the
First Fitna The First Fitna ( ar, فتنة مقتل عثمان, fitnat maqtal ʻUthmān, strife/sedition of the killing of Uthman , birth_date = 576 (46 BH) , birth_place = Taif Ta'if ( ar, اَلطَّائِفُ, translit=aṭ-Ṭāʾif, lit ...
(the first Islamic Civil War); they were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to '' takfīr'' (excommunication), whereby they declared both Sunni and Shiʿa Muslims to be either (''kuffār'') or false Muslims (''munāfiḳūn''), and therefore deemed them worthy of death for their perceived
apostasy Apostasy (; grc-gre, ἀποστασία ''apostasía'', "a defection or revolt") is the formal religious disaffiliation, disaffiliation from, abandonment of, or renunciation of a religion by a person. It can also be defined within the broader ...
(''ridda''). The Islamic tradition traces the origin of the Kharijities to the battle between 'Ali and Mu'awiya at Siffin in 657 CE. When 'Ali was faced with a military stalemate and agreed to submit the dispute to arbitration, some of his party withdrew their support from him. "Judgement belongs to God alone" (لاَ حُكْكْ إلَا لِلّهِ) became the slogan of these secessionists. They also called themselves ''al-Shurat'' ("the Vendors"), to reflect their willingness to sell their lives in
martyrdom A martyr ( Greek: μάρτυς, ''mártys'', "witness"; stem μαρτυρ-, ''martyr-'') is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a religious belief or cause as demand ...
. These original Kharijites opposed both 'Ali and Mu'awiya, and appointed their own leaders. They were decisively defeated by 'Ali, who was in turn assassinated by a Kharijite. Kharijites engaged in guerilla warfare against the
Umayyads The Umayyad dynasty ( ar, بَنُو أُمَيَّةَ, Banū Umayya, Sons of Umayya) or Umayyads (), were the ruling family of the Muslim caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Isla ...
, but only became a movement to be reckoned with during the
Second Fitna The Second Fitna was a period of general political and military disorder and civil war in the Islamic community during the early Umayyad Caliphate., meaning trial or temptation) occurs in the Qur'an in the sense of test of faith of the believe ...
(the second Islamic Civil War) when they at one point controlled more territory than any of their rivals. The Kharijites were, in fact, one of the major threats to Ibn al-Zubayr's bid for the caliphate; during this time they controlled Yamama and most of southern Arabia, and captured the oasis town of al-Ta'if. The Azariqa, considered to be the extreme faction of the Kharijites, controlled parts of western Iran under the Umayyads until they were finally put down in 699 CE. The more moderate
Ibadi The Ibadi movement (Ibadism or Ibāḍiyya, also known as the Ibadis ( ar, الإباضية, ''al-Ibāḍiyyah'')), is a school of Islam dominant in Oman Oman ( ; ar, عُمَان ' ), officially the Sultanate of Oman ( ar, سلْطنةُ ...
Kharijites were longer-lived, continuing to wield political power in North and East Africa and in eastern Arabia during the . Because of their readiness to declare any opponent as apostate, the extreme Kharijites tended to fragment into small groups. One of the few points that the various Kharijite splinter groups held in common was their view of the caliphate, which differed from other Muslim theories on two points. * First, they were principled egalitarians, holding that any pious Muslim ("even an Ethiopian slave") can become Caliph and that family or tribal affiliation is inconsequential. The only requirements for leadership are piety and acceptance by the community. * Second, they agreed that it is the duty of the believers to depose any leader who falls into error. This second principle had profound implications for Kharijite theology. Applying these ideas to the early history of the caliphate, Kharijites only accept Abu Bakr and 'Umar as legitimate caliphs. Of 'Uthman's caliphate they recognize only the first six years as legitimate, and they reject 'Ali altogether. By the time that Ibn al-Muqaffa' wrote his political treatise early in the 'Abassid period, the Kharijites were no longer a significant political threat, at least in the Islamic heartlands. The memory of the menace they had posed to Muslim unity and of the moral challenge generated by their pious idealism still weighed heavily on Muslim political and religious thought, however. Even if the Kharijites could no longer threaten, their ghosts still had to be answered. The Ibadis are the only Kharijite group to surivive into modern times.


Ibn Taymiyyah


Contemporary Islam

The contemporary period begins after 1924. With the
defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire The dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the Second Constitutional Era The Second Constitutional Era ( ota, ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; tr, İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was established aft ...
(1908–1922), the
Ottoman Caliphate The Ottoman Caliphate ( ota, خلافت مقامى, tr, hilâfet makamı; "the office of caliphate"), under the Ottoman dynasty of the Ottoman Empire, was a Turkish people, Turkish Caliphate of Islam in the late Middle Ages, medieval and the ear ...
was also abolished. This event heavily influenced Islamic thinking in general, but also what would later be coined radical Islamic thought. Key thinkers that wrote about Islam in the 20th century, and especially about ''
jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد ' ) is an Arabic word which literally means ''striving'' or ''struggling'', especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God' ...
'', include:


Muhammad Abduh


Rashid Rida


Hassan al-Banna


Abul A'la al-Maududi


Sayyid Qutb

Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptians, Egyptian author, educator ...

