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(i)

The INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE (French: _Cour internationale de justice_; commonly referred to as the WORLD COURT, ICJ or THE HAGUE ) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN). Seated in the Peace Palace in The Hague , Netherlands
Netherlands
, the court settles legal disputes submitted to it by states and provides advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches, agencies, and the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
.

CONTENTS

* 1 Activities

* 2 Composition

* 2.1 _Ad hoc_ judges * 2.2 Chambers * 2.3 Current composition

* 3 Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction

* 3.1 Contentious issues * 3.2 Advisory opinions

* 3.3 ICJ and the Security Council
Security Council

* 3.3.1 Examples of contentious cases

* 4 Law applied

* 5 Procedure

* 5.1 Preliminary Objections * 5.2 Applications to intervene * 5.3 Judgment and remedies

* 6 Criticisms * 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 Further reading

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Lectures

ACTIVITIES

Established in 1945 by the UN Charter , the Court began work in 1946 as the successor to the Permanent Court of International Justice . The Statute of the International Court of Justice , similar to that of its predecessor, is the main constitutional document constituting and regulating the Court.

The Court's workload covers a wide range of judicial activity. After the court ruled that the United States
United States
's covert war against Nicaragua was in violation of international law (_ Nicaragua
Nicaragua
v. United States
United States
_), the United States
United States
withdrew from compulsory jurisdiction in 1986 to accept the court's jurisdiction only on a case-by-case basis. Chapter XIV of the United Nations Charter authorizes the UN Security Council to enforce Court rulings. However, such enforcement is subject to the veto power of the five permanent members of the Council, which the United States
United States
used in the _Nicaragua_ case.

COMPOSITION

Main article: Judges of the International Court of Justice Public hearing at the ICJ.

The ICJ is composed of fifteen judges elected to nine-year terms by the UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
and the UN Security Council
Security Council
from a list of people nominated by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Arbitration
. The election process is set out in Articles 4–19 of the ICJ statute. Elections are staggered, with five judges elected every three years to ensure continuity within the court. Should a judge die in office, the practice has generally been to elect a judge in a special election to complete the term.

No two judges may be nationals of the same country. According to Article 9, the membership of the Court is supposed to represent the "main forms of civilization and of the principal legal systems of the world". Essentially, that has meant common law , civil law and socialist law (now post-communist law).

There is an informal understanding that the seats will be distributed by geographic regions so that there are five seats for Western countries, three for African states (including one judge of francophone civil law , one of Anglophone common law and one Arab
Arab
), two for Eastern European states, three for Asian states and two for Latin American and Caribbean
Caribbean
states. The five permanent members of the United Nations
United Nations
Security Council
Security Council
( France
France
, Russia
Russia
, China
China
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, and the United States
United States
) always have a judge on the Court, thereby occupying three of the Western seats, one of the Asian seats and one of the Eastern European seats. The exception was China, which did not have a judge on the Court from 1967 to 1985 because it did not put forward a candidate.

Article 6 of the Statute provides that all judges should be "elected regardless of their nationality among persons of high moral character" who are either qualified for the highest judicial office in their home states or known as lawyers with sufficient competence in international law. Judicial independence is dealt with specifically in Articles 16–18. Judges of the ICJ are not able to hold any other post or act as counsel . In practice, Members of the Court have their own interpretation of these rules and allow them to be involved in outside arbitration and hold professional posts as long as there is no conflict of interest. A judge can be dismissed only by a unanimous vote of the other members of the Court. Despite these provisions, the independence of ICJ judges has been questioned. For example, during the _Nicaragua_ case, the United States
United States
issued a communiqué suggesting that it could not present sensitive material to the Court because of the presence of judges from Eastern bloc states.

Judges may deliver joint judgments or give their own separate opinions. Decisions and Advisory Opinions are by majority, and, in the event of an equal division, the President's vote becomes decisive, which occurred in the _Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflict_ (Opinion requested by WHO), ICJ Reports 66. Judges may also deliver separate dissenting opinions.

