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Islamic
Islamic
architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the foundation of Islam
Islam
to the present day. What today is known as Islamic
Islamic
architecture was influenced by Roman, Byzantine, Persian and all other lands which the Muslims conquered in the 7th and 8th centuries.[1][2] Further east, it was also influenced by Chinese and Indian architecture
Indian architecture
as Islam
Islam
spread to Southeast Asia. It developed distinct characteristics in the form of buildings, and the decoration of surfaces with Islamic calligraphy
Islamic calligraphy
and geometric and interlace patterned ornament. The principal Islamic
Islamic
architectural types for large or public buildings are: the Mosque, the Tomb, the Palace
Palace
and the Fort. From these four types, the vocabulary of Islamic architecture is derived and used for other buildings such as public baths, fountains and domestic architecture.[3][4] Many of the buildings which are mentioned in this article are listed as World Heritage Sites. Some of them, like the Citadel of Aleppo, have suffered significant damage in the ongoing Syrian
Syrian
Civil War.[5]

Contents

1 Beginning 2 Influences 3 Characteristics

3.1 Assimilation of earlier traditions 3.2 Paradise
Paradise
garden 3.3 Courtyard
Courtyard
(Sehan) 3.4 Hypostyle
Hypostyle
hall 3.5 Vaulting

3.5.1 Umayyad diaphragm arches and barrel vaults 3.5.2 Islamic
Islamic
Spain 3.5.3 Islamic
Islamic
Iran 3.5.4 Domes

3.6 Muqarnas 3.7 Ornaments 3.8 Architectural forms 3.9 Specific architectural elements

4 Towns and cities

4.1 Urban and nomadic life according to Ibn Khaldun 4.2 Experiments with the hellenistic Ideal city 4.3 Transformation of conquered towns 4.4 Urban morphology of the Medina 4.5 Frontier fortresses and towns

4.5.1 Misr, Ribat 4.5.2 Qaṣr

5 Early history 6 Regional styles

6.1 Persian 6.2 Ottoman 6.3 Turkistan (Timurid) 6.4 Moroccan architecture 6.5 Yemenite architecture 6.6 Russian- Islamic
Islamic
architecture 6.7 Indo-Islamic 6.8 Sino-Islamic 6.9 Indonesian-Malaysian 6.10 Sahelian-Islamic 6.11 Somali-Islamic 6.12 Interpretation

7 Contemporary Muslim architects 8 See also 9 Gallery 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Beginning[edit] According to one set of views, Islam
Islam
started during the lifetime of Muhammad
Muhammad
in the 7th century
7th century
CE,[6] and so did architectural components such as the mosque. In this case, the Quba Mosque
Mosque
in Medina
Medina
would be the first mosque that was built in the history of Islam.[7] According to another set of views, which uses passages of the Quran,[8][9][10] Islam
Islam
as a religion preceded Muhammad,[11][12][13] representing even previous Prophets such as Abraham.[14] Abraham
Abraham
in Islam
Islam
is credited with having built the Ka‘bah (Arabic: كَـعْـبَـة‎, 'Cube') in Mecca, and consequently its sanctuary, which is seen as the first mosque[7] that ever existed.[15][16][17] Influences[edit] The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
(Qubbat al-Sakhrah) in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(691) is one of the most important buildings in all of Islamic
Islamic
architecture. It is patterned after the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulchre[18] and Byzantine
Byzantine
Christian
Christian
artists were employed to create its elaborate mosaics against a golden background.[1][19] The great epigraphic vine frieze was adapted from the pre- Islamic
Islamic
Syrian
Syrian
style.[20] The Dome
Dome
of the Rock featured interior vaulted spaces, a circular dome, and the use of stylized repeating decorative arabesque patterns. Desert palaces in Jordan
Jordan
and Syria
Syria
(for example, Mshatta, Qasr Amra, and Khirbat al-Mafjar) served the caliphs as living quarters, reception halls, and baths, and were decorated to promote an image of royal luxury. The horseshoe arch became a popular feature in Islamic
Islamic
structures. Some suggest the Muslims acquired this from the Visigoths in Spain
Spain
but they may have obtained it from Syria
Syria
and Persia
Persia
where the horseshoe arch had been in use by the Byzantines. In Moorish architecture, the curvature of the horseshoe arch is much more accentuated. Furthermore, alternating colours were added to accentuate the effect of its shape. This can be seen at a large scale in their major work, the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Córdoba.[21] The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Damascus
Damascus
(completed in 715 by caliph Al-Walid I),[22] built on the site of the basilica of John the Baptist
John the Baptist
after the Islamic
Islamic
invasion of Damascus, still bore great resemblance to 6th and 7th century
7th century
Christian
Christian
basilicas. Certain modifications were implemented, including expanding the structure along the transversal axis which better fit with the Islamic
Islamic
style of prayer. The Abbasid dynasty
Abbasid dynasty
(750 AD- 1258[23]) witnessed the movement of the capital from Damascus
Damascus
to Baghdad, and then from Baghdad
Baghdad
to Samarra. The shift to Baghdad
Baghdad
influenced politics, culture, and art. The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Samarra, once the largest in the world, was built for the new capital. Other major mosques built in the Abbasid
Abbasid
Dynasty include the Mosque
Mosque
of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Abu Dalaf in Iraq, the great mosque in Tunis. Abbasid
Abbasid
architecture in Iraq
Iraq
as exemplified in the Fortress of Al-Ukhaidir (c.775-6) demonstrated the "despotic and the pleasure-loving character of the dynasty" in its grand size but cramped living quarters.[24] The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Great Mosque of Kairouan
(in Tunisia) is considered the ancestor of all the mosques in the western Islamic
Islamic
world. Its original marble columns and sculptures were of Roman workmanship brought in from Carthage
Carthage
and other elements resemble Roman form.[25][26] It is one of the best preserved and most significant examples of early great mosques, founded in 670 AD and dating in its present form largely from the Aghlabid period (9th century).[27] The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Great Mosque of Kairouan
is constituted of a massive square minaret, a large courtyard surrounded by porticos and a huge hypostyle prayer hall covered on its axis by two cupolas. The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Samarra
Samarra
in Iraq, completed in 847 AD, combined the hypostyle architecture of rows of columns supporting a flat base above which a huge spiraling minaret was constructed. The Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
in Istanbul
Istanbul
also influenced Islamic
Islamic
architecture. When the Ottomans captured the city from the Byzantines, they converted the basilica to a mosque (now a museum) and incorporated Byzantine
Byzantine
architectural elements into their own work (e.g. domes). The Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
also served as a model for many Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. Domes
Domes
are a major structural feature of Islamic
Islamic
architecture. The dome first appeared in Islamic
Islamic
architecture in 691 with the construction of the Dome
Dome
of the Rock, a near replica of the existing Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
and other Christian
Christian
domed basilicas situated nearby. Domes
Domes
remain in use, being a significant feature of many mosques and of the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
in the 17th century. The distinctive pointed domes of Islamic
Islamic
architecture, also originating with the Byzantines and Persians,[28][29] have remained a distinguishing feature of mosques into the 21st century.[30][31] Distinguishing motifs of Islamic
Islamic
architecture have always been the mathematical themes of ordered repetition, radiating structures, and rhythmic, metric patterns. In this respect, fractal geometry has been a key utility, especially for mosques and palaces. Other significant features employed as motifs include columns, piers and arches, organized and interwoven with alternating sequences of niches and colonnettes.[32]

Dome
Dome
of the Rock, Jerusalem

Inside the Al-Masjid al-Nabawi, Medina, Saudi Arabia

Inside the Jame Mosque
Mosque
of Yazd, Iran

Dome
Dome
of the mihrab (9th century) in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan, Tunisia

Shah Mosque, Isfahan

The Mosque
Mosque
of Rome, Italy

East London Mosque, England

Characteristics[edit] Assimilation of earlier traditions[edit] Compared to Western European Francia, period Islamic
Islamic
architecture has preserved to a greater extent the architectural traditions of its preceding cultures. From the eighth to the eleventh century, Islamic architectural styles were influenced by two different ancient traditions:

Greco-Roman tradition: In particular, the regions of the newly conquered Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire (Southwestern Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Maghreb) supplied architects, masons, mosaicists and other craftsmen to the new Islamic
Islamic
rulers. These artisans were trained in Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
and decorative arts, and continued building and decorating in Byzantine
Byzantine
style, which had developed out of Hellenistic and ancient Roman architecture. Eastern tradition: Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Persia, despite adopting elements of Hellenistic and Roman representative style, retained their independent architectural traditions, which derived from Sasanian architecture and its predecessors.[33]

The transition process between late Antiquity, or post-classical, and Islamic
Islamic
architecture is exemplified by archaeologic findings in North Syria
Syria
and Palestine, the Bilad al-Sham
Bilad al-Sham
of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. In this region, late antique, or Christian, architectural traditions merged with the pre- Islamic
Islamic
Arabian heritage of the conquerors. Recent research on the history of Islamic art
Islamic art
and architecture has revised a number of colonialistic ideas. Specifically, the following questions are currently subject to renewed discussions in the light of recent findings and new concepts of cultural history:

The existence of a linear development within the Islamic
Islamic
architecture; the existence of an inter- and intracultural hierarchy of styles; questions of cultural authenticity and its delineation.[34]

