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The Latin
Latin
language is still taught in many parts of the world. In many countries it is offered as an optional subject in some secondary schools and universities, and may be compulsory for students in certain institutions or following certain courses. For those wishing to learn the language independently, there are printed and online resources.

For the most part, the language is treated as a written language in formal instruction; however, the Living Latin
Latin
movement advocates teaching it also through speaking and listening.

Practice varies between countries in ordering the sequence of cases within each Latin
Latin
declension .

CONTENTS

* 1 Philosophical aims

* 1.1 Living Latin
Latin
* 1.2 Influence on artificial languages

* 2 Curriculum requirements in Australia

* 3 Curriculum requirements in Europe

* 3.1 Belgium

* 3.1.1 Dutch-speaking regions * 3.1.2 Francophone regions

* 3.2 France * 3.3 Germany * 3.4 Greece * 3.5 Ireland * 3.6 Italy * 3.7 Netherlands * 3.8 Poland * 3.9 Spain * 3.10 Switzerland * 3.11 United Kingdom * 3.12 Other countries

* 4 Curriculum requirements in North America

* 4.1 Canada * 4.2 United States
United States

* 5 Curriculum requirements in South America

* 5.1 Chile * 5.2 Venezuela
Venezuela

* 6 Curriculum requirements in Asia

* 6.1 China and Taiwan

* 7 Independent study * 8 References * 9 External links

PHILOSOPHICAL AIMS

Although Latin
Latin
was once the universal academic language in Europe, academics no longer use it for writing papers or daily discourse. Furthermore, the Roman Catholic Church, as part of the Vatican II reforms in the 1960s, modernized its religious liturgies (such as the Tridentine Mass ) to allow less use of Latin
Latin
and more use of vernacular languages. Nonetheless, the study of Latin
Latin
has remained an academic staple into the 21st century.

Most of the Latin
Latin
courses currently offered in secondary schools and universities are geared toward translating historical texts into modern languages, rather than using Latin
Latin
for direct oral communication. As such, they primarily treat Latin
Latin
as a written dead language , although some works of modern literature such as Treasure Island , Robinson Crusoe
Robinson Crusoe
, Paddington Bear
Paddington Bear
, Winnie the Pooh
Winnie the Pooh
, The Adventures of Tintin , Asterix
Asterix
, Harry Potter
Harry Potter
, Le Petit Prince , Max und Moritz , Peter Rabbit
Peter Rabbit
, Green Eggs and Ham
Green Eggs and Ham
, and The Cat in the Hat have been translated into Latin
Latin
in order to promote interest in the language.

LIVING LATIN

Conversely, proponents of the Living Latin
Latin
movement believe that Latin
Latin
can be taught in the same way that modern "living" languages are taught, i.e. by incorporating oral fluency and listening comprehension as well as textual skills. This approach offers speculative and stylistic insight into how ancient authors spoke and incorporated sounds of the language, as patterns in Latin
Latin
poetry and literature can be difficult to identify without an understanding of the sounds of words. Living Latin
Latin
can be seen in action in Schola , a social networking site where all transactions are in Latin, including conversations in real-time in the site's locutorium (chatroom).

Institutions that offer Living Latin
Latin
instruction include the Vatican and the University of Kentucky
University of Kentucky
. In Great Britain
Great Britain
, the Classical Association encourages this approach, and Latin
Latin
language books describing the adventures of a mouse called Minimus have been published. The Latinum podcast, teaching conversational Classical Latin, is also broadcast from London. There are several websites offering Nuntii Latini ( Latin
Latin
News) which usually cover international matters: in Finland
Finland
(weekly), in Bremen/Germany (monthly), and on Radio Vatican . In the United States
United States
, the National Junior Classical League (with more than 50,000 members) encourages high school students to pursue the study of Latin, and the National Senior Classical League encourages college students to continue their studies of the language.

INFLUENCE ON ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGES

Many international auxiliary languages have been heavily influenced by Latin; the successful language Interlingua considers itself a modernized and simplified version of the language. Latino sine Flexione is a language created from Latin
Latin
with its inflections dropped, that laid claim to a sizable following in the early 20th century.

CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS IN AUSTRALIA

Latin
Latin
is not offered by the mainstream curriculum; however it is offered in many high schools as an elective subject. Many schools, particularly private schools , offer many languages in year 7 to expose the student to languages as possible electives; Latin
Latin
is often among these introductory languages. Alternatively, many universities or colleges offer the subject for students should they desire to study it.

CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS IN EUROPE

BELGIUM

Dutch-speaking Regions

Latin
Latin
is optionally taught. Most students can choose Latin
Latin
as one of the two majors. Other majors may be Greek, maths, science, humane sciences or modern languages. Almost one third of "ASO" students learn Latin
Latin
for a number of years.