_AD HOC_ JUDGES

Article 31 of the statute sets out a procedure whereby _ad hoc _ judges sit on contentious cases before the Court. The system allows any party to a contentious case, if it otherwise does not have one of that party's nationals sitting on the Court, to select one additional person to sit as a judge on that case only. It is thus possible that as many as seventeen judges may sit on one case.

The system may seem strange when compared with domestic court processes, but its purpose is to encourage states to submit cases. For example, if a state knows that it will have a judicial officer who can participate in deliberation and offer other judges local knowledge and an understanding of the state's perspective, it may be more willing to submit to the jurisdiction of the court. Although this system does not sit well with the judicial nature of the body, it is usually of little practical consequence. _Ad hoc_ judges usually (but not always) vote in favor of the state that appointed them and thus cancel each other out.

CHAMBERS

Generally, the Court sits as full bench , but in the last fifteen years, it has on occasion sat as a chamber. Articles 26–29 of the statute allow the Court to form smaller chambers, usually 3 or 5 judges, to hear cases. Two types of chambers are contemplated by Article 26: firstly, chambers for special categories of cases, and second, the formation of _ad hoc_ chambers to hear particular disputes. In 1993, a special chamber was established, under Article 26(1) of the ICJ statute, to deal specifically with environmental matters (although it has never been used).

_Ad hoc_ chambers are more frequently convened. For example, chambers were used to hear the _ Gulf of Maine Case_ (Canada/US). In that case, the parties made clear they would withdraw the case unless the Court appointed judges to the chamber acceptable to the parties. Judgments of chambers may either less authority than full Court judgments or diminish the proper interpretation of universal international law informed by a variety of cultural and legal perspectives. On the other hand, the use of chambers might encourage greater recourse to the court and thus enhance international dispute resolution .

CURRENT COMPOSITION

As of 9 February 2015, the composition of the Court is as follows:

NAME NATIONALITY POSITION TERM BEGAN TERM ENDS

Ronny Abraham France
France
Presidenta 2005 2018

Abdulqawi Ahmed Yusuf Somalia
Somalia
Vice-Presidenta 2009 2018

Hisashi Owada Japan
Japan
Member 2003 2021

Peter Tomka Slovakia
Slovakia
Member 2003 2021

Mohamed Bennouna Morocco
Morocco
Member 2006 2024

Antônio Augusto Cançado Trindade Brazil
Brazil
Member 2009 2018

Sir Christopher Greenwood United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Member 2009 2018

Xue Hanqin China
China
Member 2010 2021

Joan E. Donoghue United States
United States
Member 2010 2024

Giorgio Gaja Italy
Italy
Member 2012 2021

Julia Sebutinde Uganda
Uganda
Member 2012 2021

Dalveer Bhandari India
India
Member 2012 2018

James Crawford Australia
Australia
Member 2015 2024

Kirill Gevorgian Russia
Russia
Member 2015 2024

Patrick Lipton Robinson Jamaica
Jamaica
Member 2015 2024

a 2015–2018.

JURISDICTION

Main article: Jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice

Parties upon becoming a UN member Parties prior to joining the UN under Article 93 UN observer states that are not parties

As stated in Article 93 of the UN Charter, all 193 UN members are automatically parties to the Court's statute. Non-UN members may also become parties to the Court's statute under the Article 93(2) procedure. For example, before becoming a UN member state, Switzerland used this procedure in 1948 to become a party, and Nauru became a party in 1988. Once a state is a party to the Court's statute, it is entitled to participate in cases before the Court. However, being a party to the statute does not automatically give the Court jurisdiction over disputes involving those parties. The issue of jurisdiction is considered in the two types of ICJ cases: contentious issues and advisory opinions.