Compared to earlier research, the assimilation and transformation of pre-existing architectural traditions is investigated under the aspect of mutual intra- and intercultural exchange of ideas, technologies and styles as well as artists, architects, and materials. In the area of art and architecture, the Rise of Islam
Rise of Islam
is seen as a continuous transformation process leading from late Antiquity to the Islamic period. Early research into the area regarded the early Islamic architecture merely as a break with the past, from which apparently rose a distorted and less expressive form of art,[35] or a degenerate imitation of the post-classical architectural forms.[36] Modern concepts tend to regard the transition between the cultures rather as a selective process of informed appropriation and transformation. The Umayyads
Umayyads
played a crucial role in this process of transforming and thereby enriching the existing architectural traditions, or, in a more general sense, of the visual culture of the nascent Islamic society.[37] Paradise
Paradise
garden[edit]

Afif-Abad Garden, Shiraz

Main article: Paradise
Paradise
garden Gardens and water have for many centuries played an essential role in Islamic
Islamic
culture, and are often compared to the garden of Paradise. The comparison originates from the Achaemenid Empire. In his dialogue "Oeconomicus", Xenophon
Xenophon
has Socrates
Socrates
relate the story of the Spartan general Lysander's visit to the Persian prince Cyrus the Younger, who shows the Greek his " Paradise
Paradise
at Sardis".[38] The classical form of the Persian Paradise
Paradise
garden, or the Charbagh, comprises a rectangular irrigated space with elevated pathways, which divide the garden into four sections of equal size:

One of the hallmarks of Persian gardens
Persian gardens
is the four-part garden laid out with axial paths that intersect at the garden's centre. This highly structured geometrical scheme, called the chahar bagh, became a powerful metaphor for the organization and domestication of the landscape, itself a symbol of political territory.[39]

A charbagh from Achaemenid time has been identified in the archaeological excavations at Pasargadae. The gardens of Chehel Sotoun (Isfahan), Fin Garden
Fin Garden
(Kashan), Eram Garden
Eram Garden
(Shiraz), Shazdeh Garden (Mahan), Dowlatabad Garden (Yazd), Abbasabad Garden (Abbasabad), Akbarieh Garden (South Khorasan Province), Pahlevanpour Garden, all in Iran, form part of the UNESCO World Heritage.[40] Large Paradise gardens are also found at the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
(Agra), and at Humayun's Tomb (New Delhi), in India; the Shalimar Gardens (Lahore, Pakistan) or at the Alhambra
Alhambra
and Generalife
Generalife
in Granada, Spain.[33] Courtyard
Courtyard
(Sehan)[edit]

The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Kairouan, with a large courtyard (sehan) surrounded by arcades, Kairouan, Tunisia.

The traditional Islamic
Islamic
courtyard, a sehan (Arabic: صحن‎), is found in secular and religious structures.

When within a residence or other secular building is a private courtyard and walled garden. It is used for: the aesthetics of plants, water, architectural elements, and natural light; for cooler space with fountains and shade, and source of breezes into the structure, during summer heat; and a protected and proscribed place where the women of the house need not be covered in the hijab clothing traditionally necessary in public. A sehan—courtyard is in within almost every mosque in Islamic architecture. The courtyards are open to the sky and surrounded on all sides by structures with halls and rooms, and often a shaded semi-open arcade. Sehans usually feature a centrally positioned ritual cleansing pool under an open domed pavilion called a howz. A mosque courtyard is used for performing ablutions, and a 'patio' for rest or gathering.

Hypostyle
Hypostyle
hall[edit] A Hypostyle, i.e., an open hall supported by columns combined with a reception hall set at right angle to the main hall, is considered to be derived from architectural traditions of Achaemenid period Persian assembly halls ("apadana"). This type of building originated from the Roman-style basilica with an adjacent courtyard surrounded by colonnades, like Trajan's Forum
Trajan's Forum
in Rome. The Roman type of building has developed out of the Greek agora. In Islamic
Islamic
architecture, the hypostyle hall is the main feature of the hypostyle mosque. One of the earliest hypostyle mosques is the Tarikhaneh Mosque
Mosque
in Iran, dating back to the 8th century.[33] Vaulting[edit] In Islamic
Islamic
buildings, vaulting follows two distinct architectural styles: Whilst Umayyad architecture
Umayyad architecture
continues Syrian
Syrian
traditions of the 6th and 7th century, Eastern Islamic
Islamic
architecture was mainly influenced by Sasanian
Sasanian
styles and forms. Umayyad diaphragm arches and barrel vaults[edit]

Qusair 'Amra

In their vaulting structures, Umayyad period buildings show a mixture of ancient Roman and Persian architectural traditions. Diaphragm arches with lintelled ceilings made of wood or stone beams, or, alternatively, with barrel vaults, were known in the Levant
Levant
since the classical and Nabatean period. They were mainly used to cover houses and cisterns. The architectural form of covering diaphragm arches with barrel vaults, however, was likely newly introduced from Iranian architecture, as similar vaulting was not known in Bilad al-Sham before the arrival of the Umayyads. However, this form was well known in Iran
Iran
from early Parthian times, as exemplified in the Parthian buildings of Aššur. The earliest known example for barrel vaults resting on diaphragm arches from Umayyad architecture
Umayyad architecture
is known from Qasr Harane in Syria. During the early period, the diaphragm arches are built from coarsely cut limestone slabs, without using supporting falsework, which were connected by gypsum mortar. Later-period vaults were erected using pre-formed lateral ribs modelled from gypsum, which served as a temporal formwork to guide and center the vault. These ribs, which were left in the structure afterwards, do not carry any load. The ribs were cast in advance on strips of cloth, the impression of which can still be seen in the ribs today. Similar structures are known from Sasanian
Sasanian
architecture, for example from the palace of Firuzabad. Umayyad-period vaults of this type were found in Amman Citadel and in Qasr Amra.[41] Islamic
Islamic
Spain[edit] The double-arched system of arcades of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba is generally considered to be derived from Roman aqueducts like the nearby aqueduct of Los Milagros. Columns are connected by horseshoe arches, and support pillars of brickwork, which are in turn interconnected by semicircular arches supporting the flat timberwork ceiling.

Arcades of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba

Arcades of the Aljafería
Aljafería
of Zaragoza

In later-period additions to the Mosque
Mosque
of Córdoba, the basic architectural design was changed: Horseshoe arches were now used for the upper row of arcades, which is now supported by five-pass arches. In sections which now supported domes, additional supporting structures were needed to bear the thrust of the cupolas. The architects solved this problem by the construction of intersecting three- or five-pass arches. The three domes spanning the vaults above the mihrab wall are constructed as ribbed vaults. Rather than meeting in the center of the dome, the ribs intersect one another off-center, forming an eight-pointed star in the center which is superseded by a pendentive dome.[42] The ribbed vaults of the mosque-cathedral of Córdoba served as models for later mosque buildings in the Islamic
Islamic
West of al-Andaluz and the Maghreb. At around 1000 AD, the Mezquita
Mezquita
de Bab al Mardum (today: Mosque
Mosque
of Cristo de la Luz) in Toledo was constructed with a similar, eight-ribbed dome. Similar domes are also seen in the mosque building of the Aljafería
Aljafería
of Zaragoza. The architectural form of the ribbed dome was further developed in the Maghreb: The central dome of the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Tlemcen, a masterpiece of the Almoravids
Almoravids
built in 1082, has twelve slender ribs, the shell between the ribs is filled with filigree stucco work.[42] Islamic
Islamic
Iran[edit] Because of its long history of building and re-building, spanning the time from the Abbasids
Abbasids
to the Qajar dynasty, and its excellent state of conservation, the Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan
Isfahan
provides an overview over the experiments Islamic
Islamic
architects conducted with complicated vaulting structures.[43] The system of squinches, which is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome, was already known in Sasanian
Sasanian
architecture.[44] The spherical triangles of the squinches were split up into further subdivisions or systems of niches, resulting in a complex interplay of supporting structures forming an ornamental spatial pattern which hides the weight of the structure. The "non-radial rib vault", an architectural form of ribbed vaults with a superimposed spherical dome, is the characteristic architectural vault form of the Islamic
Islamic
East. From its beginnings in the Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan, this form of vault was used in a sequence of important buildings up to the period of Safavid architecture. Its main characteristics are:[43]

Four intersecting ribs, at times redoubled and intersected to form an eight-pointed star; the omission of a transition zone between the vault and the supporting structure; a central dome or roof lantern on top of the ribbed vault.

