HOME
TheInfoList



275px, ITLOS seen from Elbchaussee,_close_to_the_River_Elbe_.html" ;"title="Elbe.html" ;"title="Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe">Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe ">Elbe.html" ;"title="Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe">Elbchaussee, close to the River Elbe The International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) is an intergovernmental organization created by the mandate of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea#UNCLOS III, Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea. It was established by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signed at Montego Bay, Jamaica, on 10 December 1982. The Convention entered into force on 16 November 1994, and established an international framework for law over "all ocean space, its uses and resources". The ITLOS is one of four dispute resolution mechanisms listed at Article 287 of the UNCLOS. The tribunal is based in
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central European Time, CET , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central European Summer Time, CEST , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_co ...

Hamburg
, Germany. The Convention also established the International Seabed Authority, with responsibility for the regulation of seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, that is beyond the limits of the territorial sea, the contiguous zone and the continental shelf. There are currently 168 signatories, 167 states plus the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of Member state of the European Union, member states that are located primarily in Europe. Its members have a combined area of and an estimated total population of about 447million ...
. As of 2012, holdouts included the
United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., federal di ...
and the
Islamic Republic of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and Azerbaijan, to the north ...
.


Composition

According to its founding statute, the Tribunal has a set of 21 judges who serve from a variety of states parties, "according to a method that intends to assure an equitable geographical representation". At the request of
Chile Chile (, ; ), officially the Republic of Chile (), is a country in western South America. It occupies a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. Chile covers an area of and has a population ...
and the European Union, the Tribunal set up a special chamber composed of 5 judges to deal with the ''Case concerning the Conservation and Sustainable Exploitation of Swordfish Stocks in the South-Eastern Pacific Ocean (Chile/European Community)''. By agreement of the parties
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa. It spans along the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean, sharing borders with the Ivory Coast in Ghana–Ivory Coast border, the west, Burkina Faso in Burkina Faso–Gha ...
and
Ivory Coast Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a country located on the south coast of West Africa. Ivory Coast's political capital is Yamoussoukro in the centre of the country, while its economic c ...
, the Tribunal formed a special chamber composed of 5 judges to deal with the ''Dispute concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire in the Atlantic Ocean (Ghana/Côte d'Ivoire)''. By agreement of the parties
Mauritius Mauritius ( ; french: Maurice ; mfe, Moris oʁis, officially the Republic of Mauritius, is an island nation in the Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering or 19.8% of the water ...

Mauritius
and
Maldives Maldives (, ; dv, ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ, translit=Dhivehi Raajje), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a small archipelagic state in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geog ...
, the Tribunal formed a special chamber of 7 permanent judges and 2 ''ad hoc'' judges to deal with the ''Dispute concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary between Mauritius and Maldives in the Indian Ocean (Mauritius/Maldives)''.


Holdouts

Following a Reagan administration decision, the United States and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United States remained a holdout until at least 2012. Some concern was expressed in 2012 over the potential of the ITLOS to enforce its decisions related to greenhouse gas emissions. Iran is a List of parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, signatory, but not a party, to the UNCLOS. In the case of the Stena Impero, a lawyer opined that:


Current judges

On 24 August 2020, the Chinese ambassador to Hungary, Duan Jielong, was elected a member of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS).


Former judges


Cases


References


External links


Official ITLOS Site

International Foundation for the Law of the Sea

Privileges and Immunities
Berlin, 14 December 2004 {{Authority control Law of the sea Intergovernmental organizations established by treaty International courts and tribunals United Nations General Assembly observers Organizations established in 1982 Organisations based in Hamburg 1982 establishments in Jamaica