CONTENTIOUS ISSUES

Play media First gathering after Second World War, Dutch newsreel from 1946

In contentious cases (adversarial proceedings seeking to settle a dispute), the ICJ produces a binding ruling between states that agree to submit to the ruling of the court. Only states may be parties in contentious cases. Individuals , corporations, parts of a federal state , NGOs, UN organs and self-determination groups are excluded from direct participation in cases although the Court may receive information from public international organizations . That does not preclude non-state interests from being the subject of proceedings if a state brings the case against another. For example, a state may, in cases of "diplomatic protection", bring a case on behalf of one of its nationals or corporations.

Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
is often a crucial question for the Court in contentious cases. (See Procedure below.) The key principle is that the ICJ has jurisdiction only on the basis of consent. Article 36 outlines four bases on which the Court's jurisdiction may be founded:

* First, 36(1) provides that parties may refer cases to the Court (jurisdiction founded on "special agreement" or "_compromis_"). This method is based on explicit consent rather than true compulsory jurisdiction. It is, perhaps, the most effective basis for the Court's jurisdiction because the parties concerned have a desire for the dispute to be resolved by the Court and are thus more likely to comply with the Court's judgment. * Second, 36(1) also gives the Court jurisdiction over "matters specifically provided for... in treaties and conventions in force". Most modern treaties contain a compromissory clause, providing for dispute resolution by the ICJ. Cases founded on compromissory clauses have not been as effective as cases founded on special agreement since a state may have no interest in having the matter examined by the Court and may refuse to comply with a judgment. For example, during the Iran hostage crisis
Iran hostage crisis
, Iran refused to participate in a case brought by the US based on a compromissory clause contained in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and did not comply with the judgment. Since the 1970s, the use of such clauses has declined. Many modern treaties set out their own dispute resolution regime, often based on forms of arbitration . * Third, Article 36(2) allows states to make optional clause declarations accepting the Court's jurisdiction. The label "compulsory" sometimes placed on Article 36(2) jurisdiction is misleading since declarations by states are voluntary. Furthermore, many declarations contain reservations, such as exclusion from jurisdiction certain types of disputes ("_ratione materia_"). The principle of reciprocity may further limit jurisdiction. As of February 2011, sixty-six states had a declaration in force. Of the permanent Security Council
Security Council
members, only the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has a declaration. In the Court's early years, most declarations were made by industrialized countries. Since the _ Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Case _, declarations made by developing countries have increased, reflecting a growing confidence in the Court since the 1980s. Industrialized countries, however, have sometimes increased exclusions or removed their declarations in recent years. Examples include the United States, as mentioned previously, and Australia, which modified its declaration in 2002 to exclude disputes on maritime boundaries (most likely to prevent an impending challenge from East Timor, which gained their independence two months later). * Finally, 36(5) provides for jurisdiction on the basis of declarations made under the Permanent Court of International Justice 's statute. Article 37 of the Statute similarly transfers jurisdiction under any compromissory clause in a treaty that gave jurisdiction to the PCIJ. * In addition, the Court may have jurisdiction on the basis of tacit consent (_forum prorogatum _). In the absence of clear jurisdiction under Article 36, jurisdiction is established if the respondent accepts ICJ jurisdiction explicitly or simply pleads on the merits . The notion arose in the Corfu Channel Case (UK v Albania) (1949), in which the Court held that a letter from Albania stating that it submitted to the jurisdiction of the ICJ was sufficient to grant the court jurisdiction.

ADVISORY OPINIONS

Audience of the "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence by the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo"

An advisory opinion is a function of the Court open only to specified United Nations
United Nations
bodies and agencies. On receiving a request, the Court decides which states and organizations might provide useful information and gives them an opportunity to present written or oral statements. Advisory opinions were intended as a means by which UN agencies could seek the Court's help in deciding complex legal issues that might fall under their respective mandates.

In principle, the Court's advisory opinions are only consultative in character but they are influential and widely respected. Certain instruments or regulations can provide in advance that the advisory opinion shall be specifically binding on particular agencies or states, but inherently, they are non-binding under the Statute of the Court. This non-binding character does not mean that advisory opinions are without legal effect, because the legal reasoning embodied in them reflects the Court's authoritative views on important issues of international law. In arriving at them, the Court follows essentially the same rules and procedures that govern its binding judgments delivered in contentious cases submitted to it by sovereign states.