While intersecting pairs of ribs from the main decorative feature of Seljuk architecture, the ribs were hidden behind additional architectural elements in later periods, as exemplified in the dome of the Tomb
Tomb
of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv, until they finally disappeared completely behind the double shell of a stucco dome, as seen in the dome of Ālī Qāpū
Ālī Qāpū
in Isfahan.[43]

Dome
Dome
of the Fire temple of Harpak in Abyaneh

Non-radial rib vault in the Jameh Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan

Dome
Dome
of the tomb of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv

Upper dome of Ālī Qāpū, Isfahan

Adina Mosque, West Bengal, India

Domes[edit] Based on the model of pre-existing Byzantine
Byzantine
domes, the Ottoman Architecture developed a specific form of monumental, representative building: Wide central domes with huge diameters were erected on top of a centre-plan building. Despite their enormous weight, the domes appear virtually weightless. Some of the most elaborate domed buildings have been constructed by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. When the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they found a variety of Byzantine
Byzantine
Christian
Christian
churches, the largest and most prominent amongst them was the Hagia Sophia. The brickwork-and-mortar ribs and the spherical shell of the central dome of the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
were built simultaneously, as a self-supporting structure without any wooden centring.[45] In the early Byzantine
Byzantine
church of Hagia Irene, the ribs of the dome vault are fully integrated into the shell, similar to Western Roman domes, and thus are not visible from within the building.[46] In the dome of the Hagia Sophia, the ribs and shell of the dome unite in a central medallion at the apex of the dome, the upper ends of the ribs being integrated into the shell: Shell and ribs form one single structural entity. In later Byzantine
Byzantine
buildings, like the Kalenderhane Mosque, the Eski Imaret Mosque
Mosque
(formerly the Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes) or the Pantokrator Monastery (today: Zeyrek Mosque), the central medallion of the apex and the ribs of the dome became separate structural elements: The ribs are more pronounced and connect to the central medallion, which also stands out more pronouncedly, so that the entire construction gives the impression as if ribs and medallion are separate from, and underpin, the proper shell of the dome.[47] Mimar Sinan
Mimar Sinan
solved the structural issues of the Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
dome by constructing a system of centrally symmetric pillars with flanking semi-domes, as exemplified by the design of the Süleymaniye Mosque (four pillars with two flanking shield walls and two semi-domes, 1550–1557), the Rüstem Pasha Mosque
Mosque
(eight pillars with four diagonal semi-domes, 1561–1563), and the Selimiye Mosque
Mosque
in Edirne (eight pillars with four diagonal semi-domes, 1567/8–1574/5). In the history of architecture, the structure of the Selimiye Mosque
Mosque
has no precedent. All elements of the building subordinate to its great dome.[48][49][50]

Schematic drawing of a pendentive dome

Central domes of the Hagia Sophia

Dome
Dome
of the Kalenderhane Mosque

Selimiye Mosque

Muqarnas[edit] Main article: Muqarnas The architectural element of muqarnas developed in northeastern Iran and the Maghreb
Maghreb
around the middle of the 10th century. The ornament is created by the geometric subdivision of a vaulting structure into miniature, superimposed pointed-arch substructures, also known as "honeycomb", or "stalactite" vaults. Made from different materials like stone, brick, wood or stucco, its use in architecture spread over the entire Islamic
Islamic
world. In the Islamic
Islamic
West, muqarnas are also used to adorn the outside of a dome, cupola, or similar structure, whilst in the East is more limited to the interior face of a vault.

Design of a muqarnas quarter vault from the Topkapı Scroll

Muqarnas
Muqarnas
in the necropolis of Shah-i-Zinda, Samarqand

Muqarnas
Muqarnas
in the Alhambra

The muqarna of a mosque in Bukhara, Uzbekistan

Ornaments[edit] Main articles: Islamic
Islamic
interlace patterns, Islamic
Islamic
geometric patterns, and Arabesque As a common feature, Islamic
Islamic
architecture makes use of specific ornamental forms, including mathematically complicated, elaborate geometric and interlace patterns, floral motifs like the arabesque, and elaborate calligraphic inscriptions, which serve to decorate a building, specify the intention of the building by the selection of the textual program of the inscriptions. For example, the calligraphic inscriptions adorning the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
include quotations from the Quran
Quran
(e.g., Quran
Quran
19:33–35) which reference the miracle of Jesus and his human nature. The geometric or floral, interlaced forms, taken together, constitute an infinitely repeated pattern that extends beyond the visible material world.[51] To many in the Islamic
Islamic
world, they symbolize the concept of infinite proves of existence of one eternal God. The repetitiveness, simplicity contrasted with complexity and percision suggests that our complex universe is only one of the many manifestations of the infinitely obvious and present Allah, the one God. Furthermore, the Islamic
Islamic
artist conveys a definite spirituality without the iconography of Christian
Christian
art. Non-figural ornaments are used in mosques and buildings around the Muslim world, and it is a way of decorating using beautiful, embellishing and repetitive Islamic
Islamic
art instead of using pictures of humans and animals (which some Muslims believe is forbidden (Haram) in Islam). Instead of recalling something related to the reality of the spoken word, calligraphy for the Muslim is a visible expression of spiritual concepts. Calligraphy has arguably become the most venerated form of Islamic art
Islamic art
because it provides a link between the languages of the Muslims with the religion of Islam. The holy book of Islam, al-Qur'ān, has played a vital role in the development of the Arabic language, and by extension, calligraphy in the Arabic alphabet. Proverbs and complete passages from the Qur'an
Qur'an
are still active sources for Islamic
Islamic
calligraphy. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.

Geometrical tile ornament (Zellij), Ben Youssef Madrasa, Maroc

Arabesques and floral decoration in the Aljafería
Aljafería
of Zaragoza

Calligraphic inscription on the dome of the Mevlana mausoleum

Dome
Dome
of the Shah Mosque
Mosque
in Isfahan
Isfahan
with calligraphic inscription

Bengali Islamic
Islamic
terracotta on a 17th-century mosque in Tangail, Bangladesh

Architectural forms[edit] Many forms of Islamic
Islamic
architecture have evolved in different regions of the Islamic
Islamic
world. Notable Islamic
Islamic
architectural types include the early Abbasid
Abbasid
buildings, T-Type mosques, and the central-dome mosques of Anatolia. The oil-wealth of the 20th century drove a great deal of mosque construction using designs from leading modern architects. Arab-plan or hypostyle mosques are the earliest type of mosques, pioneered under the Umayyad Dynasty. These mosques are square or rectangular in plan with an enclosed courtyard and a covered prayer hall. Historically, because of the warm Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and Middle Eastern climates, the courtyard served to accommodate the large number of worshippers during Friday prayers. Most early hypostyle mosques have flat roofs on top of prayer halls, necessitating the use of numerous columns and supports.[52] One of the most notable hypostyle mosques is the Mezquita
Mezquita
in Córdoba, Spain, as the building is supported by over 850 columns.[53] Frequently, hypostyle mosques have outer arcades so that visitors can enjoy some shade. Arab-plan mosques were constructed mostly under the Umayyad and Abbasid
Abbasid
dynasties; subsequently, however, the simplicity of the Arab
Arab
plan limited the opportunities for further development, and as a result, these mosques gradually fell out of popularity.[52] The Ottomans introduced central dome mosques in the 15th century and have a large dome centered over the prayer hall. In addition to having one large dome at the center, there are often smaller domes that exist off-center over the prayer hall or throughout the rest of the mosque, where prayer is not performed.[54] This style was heavily influenced by the Byzantine
Byzantine
religious architecture with its use of large central domes.[52]

The interior of the Mezquita
Mezquita
in Córdoba, Spain.

A sample of modern Islamic
Islamic
architecture - The mosque of international conferences center - Isfahan

Specific architectural elements[edit]

Plan view of Bab al-Barqiyya along Ayyubid
Ayyubid
Wall. Located close to one of Cairo's main modern traffic arteries, al-Azhar Street, the Fatimid-era Bab al-Barqiyya fortified gate was constructed with interlocking volumes that surrounded the entrant in such a way as to provide greater security and control than typical city wall gates. Laser scan data from an Aga Khan Foundation/ CyArk
CyArk
research partnership.

Islamic
Islamic
architecture may be identified with the following design elements, which were inherited from the first mosque buildings (originally a feature of the Masjid al-Nabawi).

Minarets or towers (these were originally used as torch-lit watchtowers, as seen in the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Damascus; hence the derivation of the word from the Arabic nur, meaning "light"). The minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan
Great Mosque of Kairouan
in Tunisia
Tunisia
is considered as the oldest surviving minaret in the world.[55] It has the shape of a square massive tower of three superimposed sections.[55] A four-iwan plan, with three subordinate halls and one principal one that faces toward Mecca Mihrab
Mihrab
or prayer niche on an inside wall indicating the direction to Mecca. Domes
Domes
and Cupolas. In South East Asia ( Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia), these are very recent additions. Pishtaq is the formal gateway to the iwan, usually the main prayer hall of a mosque, a vaulted hall or space, walled on three sides, with one end entirely open; a Persian term for a portal projecting from the facade of a building, usually decorated with calligraphy bands, glazed tilework, and geometric designs.[56][57] Iwans to intermediate between different pavilions.