Francophone Regions

Latin
Latin
is optionally taught in secondary schools.

FRANCE

Latin
Latin
is optionally studied in French secondary schools .

GERMANY

In Germany Latin
Latin
is a choice for the compulsory second language at the Gymnasium (main secondary school preparing for university entry), usually together with French and sometimes Spanish, Russian etc. Nearly one third of students at the Gymnasium learn Latin
Latin
for a number of years, and a Latin
Latin
certificate ("Latinum") is a requirement for various university courses. It is the third most popular language learnt in school after English and French, ahead of Spanish or Russian. In some regions, especially majority-Catholic ones such as Bavaria, it is still very popular, to the point that more than 40% of all grammar school students study Latin. However, in Eastern Germany where educational traditions were broken during the communist period, it does not command much popularity.

GREECE

The teaching of Latin
Latin
has a very long history in Greece. Latin
Latin
is today compulsory for high school students who wish to study law, social and political sciences and humanities, and is one of the six subjects tested in Greek examinations for entry into university-level courses in these fields. In high school, the subject is taught in a very detailed manner that has provoked criticisms.

IRELAND

Latin
Latin
until recently was quite popular in secondary schools. Latin
Latin
is now not widely taught, but can be taken as an optional subject in some secondary schools.

ITALY

In Italy, Latin
Latin
is still compulsory in secondary schools such as the Liceo classico and Liceo scientifico
Liceo scientifico
, which are usually attended by people who aim to the highest level of education. In Liceo classico, ancient Greek is also a compulsory subject. About one third of Italian high school graduates (19-year-olds) have taken Latin
Latin
for five years. Latin
Latin
is taught at the Accademia Vivarium Novum .

NETHERLANDS

In the Netherlands, Latin
Latin
is (together with Ancient Greek ) compulsory at the highest variant of secondary education, the gymnasium - both languages for at least the first three years. After that, the pupils can choose either to keep only Latin, or to keep only Greek, or to keep both classical languages in their curriculum for three more years.

POLAND

Latin
Latin
is a non-compulsory foreign language that students of some high schools can choose to learn. Latin
Latin
language and the culture of antiquity is also one of the extra examinations a high school graduate may take during his matura . Latin
Latin
language is a compulsory subject for students of law, medicine, veterinary and language studies.

SPAIN

Latin
Latin
is a compulsory subject for all those who study humanities (students can select from three sorts of study: sciences, humanities or a mixture) in grades 11 and 12.

SWITZERLAND

Since the 1980s when about half of all Gymnasium (grammar school, type of secondary leading to university entry) students had Latin, the language took a deep dip. After modest recovery in the past years about one fifth of all students at the Gymnasium nowadays take some years of Latin. There are regional differences: whereas in few cantons like Uri the language is not being taught any more, in Appenzell
Appenzell
, Graubünden und Glarus
Glarus
and Zürich around 40% of Gymnasium students take Latin.

UNITED KINGDOM

In the first half of the 20th century, Latin
Latin
was taught in approximately 25% of schools. However, from the 1960s, universities gradually began to abandon Latin
Latin
as an entry requirement for Medicine and Law degrees. After the introduction of the Modern Language General Certificate of Secondary Education in the 1980s, Latin
Latin
began to be replaced by other languages in many schools. Latin
Latin
is still taught in a small number, particularly public schools. Three British exam boards offer Latin, OCR , SQA and WJEC . In 2006, it was dropped by the exam board AQA .

OTHER COUNTRIES

In Denmark
Denmark
, Sweden
Sweden
, Iceland
Iceland
, Austria
Austria
, Republic of Macedonia , Hungary
Hungary
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, Croatia
Croatia
, Serbia
Serbia
, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, and Romania
Romania
, Latin is studied at high schools called Gymnasia . In Portugal
Portugal
, Latin
Latin
is also studied. In Finland
Finland
, Latin
Latin
is studied at a small minority of high schools.

CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS IN NORTH AMERICA

CANADA

Latin
Latin
is optionally studied in a small number of Canadian secondary schools .

UNITED STATES

In the United States
United States
, Latin
Latin
is occasionally taught in high schools and middle schools, usually as an elective or option. There is, however, a growing classical education movement consisting of private schools and home schools that are teaching Latin
Latin
at the elementary, or grammar school level. Latin
Latin
is often taught and is sometimes a mandatory requirement at Catholic secondary schools. More than 149,000 Latin
Latin
students took the 2007 National Latin
Latin
Exam. In 2006, 3,333 students took the AP Latin
Latin
Literature exam. There is a "National Latin Exam" in this country.

CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS IN SOUTH AMERICA

CHILE

Latin
Latin
is not a compulsory subject in school, and it is presented as optional in very few secondary schools. However, many universities impart Latin
Latin
as a compulsory subject for the students of Philosophy, Literature, Linguistics, Theology and sometimes Law.