An advisory opinion derives its status and authority from the fact that it is the official pronouncement of the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.

Advisory opinions have often been controversial because the questions asked are controversial or the case was pursued as an indirect way of bringing what is really a contentious case before the Court. Examples of advisory opinions can be found in the section advisory opinions in the List of International Court of Justice cases article. One such well-known advisory opinion is the _Nuclear Weapons Case _.

ICJ AND THE SECURITY COUNCIL

Article 94 establishes the duty of all UN members to comply with decisions of the Court involving them. If parties do not comply, the issue may be taken before the Security Council
Security Council
for enforcement action. There are obvious problems with such a method of enforcement. If the judgment is against one of the permanent five members of the Security Council or its allies, any resolution on enforcement would then be vetoed. That occurred, for example, after the _Nicaragua_ case , when Nicaragua
Nicaragua
brought the issue of US' noncompliance with the Court's decision before the Security Council. Furthermore, if the Security Council refuses to enforce a judgment against any other state, there is no method of forcing the state to comply. Furthermore, the most effective form to take action for the Security Council, coercive action under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter , can be justified only if international peace and security are at stake. The Security Council
Security Council
has never done that so far.

The relationship between the ICJ and the Security Council
Security Council
, and the separation of their powers, was considered by the Court in 1992 in the _Pan Am_ case . The Court had to consider an application from Libya for the order of provisional measures to protect its rights, which, it alleged, were being infringed by the threat of economic sanctions by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and United States. The problem was that these sanctions had been authorized by the Security Council, which resulted in a potential conflict between the Chapter VII functions of the Security Council
Security Council
and the judicial function of the Court. The Court decided, by eleven votes to five, that it could not order the requested provisional measures because the rights claimed by Libya, even if legitimate under the Montreal Convention , could not be prima facie regarded as appropriate since the action was ordered by the Security Council. In accordance with Article 103 of the UN Charter, obligations under the Charter took precedence over other treaty obligations. Nevertheless, the Court declared the application admissible in 1998. A decision on the merits has not been given since the parties (United Kingdom, United States, and Libya) settled the case out of court in 2003.

There was a marked reluctance on the part of a majority of the Court to become involved in a dispute in such a way as to bring it potentially into conflict with the Council. The Court stated in the _Nicaragua_ case that there is no necessary inconsistency between action by the Security Council
Security Council
and adjudication by the ICJ. However, when there is room for conflict, the balance appears to be in favor of the Security Council.

Should either party fail "to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court", the Security Council
Security Council
may be called upon to "make recommendations or decide upon measures" if the Security Council
Security Council
deems such actions necessary. In practice, the Court's powers have been limited by the unwillingness of the losing party to abide by the Court's ruling and by the Security Council's unwillingness to impose consequences. However, in theory, "so far as the parties to the case are concerned, a judgment of the Court is binding, final and without appeal," and "by signing the Charter, a State Member of the United Nations
United Nations
undertakes to comply with any decision of the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
in a case to which it is a party."

For example, the United States
United States
had previously accepted the Court's compulsory jurisdiction upon its creation in 1946 but in 1984, after _ Nicaragua
Nicaragua
v. United States
United States
_, withdrew its acceptance following the court's judgment that called on the US to "cease and to refrain" from the "unlawful use of force" against the government of Nicaragua. The court ruled (with only the American judge dissenting) that the United States was "in breach of its obligation under the Treaty
Treaty
of Friendship with Nicaragua
Nicaragua
not to use force against Nicaragua" and ordered the United States
United States
to pay war reparations .