Towns and cities[edit] Urban and nomadic life according to Ibn Khaldun[edit] During its history, the society of the pre-modern Islamic
Islamic
world was dominated by two important social contexts, nomadic life and Urbanism. The historian and politician Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
thoroughly discusses both concepts in his book Muqaddimah. According to him, the way of life and culture of the rural bedouin nomads and the townspeople are opposed in a central social conflict. Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
explains the rise and fall of civilizations by his concept of Asabiyyah ("bond of cohesion", or "family loyalty"), as exemplified by the rule of the caliphs. Bedouins, being the nomadic inhabitants of the steppe and the desert, are interconnected by strong bonds of asabiyyah and firm religious beliefs. These bonds tend to slacken in urban communities over some generations. In parallel, by losing their asabiyyah, the townspeople also lose the power to defend themselves, and fall victims to more aggressive tribes which may destroy the city and set up a new ruling dynasty, which over time is subject to the same weakening of power again.[58] Experiments with the hellenistic Ideal city[edit] The antique concept of the architecture of a Greek polis or Roman civitas is based on a structure of main and smaller roads running through the entire city, and dividing it into quarters. The streets are oriented towards public buildings like a palace, temple, or a public square. Two main roads, (cardo and decumanus) cross each other at right angles in the center of the city. A few cities were founded during the early Islamic
Islamic
Umayyad Caliphate, the outlines of which were based on the Ancient Roman concept of the Ideal city. An example of a city planned according to Hellenistic concepts was excavated at Anjar in Lebanon.[59] Transformation of conquered towns[edit] More often than founding new cities, the new Islamic
Islamic
rulers took over existing towns, and transformed them according to the needs of the new Islamic
Islamic
society. This process of transformation proved to be decisive for the development of the traditional Islamic
Islamic
city, or Medina.[60] The principle of arranging buildings is known as "horizontal spread". Residencies and public buildings as well as private housing tend to be laid out separately, and are not directly related to each other architectonically. Archaeological excavations at the city of Jerash, the Gerasa of Antiquity, have revealed how the Umayyads
Umayyads
have transformed the city plan.[61] Urban morphology of the Medina[edit] The architecture of the "oriental"- Islamic
Islamic
town is based on cultural and sociological concepts which differ from those of European cities. In both cultures, a distinction is made between the areas used by the rulers and their government and administration, public places of everyday common life, and the areas of private life. Whilst the structures and concepts of European towns originated from a sociological struggle to gain basic rights of freedom – or town privileges – from political or religious authorities during the Middle Ages, an Islamic
Islamic
town or city is fundamentally influenced by the preservation of the unity of secular and religious life throughout time.[62] The fundamental principle of the Islamic
Islamic
society is the ummah, or ummat al-Islamiyah (Arabic: الأمة الإسلامية‎), the community of Muslims of whom each individual is equally submitted to Allah
Allah
under the common law of sharia, which also subjected the respective ruler, at least nominally. In Abbasid
Abbasid
times, some cities like the Round city of Baghdad
Baghdad
were constructed from scratch, set up to a plan which focused on the caliph's residence, located in the very centre of the city, with main roads leading radially from the city gates to the central palace, dividing individual tribal sections with no interconnection, and separated from each other by radial walls. However, these efforts were of short duration only, and the original plan soon disappeared and gave way to succeeding buildings and architectural structures. In a medina, palaces and residences as well as public places like mosque-madrasa-hospital complexes and private living spaces rather coexist alongside each other. The buildings tend to be more inwardly oriented, and are separated from the surrounding "outside" either by walls or by the hierarchical ordering of the streets, or both. Streets tend to lead from public main roads to cul-de-sac byroads and onwards into more private plots, and then end there. There are no, or very few, internal connections between different quarters of the city. In order to move from one quarter to the next, one has to go back to the main road again.[62] Within a city quarter, byroads lead towards individual building complexes or clusters of houses. The individual house is frequently also oriented towards an inner atrium, and enclosed by walls, which mostly are unadorned, unlike European outward-oriented, representative facades. Thus, the spatial structure of a medina essentially reflects the ancient nomadic tradition of living in a family group or tribe, held together by asabiyya, strictly separated from the "outside". In general, the morphology of an Islamic
Islamic
medina is granting – or denying – access according to the basic concept of hierarchical degrees of privacy. The inhabitants move from public space to the living quarters of their tribe, and onwards to their family home. Within a family house, there are again to be found common and separate spaces, the latter, and most private, usually reserved for women and children. In the end, only the family heads have free and unlimited access to all rooms and areas of ther private home, as opposed to the more European concept of interconnecting different spaces for free and easy access. The hierarchy of privacy thus guides and structurizes the entire social life in a medina, from the caliph down to his most humble subject, from the town to the house.[63]

Medina
Medina
quarter of Fez, Morocco

Figure-ground diagram
Figure-ground diagram
of Algiers

Figure-ground diagram
Figure-ground diagram
of a European town (1819)

Frontier fortresses and towns[edit]

Mosque
Mosque
in Qasr al-Hallabat

Entrance courtyard of Qasr al-Hallabat

Misr, Ribat[edit] In the frontier area of the Arabic expansion, military forts (Misr, Pl. Arabic: أمصار‎, amṣār), or Ribat
Ribat
(Arabic: رباط‎ ribāṭ, fortress) were founded. The structure and function of a misr is similar to an ancient Roman Colonia.[64] Like a frontier colony, the fortress served as a base for further conquests. Arabian military forts of this type were frequently built in the vicinity of an older town from Antiquity or from Byzantine
Byzantine
times. They frequently were of square format.[65] Rather than maintaining their original purpose to serve as a military base, many amṣār developed into urbane and administrative centers. In particular, this happened in the case of the Iraqi cities of Kufa and Basra, which became known as "al-miṣrān" ("the [two] forts"), but also with Fustat
Fustat
and Kairouan
Kairouan
in North Africa. Qaṣr[edit] Qaṣr (Arabic: قصر‎, qaṣr; Pl. Arabic: قصور‎, quṣūr) means palace, castle or (frontier) fort. Fortresses from Late Antiquity often continued to be in use, whilst their function changed during time. Some quṣūr were already used as Castra
Castra
during Roman times, and were part of the fortifications of the North African Limes. Already during the Ancient Roman times, castra did not only serve as fortifications, but also as markets and meeting points for the tribes living beyond the border. Smaller quṣūr are found in modern Jordan, and include Qasr Al-Hallabat (located 50 km east of Amman), Qasr Bushir (15 km north of Lajjun), the castle of Daganiya (45 km north of Ma'an) and Odruh (22 km east of Wadi Musa). After the Limes Arabicus was abandoned by the Roman Empire, many of the castra continued to be in use.[66] This continuity was subject to archaeological investigations in the fort of Qasr al-Hallabat, which at different times served as a Roman castrum, Christian
Christian
cenobitic monastery, and finally as an Umayyad Qasr.[67] Qasr Al-Kharanah
Qasr Al-Kharanah
is one of the earliest known Desert castles, its architectural form clearly demonstrates the influence of Sasanian
Sasanian
architecture. According to a hypothesis developed by Jean Sauvaget, the umayyad quṣūr played a role in the systematic agricultural colonisation of the uninhabited frontier areas, and, as such, continue the colonisation strategy of earlier Christian
Christian
monks and the Ghassanids.[68] The Umayyads, however, increasingly oriented their political strategy towards a model of Client politics, of mutual interdependence and support.[69] After the Umayyad conquest, the quṣūr lost their original function and were either abandoned or continued to serve as local market places and meeting points until the tenth century.[66] Another type of Islamic
Islamic
fortress is Qalat. Early history[edit]

Moorish ceiling in Alhambra.

Section of the Umayyad-era Mshatta Facade, now in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, from a palace near Amman.

Bab al-Futuh gate built by the Fatimid
Fatimid
vazir Badr al-Jamali.

There are few buildings dating from the era of Prophet Muhammad, but one example is the Jawatha Mosque
Mosque
in Saudi Arabia. The Rashidun Caliphate (632–661) was the first state to use Islamic
Islamic
Architecture. The Umayyad Caliphate
Umayyad Caliphate
(661–750) combined elements of Byzantine architecture and Sassanid architecture, but Umayyad architecture introduced new combinations of these western and eastern styles.[70] The horseshoe arch appears for the first time in Umayyad architecture, later to evolve to its most advanced form in al-Andalus.[71] Umayyad architecture is distinguished by the extent and variety of decoration, including mosaics, wall painting, sculpture and carved reliefs with Islamic
Islamic
motifs.[72] The Umayyads
Umayyads
introduced a transept that divided the prayer room along its shorter axis.[73] They also added the mihrab to mosque design.[73] The mosque in Medina
Medina
built by al-Walid I had the first mihrab, a niche on the qibla wall, which seems to have represented the place where the Prophet stood when leading prayer. This almost immediately became a standard feature of all mosques.[73] The Abbasid
Abbasid
architecture of the Abbasid
Abbasid
Caliphate (750–1513) was strongly influenced by Sassanid architecture, and later by Central Asian styles. The Abbasid
Abbasid
mosques all followed the courtyard plan. The earliest was the mosque that al-Mansur built in Baghdad. since destroyed. The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Samarra
Samarra
built by al-Mutawakkil was 256 by 139 metres (840 by 456 ft). A flat wooden roof was supported by columns. The mosque was decorated with marble panels and glass mosaics.[74] The prayer hall of the Abu Dulaf mosque at Samarra
Samarra
had arcades on rectangular brick piers running at right angles to the qibla wall. Both of the Samarra
Samarra
mosques have spiral minarets, the only examples in Iraq.[74] A mosque at Balkh
Balkh
in what is now Afghanistan
Afghanistan
was about 20 by 20 metres (66 by 66 ft) square, with three rows of three square bays, supporting nine vaulted domes.[75] Construction of the Great Mosque
Mosque
at Córdoba (now a cathedral known as the Mezquita) beginning in 785 CE marks the beginning of Moorish architecture in the Iberian peninsula
Iberian peninsula
and North Africa (see Moors). The mosque is noted for its striking interior arches. Moorish architecture reached its peak with the construction of the Alhambra, the magnificent palace/fortress of Granada, with its open and breezy interior spaces adorned in red, blue, and gold. The walls are decorated with stylized foliage motifs, Arabic inscriptions, and arabesque design work, with walls covered in glazed tile. Their other, smaller, survivals such as the Bab Mardum in Toledo, or the caliphal city of Medina
Medina
Azahara. Moorish architecture
Moorish architecture
has its roots deeply established in the Arab
Arab
tradition of architecture and design established during the era of the first Caliphate of the Umayyads
Umayyads
in the Levant
Levant
circa 660AD with its capital Damascus
Damascus
having very well preserved examples of fine Arab
Arab
Islamic
Islamic
design and geometrics, including the carmen, which is the typical Damascene house, opening on the inside with a fountain as the house's centre piece. Fatimid architecture
Fatimid architecture
in Egypt followed Tulunid
Tulunid
techniques and used similar materials, but also developed those of their own. In Cairo, their first congregational mosque was al-Azhar mosque ("the splendid") founded along with the city (969–973), which, together with its adjacent institution of higher learning (al-Azhar University), became the spiritual center for Ismaili
Ismaili
Shia. The Mosque
Mosque
of al-Hakim (r. 996–1013), an important example of Fatimid architecture
Fatimid architecture
and architectural decoration, played a critical role in Fatimid
Fatimid
ceremonial and procession, which emphasized the religious and political role of the Fatimid
Fatimid
caliph. Besides elaborate funerary monuments, other surviving Fatimid
Fatimid
structures include the Aqmar Mosque
Mosque
(1125)[76] and the Al-Hakim Mosque, as well as the monumental gates for Cairo's city walls commissioned by the powerful Fatimid
Fatimid
emir and vizier Badr al-Jamali (r. 1073–1094).[77] The reign of the Mamluks (1250–1517 AD) in Egypt marked a breathtaking flowering of Islamic art
Islamic art
which is most visible in old Cairo. Religious zeal made them generous patrons of architecture and art. Trade and agriculture flourished under Mamluk
Mamluk
rule, and Cairo, their capital, became one of the wealthiest cities in the Near East and the center of artistic and intellectual activity. This made Cairo, in the words of Ibn Khaldun, "the center of the universe and the garden of the world", with majestic domes, courtyards, and soaring minarets spread across the city. Regional styles[edit] Persian[edit] See also: Persian architecture