Sayyid Qutb
, an Egyptian Islamist ideologue and prominent figurehead of the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
in Egypt, was influential in promoting the
Pan-Islamist Pan-Islamism ( ar, الوحدة الإسلامية) is a political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with Decision-making, making decisions in Social group, groups, or other forms of Power (social and political) ...
ideology An ideology () is a set of belief A belief is an Attitude (psychology), attitude that something is the case, or that some proposition about the world is truth, true. In epistemology, philosophers use the term "belief" to refer to attitudes abo ...
in the 1960s. When he was executed by the
Egyptian government The politics of Egypt are based on republicanism Republicanism is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state (polity), state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy t ...
under the History of Egypt under Gamal Abdel Nasser, regime of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Ayman al-Zawahiri formed the organization Egyptian Islamic Jihad to replace the government with an Islamic state that would reflect Qutb's ideas for the Islamic revival that he yearned for. The Qutbism, Qutbist ideology has been influential on jihadist movements and Islamic terrorism, Islamic terrorists that seek to overthrow secular governments, most notably Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri of al-Qaeda.
Sayyid Qutb Sayyid 'Ibrāhīm Ḥusayn Quṭb ( or ; , ; ar, سيد قطب إبراهيم حسين ''Sayyid Quṭb''; 9 October 1906 – 29 August 1966), known popularly as Sayyid Qutb ( ar, سيد قطب), was an Egyptians, Egyptian author, educator ...

Sayyid Qutb
could be said to have founded the actual movement of radical Islam. Unlike the other Islamic thinkers that have been mentioned above, Qutb was not an Apologetics, apologist. He was a prominent leader of the
Muslim Brotherhood The Society of the Muslim Brothers ( ar, جماعة الإخوان المسلمين'' ''), better known as the Muslim Brotherhood ( '), is a transnational Sunni Islamist organization founded in Egypt by Islamic scholar and schoolteacher Hassa ...
and a highly influential Islamist ideologue, and the first to articulate these anathemizing principles in his magnum opus ''Fī ẓilāl al-Qurʾān'' (''In the shade of the Qurʾān'') and his 1966 manifesto ''Maʿālim fīl-ṭarīq'' (''Milestones (book), Milestones''), which lead to his execution by the Egyptian government.Gibril Haddad, “Quietism and End-Time Reclusion in the Qurʾān and Hadith: Al-Nābulusī and His Book Takmīl Al-Nuʿūt within the ʿuzla Genre,” ''Islamic Sciences'' 15, no. 2 (2017): pp. 108-109) Other Salafi movements in the Middle East and North Africa and across the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
adopted many of his Islamist principles. According to Qutb, the
Muslim community Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether the ''a'' is prono ...
(''Ummah'') has been extinct for several centuries and reverted to ''jahiliyah'' (the pre-Islamic age of ignorance) because those who call themselves Muslims have failed to follow the Sharia, ''sharia'' law. In order to Islamic revival, restore Islam, bring back its days of glory, and free the Muslims from the clasps of ignorance, Qutb proposed the shunning of modern society, establishing a vanguard modeled after the early Muslims, preaching, and bracing oneself for poverty or even death as preparation for ''
jihad Jihad (; ar, جهاد ' ) is an Arabic word which literally means ''striving'' or ''struggling'', especially with a praiseworthy aim. In an Islamic context, it can refer to almost any effort to make personal and social life conform with God' ...
'' against what he perceived as ''jahili'' government/society, and overthrow them. Qutbism, the radical Islamist ideology derived from the ideas of Qutb, was denounced by many prominent Muslim scholars as well as other members of the Muslim Brotherhood, like Yusuf al-Qaradawi.



Groups


See also

* Antisemitism in Islam * Attacks by Islamic extremists in Bangladesh * Islam and secularism * Islam and war ** Religious war#Islam, Holy war in Islam * Islam Yes, Islamic Party No * Islam in Mali#Extremism, Islamic extremism in Mali * Islamic extremism in Northern Nigeria * Islamic extremism in the 20th-century Egypt *
Islamic terrorism Islamic terrorism (also Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism) refers to terrorist acts which are committed by fundamentalist Fundamentalism usually has a religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Islamic terrorism
**
Jihadism Jihadism is a neologism A neologism (; from Greek νέο- ''néo-'', "new" and λόγος ''lógos'', "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that ...
** Jihadist extremism in the United States *
Islamism Islamism (also often called political Islam or Islamic fundamentalism) is a political ideology which posits that modern State (polity), states and Administrative division, regions should be reconstituted in Constitution, constitutional, Economics, ...
** Post-Islamism * List of Islamist terrorist attacks * List of thwarted Islamist terrorist attacks * Mujahideen * Petro-Islam * Qutbism * Religious fanaticism#Islam, Religious fanaticism in Islam * Salafi movement ** International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism (International propagation of Salafism and Wahhabism by region, by region) ** Salafi jihadism ** Wahhabism * Takfiri, Takfirism * Violent extremism


References


External links

* {{Islamic terrorism in Europe Religious extremism Islamic extremism, Islam and politics Islam-related controversies Islamic practices Islamism Political ideologies Islamic fundamentalism