Examples Of Contentious Cases

Main article: List of International Court of Justice cases

* A complaint by the United States
United States
in 1980 that Iran was detaining American diplomats in Tehran
Tehran
in violation of international law. * A dispute between Tunisia and Libya over the delimitation of the continental shelf between them. * A complaint by Iran after the shooting down of Iran Air Flight 655 by the United States
United States
Navy guided missile cruiser. * A dispute over the course of the maritime boundary dividing the U.S. and Canada in the Gulf of Maine area. * A complaint by the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia against the member states of the North Atlantic Treaty
Treaty
Organization regarding their actions in the Kosovo War
Kosovo War
. This was denied on 15 December 2004 because of lack of jurisdiction, the FRY not being a party to the ICJ statute at the time it made the application. * A complaint by the Republic of Macedonia (former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia) that Greece is, by vetoing its accession to NATO
NATO
, in violation of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995 between the two countries. The complaint was decided in favor of Macedonia on 5 December 2011. * A complaint by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo
that the DRC's sovereignty had been violated by Uganda
Uganda
and that DRC had lost billions of dollars worth of resources, was decided in favor of the DRC.

LAW APPLIED

Main article: Sources of international law

When deciding cases, the Court applies international law as summarised in Article 38 of the ICJ Statute , which provides that in arriving at its decisions the Court shall apply international conventions, international custom and the "general principles of law recognized by civilized nations." It may also refer to academic writing ("the teachings of the most highly qualified publicists of the various nations") and previous judicial decisions to help interpret the law although the Court is not formally bound by its previous decisions under the doctrine of stare decisis . Article 59 makes clear that the common law notion of precedent or _stare decisis _ does not apply to the decisions of the ICJ. The Court's decision binds only the parties to that particular controversy. Under 38(1)(d), however, the Court may consider its own previous decisions.

If the parties agree, they may also grant the Court the liberty to decide _ex aequo et bono _ ("in justice and fairness"), granting the ICJ the freedom to make an equitable decision based on what is fair under the circumstances. That provision has not been used in the Court's history. So far, the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
has dealt with about 130 cases.

PROCEDURE

The ICJ is vested with the power to make its own rules. Court procedure is set out in the _Rules of Court of the International Court of Justice 1978_ (as amended on 29 September 2005).

Cases before the ICJ will follow a standard pattern. The case is lodged by the applicant, which files a written memorial setting out the basis of the Court's jurisdiction and the merits of its claim. The respondent may accept the Court's jurisdiction and file its own memorial on the merits of the case.

PRELIMINARY OBJECTIONS

A respondent that does not wish to submit to the jurisdiction of the Court may raise Preliminary Objections. Any such objections must be ruled upon before the Court can address the merits of the applicant's claim. Often, a separate public hearing is held on the Preliminary Objections and the Court will render a judgment. Respondents normally file Preliminary Objections to the jurisdiction of the Court and/or the admissibility of the case. Inadmissibility refers to a range of arguments about factors the Court should take into account in deciding jurisdiction, such as the fact that the issue is not justiciable or that it is not a "legal dispute".

In addition, objections may be made because all necessary parties are not before the Court. If the case necessarily requires the Court to rule on the rights and obligations of a state that has not consented to the Court's jurisdiction, the Court does not proceed to issue a judgment on the merits.

If the Court decides it has jurisdiction and the case is admissible, the respondent then is required to file a Memorial addressing the merits of the applicant's claim. Once all written arguments are filed, the Court holds a public hearing on the merits.

Once a case has been filed, any party (usually the applicant) may seek an order from the Court to protect the _status quo_ pending the hearing of the case. Such orders are known as Provisional (or Interim) Measures and are analogous to interlocutory injunctions in United States law . Article 41 of the statute allows the Court to make such orders. The Court must be satisfied to have prima facie jurisdiction to hear the merits of the case before it grants provisional measures.

APPLICATIONS TO INTERVENE

In cases in which a third state's interests are affected, that state may be permitted to intervene in the case and participate as a full party. Under Article 62, a state "with an interest of a legal nature" may apply; however, it is within the Court's discretion whether or not to allow the intervention. Intervention applications are rare, and the first successful application occurred only in 1991.