Tarikhaneh Temple, a pre- Islamic
Islamic
monument built in Sassanid Persia which was later turned into a mosque, showing elements of pre-Islamic Iranian architecture
Iranian architecture
in Islamic
Islamic
architecture.

The Islamic
Islamic
conquest of Persia
Persia
in the 7th century
7th century
availed the Muslims with the vast wealth of architectural innovation developed over the centuries, from the great roads, aqueducts and arches of the Roman Empire, to the Byzantine
Byzantine
basilicas and Persian horseshoe and pointed arches, and the Sassanian and Byzantine
Byzantine
mosaics. The Islamic architects first utilized these native architects to build mosques, and eventually developed their own adaptations. Islamic
Islamic
architecture thus is directly related to Persian and Byzantine
Byzantine
architecture. In Persia
Persia
and Central Asia, the Tahirids, Samanids, Ghaznavids, and Ghurids
Ghurids
struggled for power in the 10th century, and art was a vital element of this competition. Great cities were built, such as Nishapur and Ghazni
Ghazni
(Afghanistan), and the construction of the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Isfahan
Isfahan
(which would continue, in fits and starts, over several centuries) was initiated. Funerary architecture was also cultivated. Under the Seljuqs the "Iranian plan" of mosque construction appears for the first time. Lodging places called khans, or caravanserai, for travellers and their animals, or caravansarais, generally displayed utilitarian rather than ornamental architecture, with rubble masonry, strong fortifications, and minimal comfort.[78] Seljuq architecture synthesized various styles, both Iranian and Syrian, sometimes rendering precise attributions difficult. Another important architectural trend to arise in the Seljuk era is the development of mausolea including the tomb tower such as the Gunbad-i-qabus (circa 1006-7) (showcasing a Zoroastrian motif) and the domed square, an example of which is the tomb of the Samanids in the city of Bukhara (circa 943).[79] The Il-Khanate period provided several innovations to dome-building that eventually enabled the Persians to construct much taller structures. These changes later paved the way for Safavid architecture. The pinnacle of Il-Khanate architecture was reached with the construction of the Soltaniyeh
Soltaniyeh
Dome
Dome
(1302–1312) in Zanjan, Iran, which measures 50 m in height and 25 m in diameter, making it the 3rd largest and the tallest masonry dome ever erected.[80] The thin, double-shelled dome was reinforced by arches between the layers.[81] The tomb of Öljeitü
Öljeitü
in Soltaniyeh
Soltaniyeh
is one of the greatest and most impressive monuments in Iran, despite many later depredations. Iranian architecture
Iranian architecture
and city planning also reached an apogee under the Timurids, in particular with the monuments of Samarkand, marked by extensive use of exterior ceramic tiles and muqarnas vaulting within.

Shah Mosque
Mosque
in Naqsh-e Jahan Square, Isfahan, Iran

The renaissance in Persian mosque and dome building came during the Safavid dynasty, when Shah Abbas, in 1598 initiated the reconstruction of Isfahan, with the Naqsh-e Jahan Square
Naqsh-e Jahan Square
as the centerpiece of his new capital.[82] The distinct feature of Persian domes, which separates them from those domes created in the Christian
Christian
world or the Ottoman and Mughal empires, was the colorful tiles, with which they covered the exterior of their domes, as they would on the interior. These domes soon numbered dozens in Isfahan, and the distinct, blue- colored shape would dominate the skyline of the city. Reflecting the light of the sun, these domes appeared like glittering turquoise gem and could be seen from miles away by travelers following the Silk road through Persia. This very distinct style of architecture was inherited to them from the Seljuq dynasty, who for centuries had used it in their mosque building, but it was perfected during the Safavids when they invented the haft- rangi, or seven- colour style of tile burning, a process that enabled them to apply more colours to each tile, creating richer patterns, sweeter to the eye.[83] The colours that the Persians favoured were golden, white and turquoise patterns on a dark- blue background.[84] The extensive inscription bands of calligraphy and arabesque on most of the major buildings where carefully planned and executed by Ali Reza Abbasi, who was appointed head of the royal library and Master calligrapher at the Shah's court in 1598,[85] while Shaykh Bahai
Shaykh Bahai
oversaw the construction projects. Reaching 53 meters in height, the dome of Masjed-e Shah (Shah Mosque) would become the tallest in the city when it was finished in 1629. It was built as a double- shelled dome, with 14 m spanning between the two layers, and resting on an octagonal dome chamber.[86] Persian-style mosques are also characterized by their tapered brick pillars, large arcades and arches each supported by several pillars. In South Asia, such art was also used as was a technique throughout the region..[87]

The Bibi-Heybat Mosque
Mosque
in Baku, Azerbaijan

The Islamic
Islamic
conquest of Persia
Persia
in the 7th century
7th century
also helped Islamic architecture to flourish in Azerbaijan.[88][89] The country became home of Nakchivan and Shirvan-Absheron architecture schools. An example of the first direction in the Azerbaijani Islamic
Islamic
architecture is the mausoleum of Yusuf, built in 1162.[citation needed] The Shirvan-Absheron school unlike Nakchivan style used stones instead of the bricks in the construction. At the same characteristics of this trend were the asymmetry and stone carving, which includes famous landmarks like Palace
Palace
of the Shirvanshahs Ottoman[edit] Main article: Ottoman architecture

Sultan Ahmed Mosque, built in 1616. (Istanbul, Turkey)

The standard plan of Ottoman architecture
Ottoman architecture
was inspired in part by the example of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
in Constantinople/Istanbul, Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
works like Oljeitu
Oljeitu
Tomb
Tomb
and earlier Seljuk and Anatolian Beylik monumental buildings and their own original innovations. The most famous of Ottoman architects was (and remains) Mimar Sinan, who lived for approximately one hundred years and designed several hundreds of buildings, of which two of the most important are Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul
Istanbul
and Selimiye Mosque
Mosque
in Edirne. Apprentices of Sinan later built the famous Blue Mosque
Mosque
in Istanbul
Istanbul
and the Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
in India.[citation needed] The most numerous and largest of mosques exist in Turkey, which obtained influence from Byzantine, Persian and Syrian- Arab
Arab
designs. Turkish architects implemented their own style of cupola domes.[87] For almost 500 years Byzantine architecture
Byzantine architecture
such as the church of Hagia Sophia
Hagia Sophia
served as models for many of the Ottoman mosques such as the Shehzade Mosque, the Suleiman Mosque, and the Rüstem Pasha Mosque. The Ottomans mastered the technique of building vast inner spaces confined by seemingly weightless yet massive domes, and achieving perfect harmony between inner and outer spaces, as well as light and shadow. Islamic
Islamic
religious architecture which until then consisted of simple buildings with extensive decorations, was transformed by the Ottomans through a dynamic architectural vocabulary of vaults, domes, semidomes and columns. The mosque was transformed from being a cramped and dark chamber with arabesque-covered walls into a sanctuary of esthetic and technical balance, refined elegance and a hint of heavenly transcendence.

Turkistan (Timurid)[edit]

Registan
Registan
is the ensemble of three madrasas, in Samarkand, modern day Uzbekistan.

Timurid architecture is the pinnacle of Islamic art
Islamic art
in Central Asia. Spectacular and stately edifices erected by Timur
Timur
and his successors in Samarkand
Samarkand
and Herat
Herat
helped to disseminate the influence of the Ilkhanid
Ilkhanid
school of art in India, thus giving rise to the celebrated Mughal school of architecture. Timurid architecture started with the sanctuary of Ahmed Yasawi in present-day Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and culminated in Timur's mausoleum Gur-e Amir
Gur-e Amir
in Samarkand. The style is largely derived from Persian architecture. Axial symmetry
Axial symmetry
is a characteristic of all major Timurid structures, notably the Shah-i-Zinda
Shah-i-Zinda
in Samarkand and the mosque of Gowhar Shad
Gowhar Shad
in Mashhad. Double domes of various shapes abound, and the outsides are perfused with brilliant colors. Moroccan architecture[edit] Main article: Moroccan architecture

El Hedim Square in Meknes, Morocco
Morocco
with the "Bab Mansour Gate" in the Old city of Meknes.