VENEZUELA

In Venezuela
Venezuela
Latin
Latin
is taught as a compulsory subject in the branch of humanities of the bachillerato for two years. Bachillerato is a segment of secondary education similar to American high schools and is divided into two branches: sciences and humanities. Students learn Latin
Latin
grammar in their first year of study, then construct and translate Latin
Latin
texts in the second year.

At university level, the University of the Andes offers a degree program for Letras Mención Lengua y Literaturas Clásicas (Classical Languages and Literatures). In this program (the only one of its type in Venezuela), the students learn Latin, Ancient Greek and the literature of both languages for five years. In other Venezuelan universities, Latin
Latin
is a compulsory subject of the program for Letras (Hispanic Literature) and Educación, mención: Castellano y Literatura (Education of Spanish language and Hispanic Literature).

Latin
Latin
is also taught in Roman Catholic seminaries .

CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS IN ASIA

CHINA AND TAIWAN

Latin
Latin
was one of the things which were taught by the Jesuits . A school was established by them for this purpose. A diplomatic delegation found a local who composed a letter in fluent Latin.

Latin
Latin
is a rare language in Asia, including Taiwan. There are fewer than five universities offering Latin
Latin
curriculum.

As a Catholic university, Fu Jen University is the most important school to offer the Latin
Latin
curriculum in Taiwan. It offers short-term Latin
Latin
courses with dormitory in summer vacation and even attracts many students from mainland China.

In China many universities offer Latin
Latin
courses. At Beijing Foreign Studies University since 2009 there is a Centre for Latin
Latin
Studies called Latinitas Sinica .

INDEPENDENT STUDY

A number of people interested in Latin
Latin
do not have access to formal instruction. In many countries, Latin
Latin
has fallen out of favour in schools and colleges. As a result, there is a growing demand for resources allowing people to study Latin
Latin
independently. Online study groups offer a certain degree of guidance to independent learners. The beginners' textbook Wheelock\'s Latin
Latin
is particularly well-adapted to independent study because of its clear and comprehensive instructions, its numerous exercises, the included answer key, and the wealth of supplementary and third-party aids adapted to the textbook. Lingua Latina Per Se Illustrata by Hans Henning Ørberg is an instructional book that teaches Latin
Latin
entirely in Latin. A teacher’s guide and other support materials are available, including a spoken version of the book. There is useful public domain material online for learning Latin, including old school textbooks, readers, and grammars such as Meissner\'s Latin
Latin
Phrasebook . There are also a number of online courses, such as Avitus' Schola Latina Universalis and Molendinarius' Latin-only YouTube course, Cursum Latinum, and the Latinum Podcast.

REFERENCES

* ^ http://www.spiegel.de/schulspiegel/wissen/untote-sprache-jeder-dritte-gymnasiast-bimst-latein-a-503814.html Der Spiegel , lookup 11-6-2014 * ^ There are three levels of certificates, requiring different numbers of periods: Kleines (small) Latinum, Latinum, Großes (big) Latinum * ^ NZZ 21.09.2014 "Latein ist beliebter als angenommen" * ^ "That\'ll Teach \'Em 2: Then and Now". * ^ Duque Arellano, José Gonzalo Pertinencia y vigencia del latín en la enseñanza de la lengua española, en las áreas de la morfología y de la sintaxis Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine .; Universidad de los Andes (in Spanish) * ^ Detalle de la Carrera: "Letras Mención Lengua y Literaturas Clasicas"; CNU-OPSU: Oportunidades de Estudio de Educación Superior en Venezuela
Venezuela
(in Spanish) * ^ Susan Naquin (2000). Peking: Temples and City Life, 1400-1900. University of California Press. pp. 577–. ISBN 978-0-520-21991-5 . * ^ Eva Tsoi Hung Hung; Judy Wakabayashi (16 July 2014). Asian Translation Traditions. Routledge. pp. 76–. ISBN 978-1-317-64048-6 .

* ^ Frank Kraushaar (2010). Eastwards: Western Views on East Asian Culture. Peter Lang. pp. 96–. ISBN 978-3-0343-0040-7 . * ^ Eric Widmer (1976). The Russian Ecclesiastical Mission in Peking During the Eighteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 110–. ISBN 978-0-674-78129-0 . * ^ Egor Fedorovich Timkovskii (1827). Travels of the Russian mission through Mongolia to China, with corrections and notes by J. von Klaproth . pp. 29–. * ^ Egor Fedorovich Timkovskiĭ; Hannibal Evans Lloyd; Julius Heinrich Klaproth (1827). Travels of the Russian mission through Mongolia to China: and residence in Pekin, in the years 1