JUDGMENT AND REMEDIES

Once deliberation has taken place, the Court issues a majority opinion. Individual
Individual
judges may issue concurring opinions (if they agree with the outcome reached in the judgment of the court but differ in their reasoning) or dissenting opinions (if they disagree with the majority). No appeal is possible, but any party may ask for the court to clarify if there is a dispute as to the meaning or scope of the court's judgment.

CRITICISMS

_ This section, except for a single footnote, NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION . Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2015)_ _(Learn how and when to remove this template message )_

The International Court has been criticized with respect to its rulings, its procedures, and its authority. As with criticisms of the United Nations, many of these criticisms refer more to the general authority assigned to the body by member states through its charter than to specific problems with the composition of judges or their rulings. Major criticisms include the following:

* "Compulsory" jurisdiction is limited to cases where both parties have agreed to submit to its decision, and so instances of aggression tend to be automatically escalated to and adjudicated by the Security Council. According to the sovereignty principle of international law, no nation is superior or inferior against another. Therefore, there is no entity that could force the states into practice of the law or punish the states in case any violation of international law occurs. Therefore, the absence of binding force means that the 193 member states of the ICJ do not necessarily have to accept the jurisdiction. Moreover, membership in the UN and ICJ does not give the court automatic jurisdiction over the member states, but it is the consent of each state to follow the jurisdiction that matters. * Organizations, private enterprises, and individuals cannot have their cases taken to the International Court or appeal a national supreme court's ruling. UN agencies likewise cannot bring up a case except in advisory opinions (a process initiated by the court and non-binding). Only states can bring the cases and become the defendants of the cases. This also means that the potential victims of crimes against humanity, such as minor ethnic groups or indigenous peoples, may not have appropriate backing by a state. * Other existing international thematic courts, such as the ICC , are not under the umbrella of the International Court. Unlike ICJ, international thematic courts like ICC work independently from United Nations. Such dualistic structure between various international courts sometimes makes it hard for the courts to engage in effective and collective jurisdiction. * The International Court does not enjoy a full separation of powers , with permanent members of the Security Council
Security Council
being able to veto enforcement of cases, even those to which they consented to be bound. Because the jurisdiction does not have binding force itself, in many cases, the instances of aggression are adjudicated by Security Council by adopting a resolution, etc. There is, therefore, a likelihood for the permanent member states of Security Council
Security Council
to avoid the responsibility brought up by International Court of Justice, as shown in the example of Nicaragua
Nicaragua
v. United States
United States
.

SEE ALSO

* United Nations
United Nations
portal * Law portal

* International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
* International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia * International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea * List of International Court of Justice cases * List of treaties that confer jurisdiction on the International Court of Justice * Mundialization * Peremptory norm * Supranational aspects of international organizations * United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council * United Nations
United Nations
Secretariat * United Nations
United Nations
Trusteeship Council * Universal jurisdiction * World citizen