Moroccan architecture
Moroccan architecture
dates from 110 BCE with the Berber's massive pisé (mud brick) buildings. The architecture has been influenced by Islamization during the Idrisid dynasty, Moorish exiles from Spain, and also by France who occupied Morocco
Morocco
in 1912. Morocco
Morocco
is in Northern-Africa bordering the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and the Atlantic. The country's diverse geography and the land’s long history marked by successive waves of settlers and military encroachments are all reflected in Morocco's architecture. Yemenite architecture[edit]

Bab al-Yaman
Bab al-Yaman
(Gate of the Yemen) and the Old city of Sana'a, Yemen.

Yemenite architecture Is the architecture that characterizes houses built on several floors, some of the floors used as a line A storage room with removable stairs. The houses are made of mud bricks mixed with Gypsum. Russian- Islamic
Islamic
architecture[edit] Main article: Tatar mosque

Kazan
Kazan
Family Center in Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

Russian - Islamic
Islamic
architecture is a feature of the architecture of the Tatars, formed under the influence of a sedentary and nomadic way of life in ancient times, developing in the epochs of the Golden Horde, the Tatar khanates and under the rule of the Russian Empire. The architecture was formed in the modern form for many centuries and depended on the culture, aesthetics and religion of the population, therefore combines a unique combination of Eastern, Russian, Bulgarian, Golden Horde architecture, European styles dominating in Russia
Russia
at one time or another, especially this Is clearly reflected in the Tatar mosques. Indo-Islamic[edit] Main articles: Indo- Islamic
Islamic
architecture, Mughal architecture, and Bengali Muslim architecture See also: Indian architecture, Pakistani architecture, and Bangladeshi architecture

Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal
in Agra, India.

The most famous Indo- Islamic
Islamic
style is Mughal architecture. Its most prominent examples are the series of imperial mausolea, which started with the pivotal Tomb
Tomb
of Humayun, but is best known for the Taj Mahal, completed in 1648 by emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal who died while giving birth to their 14th child. The Taj Mahal is completely symmetrical except for Shah Jahan's sarcophagus, which is placed off center in the crypt room below the main floor. This symmetry extended to the building of an entire mirror mosque in black marble to complement the Mecca-facing mosque place to the west of the main structure. A famous example of the charbagh style of Mughal garden is the Shalimar Gardens in Lahore, where the domeless Tomb
Tomb
of Jahangir is also located. Bibi Ka Maqbara
Bibi Ka Maqbara
in Aurangabad which was commissioned by sixth Mughal Emperor
Mughal Emperor
Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
in memory of his wife. The Red Fort
Fort
in Delhi
Delhi
and Agra
Agra
Fort
Fort
are huge castle-like fortified palaces, and the abandoned city of Fatehpur Sikri, 26 miles (42 km) west of Agra, was built for Akbar
Akbar
in the late 16th century.[90]

1 7th century
7th century
village mosque, Bangladesh

Within the subcontinent, the Bengal
Bengal
region developed a distinct regional style under the independent Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate. It incorporated influences from Persia, Byzantium and North India,[91] which were with blended indigenous Bengali elements, such as curved roofs, corner towers and complex terracotta ornamentation. One feature in the sultanate was the relative absence of minarets.[92] Many small and medium-sized medieval mosques, with multiple domes and artistic niche mihrabs, were constructed throughout the region.[92] The grand mosque of Bengal
Bengal
was the 14th century Adina Mosque, the largest mosque in the Indian subcontinent. Built of stone demolished from temples, it featured a monumental ribbed barrel vault over the central nave, the first such giant vault used anywhere in the subcontinent. The mosque was modeled on the imperial Sasanian
Sasanian
style of Persia.[93] The Sultanate style flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. A provincial style influenced by North India
India
evolved in Mughal Bengal during the 17th and 18th centuries. The Mughals also copied the Bengali do-chala roof tradition for mausoleums in North India.[94] Sino-Islamic[edit] Main article: Chinese mosques

Hui people
Hui people
who have also migrated to the south such as this Darunaman Mosque, locating in Chiang Rai province, Thailand
Thailand
shows a great mixture between Chinese and Islamic
Islamic
architecture.

The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Xi'an, China

The first Chinese mosque was established in the 7th century
7th century
during the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
in Xi'an. The Great Mosque
Mosque
of Xi'an, whose current buildings date from the Ming Dynasty, does not replicate many of the features often associated with traditional mosques. Instead, it follows traditional Chinese architecture. Some Chinese mosques
Chinese mosques
in parts of western China
China
were more likely to incorporate minarets and domes while eastern Chinese mosques
Chinese mosques
were more likely to look like pagodas.[95] An important lathan feature in Chinese architecture
Chinese architecture
is its emphasis on symmetry, which connotes a sense of grandeur; this applies to everything from palaces to mosques. One notable exception is in the design of gardens, which tends to be as asymmetrical as possible. Like Chinese scroll paintings, the principle underlying the garden's composition is to create enduring flow; to let the patron wander and enjoy the garden without prescription, as in nature herself. Chinese buildings may be built with either red or grey bricks, but wooden structures are the most common; these are more capable of withstanding earthquakes, but are vulnerable to fire. The roof of a typical Chinese building is curved; there are strict classifications of gable types, comparable with the classical orders of European columns. Most mosques have certain aspects in common with each other however as with other regions Chinese Islamic
Islamic
architecture reflects the local architecture in its style. China
China
is renowned for its beautiful mosques, which resemble temples. However, in western China
China
the mosques resemble those of the Arab
Arab
World, with tall, slender minarets, curvy arches and dome shaped roofs. In northwest China
China
where the Chinese Hui have built their mosques, there is a combination of eastern and western styles. The mosques have flared Buddhist style roofs set in walled courtyards entered through archways with miniature domes and minarets.[96] Indonesian-Malaysian[edit] Main article: Indonesian Islamic
Islamic
architecture

Minaret
Minaret
is not an original architecture of Indonesian mosque, instead this mosque employs a temple-like structure for a drum used to call prayer.

The Grand Mosque
Mosque
of the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Indonesia, features multi-layered roof typical of Indonesian mosque architecture.

Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
was slow to adopt Middle Eastern architectural styles. Islam
Islam
entered Indonesia
Indonesia
in the 15th-century via Java
Java
island, during which period the dominant religion in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
included a variety of pagan groups. Introduction of Islam
Islam
was peaceful. Existing architectural features in Indonesia
Indonesia
such as the candi bentar gate, paduraksa (normally marks entrance to the most sacred precincts), and the sacred pyramidal roof was used for Islamic
Islamic
architecture. For centuries, Indonesian mosques lacked domes or minarets, both considered a Middle Eastern origin. Indonesian original mosques feature multi-layered pyramidal roofs and no minaret. Prayer are called by striking a prayer's drum known as beduk. The minaret of the Menara Kudus Mosque
Mosque
is a great example of Indonesian architecture. Indonesian mosque architecture also features strong influence from the Middle Eastern architecture styles.[97] The architecture of Javanese Indonesian mosques had a strong influence on the design of other mosques in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and the Philippines. Today, with increasing Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, Indonesian-Malaysian mosques are developing a more standard, international style, with a dome and minaret. Sahelian-Islamic[edit] Main article: Sudano-Sahelian In West Africa, Islamic
Islamic
merchants played a vital role in the Western Sahel
Sahel
region since the Kingdom of Ghana. At Kumbi Saleh, locals lived in domed-shaped dwellings in the king's section of the city, surrounded by a great enclosure. Traders lived in stone houses in a section which possessed 12 beautiful mosques (as described by al-bakri), one centered on Friday prayer.[98] The king is said to have owned several mansions, one of which was sixty-six feet long, forty-two feet wide, contained seven rooms, was two stories high, and had a staircase; with the walls and chambers filled with sculpture and painting.[99] Sahelian architecture initially grew from the two cities of Djenné
Djenné
and Timbuktu. The Sankore
Sankore
Mosque
Mosque
in Timbuktu, constructed from mud on timber, was similar in style to the Great Mosque
Mosque
of Djenné. Somali-Islamic[edit] Main article: Somali architecture

Almnara Tower Somalia.

The 13th century Fakr ad-Din
Fakr ad-Din
Mosque
Mosque
in Mogadishu.

The peaceful introduction of Islam
Islam
in the early medieval era of Somalia's history brought Islamic
Islamic
architectural influences from Arabia and Persia, which stimulated a shift from drystone and other related materials in construction to coral stone, sundried bricks, and the widespread use of limestone in Somali architecture. Many of the new architectural designs such as mosques were built on the ruins of older structures, a practice that would continue over and over again throughout the following centuries.[100] Concordant with the ancient presence of Islam
Islam
in the Horn of Africa
Horn of Africa
region, mosques in Somalia
Somalia
are some of the oldest on the entire continent. One architectural feature that made Somali mosques distinct from other mosques in Africa were minarets. For centuries, Arba Rukun (1269), the Friday mosque of Merca
Merca
(1609) and Fakr ad-Din
Fakr ad-Din
(1269) were, in fact, the only mosques in East Africa to have minarets.[101] Fakr ad-Din, which dates back to the Mogadishan Golden Age, was built with marble and coral stone and included a compact rectangular plan with a domed mihrab axis. Glazed tiles were also used in the decoration of the mihrab, one of which bears a dated inscription. The 13th century Al Gami University consisted of a rectangular base with a large cylindrical tower architecturally unique in the Islamic
Islamic
world. Shrines
Shrines
to honor Somali patriarchs and matriarchs evolved from ancient Somali burial customs. In Southern Somalia
Somalia
the preferred medieval shrine architecture was the Pillar tomb
Pillar tomb
style while the North predominantly built structures consisting of domes and square plans. Interpretation[edit]

The Sebilj
Sebilj
is a pseudo-Ottoman style wooden fountain in the centre of Baščaršija
Baščaršija
square in Sarajevo, Bosnia.

Common interpretations of Islamic
Islamic
architecture include the following: The concept of God or Allah's infinite power is evoked by designs with repeating themes which suggest infinity. Human and animal forms are rarely depicted in decorative art as God's work is considered to be matchless. Foliage
Foliage
is a frequent motif but typically stylized or simplified for the same reason. Arabic Calligraphy
Arabic Calligraphy
is used to enhance the interior of a building by providing quotations from the Qur'an. Islamic
Islamic
architecture has been called the "architecture of the veil" because the beauty lies in the inner spaces (courtyards and rooms) which are not visible from the outside (street view). Furthermore, the use of grandiose forms such as large domes, towering minarets, and large courtyards are intended to convey power. Contemporary Muslim architects[edit]

Fazlur Khan Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil Vedat Dalokay Kamran Afshar Naderi T.Abdul Hussain Thariani Fahraddin Miralay Muzharul Islam Mubashra Ilyas Nabih Youssef Bashirul Haq Zaha Hadid Nayyar Ali Dada Habib Fida Ali Hassan Fathy Mimar Sinan

See also[edit]

Ablaq Archnet, database of Islamic
Islamic
architecture Bibi Ka Maqbara
Bibi Ka Maqbara
also known as mini-Tajmahal City of Gates
City of Gates
The City of Aurangabad with various gates showing Islamic
Islamic
Art Caravanserai Kasbah Sebil (drinking water facility) Turbah Well House Kulliyye Gozo Farmhouses Moroccan riad

Gallery[edit]

Chowmahalla Palace
Palace
in Hyderabad

Charminar at Old City in Hyderabad

Petronas Twin Towers
Petronas Twin Towers
in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Baiturrahman Grand Mosque, Indonesia, with Mughal and Dutch Colonial influences.

Masjid Agung Palembang, Indonesia, with Chinese influence.

Badshahi Mosque
Badshahi Mosque
in Lahore, Pakistan

Intricate pattern on the Window of Syedna Hatim
Syedna Hatim
Rauza

References[edit] Citations

^ a b Krautheimer, Richard. Early Christian
Christian
and Byzantine
Byzantine
Architecture Yale University Press Pelican History of Art, Penguin Books Ltd., 1965, p. 285. ^ Fletcher, Banister A History of Architecture on the Comparative Method 4th Edition, London, p. 476. ^ Copplestone, p.149 ^ A Tour of Architecture in Islamic
Islamic
Cities ^ UNESCO: Syria's Six World Heritage sites placed on List of World Heritage in Danger". 20 June 2013, accessed 1 February 2016 ^ Watt, William Montgomery (2003). Islam
Islam
and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-415-17587-6.  ^ a b Palmer, A. L. (2016-05-26). Historical Dictionary of Architecture (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 185–236. ISBN 1442263091.  ^ Quran 2:7–286 ^ Quran 3:96 (Translated by Yusuf Ali) ^ Quran 22:25–37 ^ Esposito, John (1998). Islam: The Straight Path (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 9, 12. ISBN 978-0-19-511234-4.  ^ Esposito (2002b), pp. 4–5. ^ Peters, F.E. (2003). Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-691-11553-2.  ^ Alli, Irfan (2013-02-26). 25 Prophets of Islam. eBookIt.com. ISBN 1456613073.  ^ Michigan Consortium for Medieval and Early Modern Studies (1986). Goss, V. P.; Bornstein, C. V., eds. The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange Between East and West During the Period of the Crusades. 21. Medieval Institute Publications, Western Michigan University. p. 208. ISBN 0918720583.  ^ Mustafa Abu Sway. "The Holy Land, Jerusalem
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and Al-Aqsa Mosque
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Literary Source" (PDF). Central Conference of American Rabbis. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-28.  ^ Dyrness, W. A. (2013-05-29). Senses of Devotion: Interfaith Aesthetics in Buddhist and Muslim Communities. 7. Wipf and Stock Publishers. p. 25. ISBN 162032136X.  ^ Avner, Rina "The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Light of the development of Concentric Martyria in Jerusalem" article in "Muqarnas: An annual on the visual cultures of the Islamic
Islamic
World" Vol 27, Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2010, p. 43–44 ^ The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, Martin Biddle. p.68 ^ Flood, Finbarr Barry The Great Mosque
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of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands, 2000, p. 67–68. "The vine frieze finds various counterparts in the decoration of pre- Islamic
Islamic
Syrian
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temples and churches ..." ^ "Green-man-of-cercles.org" (PDF). Retrieved 30 December 2017.  ^ Hillenbrand, Robert. Islamic
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Art and Architecture, Thames & Hudson World of Art series; 1999, London. ISBN 978-0-500-20305-7 ^ Gruber, World of Art ^ Hillenbrand (1999). ^ Petrie, Graham Tunis, Kairouan
Kairouan
& Carthage: described and illustrated with forty-eight paintings William Heinemann, London, 1908, p. 199. ^ S. Kleiner, Fred and Helen Gardner Gardner's Art through the Ages: Backpack Edition, Volume C, 14th ed., Book 3 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, Boston, MA, 2005, p. 89. ^ Great Mosque of Kairouan
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(Qantara mediterranean heritage) Archived 2015-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Stewart, Charles Anthony Flying Buttress and Pointed Arch
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and Byzantine architecture
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architecture. Milan: Electaarchitecture. pp. 7–9. ISBN 1-904313-29-9.  ^ Karin Bartl, Abd al-Razzaq Moaz (Eds.) (2009). Residences, castles, settlements. Transformation processes from late antiquity to early Islam
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rib vaults: Origins, form, spread. Berlin: Gebr. Mann. ISBN 978-3-7861-2550-1.  ^ a b c Francine Giese-Vögeli (in German), Das islamische Rippengewölbe: Ursprung – Form – Verbreitung, Berlin: Gebr. Mann, pp. 66–88  ^ Schippmann, Klaus (1971). Die iranischen Feuerheiligtümer = Iranian Fire temples (in German). Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-001879-9. Retrieved 23 January 2016.  ^ Auguste Choisy (1883). L'art de bâtir chez les Byzantins. Paris: Librairie de la société anonyme. pp. 67–69.  ^ Jean Ebersoll; Adolphe Thiers (1913). Les églises de Constantinople. Paris: Ernest Leroux. p. 69.  ^ Jean Ebersoll; Adolphe Thiers (1913). Les églises de Constantinople. Paris: Ernest Leroux. pp. 100–117; 178–188; 192–214.  ^ Blair, Sheila; Bloom, Jonathan M. (1995). The Art and Architecture of Islam
Islam
1250–1800. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06465-9.  ^ Doğan Kuban: The Style of Sinan's Domed Structures. in: Muqarnas IV: An Annual on Islamic
Islamic
Art and Architecture. Oleg Grabar (Ed.). Leiden 1987, p. 77. Archived 2004-06-24 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF; 5,2 MB) ^ Necipoğlu, Gülru (2005). The Age of Sinan. Architectural Culture in the Ottoman Empire. London: Reaktion Books. ISBN 978-1-86189-253-9.  ^ Sheila R. Canby, Islamic art
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Richard Nelson Frye
(p. 91) online, accessed 26 January 2016. ^ Finster, Barbara (2009). Anjar: spätantik oder frühislamisch? = Anjar: Late antique or early Islamic? In: Karin Bartl, Abd al-Razzaq Moaz (Eds.): Residences, castles, settlements. Transformation processes from late antiquity to early Islam
Islam
in Bilad al-Sham. Rahden: Marie Leidorf GmbH. pp. 229–242. ISBN 978-3-89646-654-9.  ^ Hugh Kennedy (1985): From Polis
Polis
to Madina: Urban Change in Late Antique and Early Islamic
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Syria. Past & Present 106 (Feb. 1985), p. 3–27 JSTOR, accessed 28 January 2016 ^ Ian Simpson: Market building at Jarash. Commercial transformation at the Tetrakionion in the 6th to 9th centuries C.E. In: Bartl & Moaz, 2009, p. 115–124 ^ a b Wirth, Eugen (2001). Die orientalische Stadt im islamischen Vorderasien und Nordafrika: Städtische Bausubstanz und räumliche Ordnung, Wirtschaftsleben und soziale Organisation. = The Oriental town in the Islamic
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Ali, Wijdan (1999). the arab contribution to islamic art: from the seventh to the fifteenth centuries. American Univ in Cairo
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Islamic
Art & Architecture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-530991-1. Retrieved 2013-03-15.  Ettinghausen, Richard; Grabar, Oleg; Jenkins, Marilyn (2001). Islamic Art and Architecture: 650-1250. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-08869-4. Retrieved 2013-03-17.  Petersen, Andrew (2002-03-11). Dictionary of Islamic
Islamic
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Further reading[edit]

Fletcher, Banister; Cruickshank, Dan (1996) [1896]. Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture (20th ed.). Architectural Press. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9.  Yahya Abdullahi; Mohamed Rashid Bin Embi (2013). Evolution of Islamic geometric patterns. Frontiers of Architectural Research: Elsevier.  Abdullahi Y.; Embi M. R. B (2015). Evolution Of Abstract Vegetal Ornaments On Islamic
Islamic
Architecture. International Journal of Architectural Research: Archnet-IJAR. 