NOTES

* ^ _A_ _B_ "No. 2015/5" (PDF) (Press release). International Court of Justice. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. * ^ Koh, Steven Arrigg. "4 Things You Should Know About The Hague". Retrieved 17 March 2017. * ^ Statute of the International Court of Justice. Retrieved 31 August 2007. * ^ Churchill, Ward. _A Little Matter of Genocide_. San Francisco: City Lights Books, 1997. Print. * ^ United Nations
United Nations
Security Council, _Provisional Verbatim Record of the Two Thousand Seven Hundred and Eighteenth Meeting_, p.51 * ^ Harris, D. _Cases and Materials on International Law, 7th ed._ (2012, London) p. 839. * ^ ICJ Statute, Article 18(1) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _Case Concerning Military and Paramilitary Activities In and Against Nicaragua_ ( Nicaragua
Nicaragua
v USA), ICJ Reports 14, 158–60 (Merits) per Judge Lachs. * ^ Posner, E. A., and De Figueiredo, M. F. P. (June 2005). "Is the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
Biased?" (PDF). _Journal of Legal Studies_. University of Chicago. 34. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Rules of Court of the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
1978 (as amended on 5 December 2000). Retrieved 17 December 2005. See also Practice Directions I-XII (as at 30 July 2004). Retrieved 17 December 2005. * ^ _A_ _B_ Schwebel S "Ad Hoc Chambers of the International Court of Justice" (1987) 81 _American Journal of International Law_ 831. * ^ "No. 2015/1" (PDF) (Press release). International Court of Justice. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015. * ^ The jurisdiction is discussed in the entire Chapter XIV of the UN Charter (Articles 92–96). Full text Archived 20 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Chapter I - Charter of the United Nations
United Nations
and Statute of the International Court of Justice: 3 . Statute of the International Court of Justice". United Nations
United Nations
Treaty
Treaty
Series . 2013-07-09. Retrieved 2013-07-09. * ^ See the _Nottebohm Case_ (Liechtenstein v Guatemala), ICJ Reports 4. * ^ See List of treaties that confer jurisdiction on the ICJ . * ^ _Case Concerning United States
United States
Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran_ (USA v Iran), ICJ Reports 7. * ^ See Charney J "Compromissory Clauses and the Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
of the International Court of Justice" (1987) 81 _American Journal of International Law_ 855. * ^ See Alexandrov S _Reservations in Unilateral Declarations Accepting the Compulsory Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
of the International Court of Justice_ (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 1995). * ^ For a complete list of countries and their stance with the ICJ, see Declarations Recognizing as Compulsory the Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
of the Court. Retrieved 21 February 2011. * ^ Burton, Bob (17 May 2005). Australia, East Timor strike oil, gas deal. _Asia Times_. Retrieved 21 April 2006. * ^ _The UN General Assembly
UN General Assembly
Requests a World Court Advisory Opinion On Israel\'s Separation Barrier_, Pieter H.F. Bekker, ASIL (American Society of International Law) Insights, December 2003. * ^ "_Questions of Interpretation and Application of the 1971 Montreal Convention arising from the Aerial Incident at Lockerbie (Libyan Arab
Arab
Jamahiriya v. United States
United States
of America), Preliminary Objections, International Court of Justice, 27 February 1998_". Icj-cij.org. Retrieved 4 November 2011. * ^ "Reports of Judgments, Advisory Opinions and Orders" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 24 May 1980. * ^ "Application for Revision and Interpretation of the Judgment of 24 February 1982 in the Case Concerning the Continental Shelf (Tunisia/Libyan Arab
Arab
Jamahiriya)" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 10 December 1985. * ^ "Aerial Incident of 3 July 1988 (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States
United States
of America)". Icj-cij.org. * ^ "Case Concerning Delimitation of the Maritime Boundary in the Gulf of Maine Area (Canada/ United States
United States
of America)" (PDF). International Court of Justice. 12 October 1984. * ^ "International Court of Justice". Icj-cij.org. Retrieved 2014-02-02. * ^ "Interim Accord" (PDF). 13 September 1995. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. * ^ "The Court finds that Greece, by objecting to the admission of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia to NATO, has breached its obligation under Article 11, paragraph 1, of the Interim Accord of 13 September 1995" (PDF). The International Court of Justice. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 2014-02-02. * ^ "Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda)". Icj-cij.org. * ^ "Court orders Uganda
Uganda
to pay Congo damages". _ The Guardian
The Guardian
_. 20 December 2005 * ^ Statute of the International Court of Justice, Article 38(2) * ^ Statute of the International Court of Justice, Article 60 * ^ Ogbodo, S. Gozie (2012). "An Overview of the Challenges Facing the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
in the 21st Century,". _Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law_. 18 (1): 93–113. Retrieved 6 June 2016. * ^ Suh, Il Ro (April 1969). "Voting Behavior of National Judges in International Courts". _The American Journal of International Law_. 63 (2): 224–236. JSTOR 2197412 . doi :10.2307/2197412 . * ^ William, Samore, (1956). "National Origins v. Impartial Decisions: A Study of World Court Holdings". _Chicago-Kent Law Review_. 34 (3): 193–222. ISSN 0009-3599 . Retrieved 6 June 2016. * ^ ""World Court: Completing the Circle" _Time_, 28 November 1960". _Time_. 28 November 1960. Retrieved 4 November 2011.

FURTHER READING

* Dunne, Michael. "Isolationism of a Kind: Two Generations of World Court Historiography in the United States," _Journal of American Studies_ (1987) 21#3 pp 327–351. * Rosenne S., "Rosenne's the world court: what it is and how it works _6th ed (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff, 2003)._ * Decisions of the World Court Relevant to the UNCLOS (2010) and Contents & Indexes dedicated to Former ICJ President Stephen M. Schwebel * Van Der Wolf W. ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

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TEXT

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Treaty
of Versailles * Covenant of the League of Nations * 1943 Moscow Conference * 1943 Tehran
Tehran
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International Court of Justice
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United Nations
United Nations

* António Guterres , Secretary-General * Amina J. Mohammed , Deputy Secretary-General * Peter Thomson , General Assembly President

UNITED NATIONS SYSTEM

UNITED NATIONS CHARTER

* Preamble

PRINCIPAL ORGANS

* General Assembly

* President

* Security Council
Security Council

* Members

* Economic and Social Council

* Secretariat

* Secretary-General * Deputy Secretary-General * Under-Secretary-General

* International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice

* statute

* Trusteeship Council

Programmes and specialized agencies

* FAO * ICAO * IFAD * ILO * IMO * ITC * IPCC * IAEA * MINURSO * UNIDO * ITU * UNAIDS * SCSL * UNCTAD * UNCITRAL * UNCDF * UNDAF * UNDG * UNDP * UNDPI

* UNDPKO

* peacekeeping

* UNEP

* OzonAction * UNEP/GRID-Arendal

* UNESCO
UNESCO
* UNFIP * UNFPA * UN-HABITAT * OHCHR * UNHCR * UNHRC * UNICEF
UNICEF
* UNICRI * UNIDIR * UNITAR * UN-Oceans * UNOCHA * UNODC * UNOPS * UNOSAT * UNRISD * UNRWA

* UNU

* UNU-OP * UNU-CRIS

* UNV * UN Women * UNWTO * UPU * WFP * WHO * WIPO * WMO

PRINCIPAL OFFICES

* New York (headquarters, library)

* Geneva

* Palace of Nations

* Nairobi * Vienna * UN organizations by location

MEMBERS / OBSERVERS

* Full members

* Founding members

* UNSC Permanent members

* Observers

* European Union

HISTORY

* League of Nations
League of Nations
* Four Policemen * Declaration by United Nations
United Nations

* Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
missions

* history * timeline

* Enlargement

RESOLUTIONS

* Security Council
Security Council
vetoes

* General Assembly

* 66th * 67th

* Security Council
Security Council

* Cyprus * Iran * Iraq * Israel * Lebanon * Nagorno-Karabakh * North Korea * Palestine * Syria * Western Sahara

ELECTIONS

* Secretary-General (2006 * 2016) * International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 * General Assembly President (2012 * 2016) * Security Council
Security Council
(2015 * 2016)

RELATED

* Bretton Woods system * Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Treaty
* Criticism * _ Delivering as One _

* Flag

* Honour Flag

* Four Nations Initiative * Genocide Convention * UN Global Compact * ICC * International Years * UN laissez-passer * Military Staff Committee * Official languages * Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons * Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
* Treaty
Treaty
Series * UN Day * Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights

* Millennium Declaration

* Summit * Development Goals

* Security Council
Security Council
veto power

* UN reform

* Security Council
Security Council
reform

* UN Art Collection * UN Memorial Cemetery Korea

OTHER

* Outline * UN television film series (1964–1966) * In popular culture

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 161061724 * LCCN : n50053120 * ISNI : 0000 0001 2375 3134 * GND : 36344-3 * SELIBR : 119499 * SUDOC : 026373963 * BNF : cb11863379r (data) * HDS : 9632 * NDL : 00566437

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