External links[edit]

Architecture of IRAN during Islamic
Islamic
times ARCHITECTURE OF ISLAM by Takeo Kamiya (Half in English and half in Japanese) ARCHNET Open access, online resource on architecture and art of Muslim societies, globally and throughout history to our times Fatimid-era Ayyubid
Ayyubid
Wall of Cairo
Cairo
Digital Media Archive (creative commons-licensed photos, laser scans, panoramas), data from an Aga Khan Foundation/ CyArk
CyArk
research partnership Islamic
Islamic
Arts and Architecture website Tehranimages. Contemporary photos taken in some of the oldest districts of Tehran. 10,000+ Architectural collections worldwide Islamic
Islamic
Art And Architecture designs worldwide.

v t e

Islamic
Islamic
architecture

categories

Arabic architecture Berber architecture Iranian architecture Islamic
Islamic
architecture Mughal architecture Ottoman architecture

styles

Abbasid Anatolia
Anatolia
Beyliks Ayyubid Azeri Bengali Chinese Fatimid Indo-Islamic Indonesian / Malaysian Isfahani Khorasani Mamluk Modern Moorish Moroccan Mudéjar Mughal Ottoman Pakistani Razi Seljuk Somali Sudano-Sahelian Tatar Timurid Umayyad Vernacular Persian Yemenite

elements

structural

Ablaq Chahartaq Chhajja Hasht-Bihisht Hypostyle Iwan Jharokha Kucheh Liwan Mashrabiya Moroccan riad Qadad Riwaq Sahn Semi-dome Shabestan Squinch Tadelakt Vaulting Voussoir Windcatcher

Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in Jerusalem

arch styles

Discharging arch Four-centred arch Horseshoe arch Multifoil arch Ogee arch Pointed arch

roof styles

Dome
Dome
(Arabic dome / Onion dome
Onion dome
/ Persian dome / South Asian dome) Guldasta Tajug

religious objects

Bedug Dikka Gonbad Hussainiya Imamzadeh Kiswah Loudspeakers Maqsurah Mihrab Minaret Minbar Müezzin mahfili Qibla Zarih

decorations

Alfiz Arabesque Banna'i Girih Girih
Girih
tiles Islamic
Islamic
calligraphy Islamic
Islamic
geometric patterns Islamic
Islamic
interlace patterns Jali Mocárabe Mosque
Mosque
lamp Muqarnas Nagash painting Qashani Shabaka Socarrat Yeseria Zellige

rooms

Andaruni Harem Qa’a Zenana

garden

Bagh Charbagh Islamic
Islamic
garden Mughal gardens Ottoman gardens Paradise
Paradise
garden Persian gardens Reflecting pool

outdoor objects

Chhatri Eidgah Howz Shading Umbrellas Mechouar Sebil Shadirvan

types

religious

Dargah Gongbei Jama Masjid Jama'at Khana Khanqah Külliye Madrasa Maqam Maqbara Mazar Mosque Musalla Qubba Rauza Surau Tekyeh Türbe Zawiya

civilian

Baradari Bazaar Caravanserai Dar al-Shifa Ghorfa Kasbah Mahal Medina
Medina
quarter Souq Turkish bath Well house

military

Albarrana tower Alcazaba Alcázar Amsar Bab Kasbah Ksar Qalat Ribat

resources

Aga Khan Award for Architecture ArchNet

influences

Indo-Saracenic Revival Influences on Western architecture Moorish Revival

Part of Islamic
Islamic
arts

v t e

Islamic
Islamic
art

Architecture

Regional styles

Ayyubid Azerbaijani Chinese Indo-Islamic Indonesian Moorish Moroccan Mudéjar Mughal Ottoman Pakistani Persian Somali Sudano-Sahelian Tatar Timurid Umayyad

Elements

Ablaq Banna'i Iwan Jali Mashrabiya Mihrab Minaret Mocárabe Muqarnas Yeseria See also Decoration

Arts

Regional styles

Persian (Early, Qajar, Safavid) Turkish (Ottoman)

Carpets

Gul Kilim

Motifs

Persian Turkish Prayer

Pottery

Azulejo Fritware Hispano-Moresque İznik Lustreware Persian Chinese influence

Textiles

Batik Damask Ikat Embroidery Soumak Suzani

Woodwork

Khatam Minbar

Other media

Brass Damascus
Damascus
steel Glass Hardstone carving Ivory carving Stained glass

Shabaka

Arts of the book

Miniatures

Arabic Mughal Ottoman Persian

Calligraphy

Arabic Diwani Kufic Muhaqqaq Naskh Nastaʿlīq Persian Sini Taʿlīq Thuluth Tughra

Other arts

Muraqqa Hilya Ottoman illumination

Decoration

Arabesque Geometric patterns Girih
Girih
(tiles) Zellige

The garden

Charbagh Mughal Ottoman Paradise Persian

Museums

Berlin Cairo Doha Ghazni Istanbul
Istanbul
(Arts, Calligraphy Art) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
( Islamic
Islamic
Museum, L. A. Mayer Institute) Kuala Lumpur London (British Museum, V&A) Los Angeles Marrakech (Museum, Majorelle Garden) Melbourne Paris ( Arab
Arab
World Institute, Louvre) Singapore Toronto (Aga Khan) Tripoli

Principles, influences

Islamic
Islamic
Art: Mirror of the Invisible World Aniconism in Islam Indo-Saracenic Revival Islamic
Islamic
world contributions to Medieval Europe Influences on Western art

Grotesque Moresque

Mathematics and architecture Moorish Revival Oriental carpets in Renaissance painting Pseudo-Kufic Stilfragen Topkapı Scroll

v t e

History of architecture

Architectural timeline History of construction

Neolithic Ancient Egyptian Coptic Chinese Dravidian Hindu Maya Mesopotamian Classical Mesoamerican Achaemenid Persia Ancient Greek Roman Indian Incan Sasanian Byzantine Russian Islamic Newari Medieval Scandinavian Buddhist Somali Persian Japanese Korean Pre-Romanesque Romanesque Romano-Gothic Gothic Plateresque Manueline Hoysala Vijayanagara Western Chalukya Renaissance Spanish Spanish Colonial Portuguese Portuguese Colonial Ottoman Mughal Sikh Baroque Biedermeier Classicism Neoclassical Historicism Gründerzeit Gothic Revival Neo-Renaissance Neo-Baroque Rationalism Modernisme Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
(Jugendstil) Futurist Expressionism Art Deco Fascist Nazi Stalinist Modern Postmodern Stripped Classicism Vernacular New Classical Neo-futurism

v t e

Mathematics and art

Concepts

Algorithm Catenary Fractal Golden ratio Plastic number Hyperboloid structure Minimal surface Paraboloid Perspective

Camera lucida Camera obscura

Projective geometry Proportion

Architecture Human

Symmetry Tessellation Wallpaper group

Forms

Algorithmic art Anamorphic art Computer art 4D art Fractal
Fractal
art Islamic
Islamic
geometric patterns

Girih Jali Muqarnas Zellige

Knotting Architecture

Geodesic dome Islamic Mughal Pyramid Vastu shastra

Music Origami Textiles String art Sculpture Tiling

Artworks

List of works designed with the golden ratio Continuum Octacube Pi Pi in the Sky

Buildings

Hagia Sophia Pantheon Parthenon Pyramid
Pyramid
of Khufu Sagrada Família St Mary's Cathedral Sydney Opera House Taj Mahal

Artists

Renaissance

Paolo Uccello Piero della Francesca Albrecht Dürer Leonardo da Vinci

Vitruvian Man

Parmigianino

Self-portrait in a Convex Mirror

19th–20th Century

William Blake

The Ancient of Days Newton

Jean Metzinger

Danseuse au café L'Oiseau bleu

Man Ray René Magritte

La condition humaine

Salvador Dalí

Crucifixion The Swallow's Tail

Giorgio de Chirico M. C. Escher

Circle Limit III Print Gallery Relativity Reptiles Waterfall

Contemporary

Martin and Erik Demaine Scott Draves Jan Dibbets John Ernest Helaman Ferguson Peter Forakis Bathsheba Grossman George W. Hart Desmond Paul Henry John A. Hiigli Anthony Hill Charles Jencks

Garden of Cosmic Speculation

Robert Longhurst István Orosz Hinke Osinga Hamid Naderi Yeganeh

A Bird in Flight Boat

Tony Robbin Oliver Sin Hiroshi Sugimoto Daina Taimina Roman Verostko

Theorists

Ancient

Polykleitos

Canon

Vitruvius

De architectura

Renaissance

Luca Pacioli

De divina proportione

Piero della Francesca

De prospectiva pingendi

Leon Battista Alberti

De pictura De re aedificatoria

Sebastiano Serlio

Regole generali d'architettura

Andrea Palladio

I quattro libri dell'architettura

Albrecht Dürer

Vier Bücher von Menschlicher Proportion

Romantic

Frederik Macody Lund

"Ad Quadratum"

Jay Hambidge

"The Greek Vase"

Samuel Colman

"Nature's Harmonic Unity"

Modern

Owen Jones

The Grammar of Ornament

Ernest Hanbury Hankin

The Drawing of Geometric Patterns in Saracenic Art

G. H. Hardy

A Mathematician's Apology

George David Birkhoff

Aesthetic Measure

Douglas Hofstadter

Gödel, Escher, Bach

Nikos Salingaros

The 'Life' of a Carpet

Publications

Journal of Mathematics and the Arts

Organizations

Ars Mathematica The Bridges Organization European Society for Mathematics and the Arts Goudreau Museum of Mathematics
Museum of Mathematics
in Art and Science Institute For Figuring Museum of Mathematics

Related topics

Droste effect Mathematical beauty Patterns in nature Sacred geometry

Category

Authority control

.