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Industrialisation Industrialisation (or industrialization) is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an
agrarian society An agrarian society, or agricultural society, is any community whose economy is based on producing and maintaining crops and farmland. Another way to define an agrarian society is by seeing how much of a nation's total production is in agriculture. ...
into an
industrial society In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour. Such a structure developed in the Western world in the period of ti ...
. This involves an extensive re-organisation of an
economy An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution and trade, as well as consumption of goods and services by different agents. In general, it is defined 'as a social do ...
for the purpose of
manufacturing Manufacturing is the production of goods through the use of labor, machines, tools, and chemical or biological processing or formulation. It is the essence of secondary sector of the economy. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from h ...
. Historically industrialization is associated with increase of polluting industries heavily dependent on
fossil fuel A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2015). "Why C ...
s; however, with the increasing focus on
sustainable development Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while simultaneously sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services on which the economy and society depend. ...

sustainable development
and
green industrial policy Green industrial policy (GIP) is strategic government policy that attempts to accelerate the development and growth of green industries to transition towards a low-carbon economy. Green industrial policy is necessary because green industries such a ...
practices, industrialization increasingly includes technological leapfrogging, with direct investment in more advanced, cleaner technologies. The reorganization of the economy has many
knock-on effect An erosion gully in Australia caused by rabbits, an unintended consequence of their introduction as game animals. In the social sciences, unintended consequences (sometimes unanticipated consequences or unforeseen consequences) are outcomes of a pu ...
s both economically and socially. As industrial workers' incomes rise, markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds tend to expand and provide a further stimulus to industrial
investment To invest is to allocate money in the expectation of some benefit/return in the future. In other words, to invest means owning an asset or an item with the goal of generating income from the investment or the appreciation of your investment whic ...
and
economic growth Economic growth can be defined as the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time. Statisticians conventionally measure such growth as the percent rate of increase in real gross domes ...
. Moreover, family structures tend to shift as extended families tend to no longer live together in one household,location or place.


Background

After the last stage of the
Proto-industrialization Proto-industrialization is the regional development, alongside commercial agriculture, of rural handicraft production for external markets. The term was introduced in the early 1970s by economic historians who argued that such developments in part ...
, the first transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy is known as the
Industrial Revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machin ...
and took place from the mid-18th to early 19th century in certain areas in
Europe Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It comprises the westernmost peninsulas of the continental landmass of Eurasia, and is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlant ...
and North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, and France. Characteristics of this early industrialisation were technological progress, a shift from rural work to industrial labor, financial investments in new industrial structure, and early developments in class consciousness and theories related to this. Later commentators have called this the First Industrial Revolution. The "
Second Industrial Revolution The Second Industrial Revolution, also known as the Technological Revolution, was a phase of rapid standardization and industrialization from the late 19th century into the early 20th century. The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the ...
" labels the later changes that came about in the mid-19th century after the refinement of the
steam engine from Stott Park Bobbin Mill, Cumbria, England A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside ...
, the invention of the
internal combustion engine An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine, t ...
, the harnessing of
electricity Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. Electricity is related to magnetism, both being part of the phenomenon of electromagnetism, as described by ...
and the construction of canals, railways and electric-power lines. The invention of the
assembly line#REDIRECT Assembly line#REDIRECT Assembly line {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
gave this phase a boost. Coal mines, steelworks, and textile factories replaced homes as the place of work. By the end of the 20th century,
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The modern states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. The East Asian states of China, North ...
had become one of the most recently industrialised regions of the world. The BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are undergoing the process of industrialisation. There is considerable literature on the factors facilitating industrial modernisation and enterprise development.


Industrialization in East Asia

Between the early 1960s and 1990s, the
Four Asian Tigers The Four Asian Tigers (also known as the Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons in Chinese and Korean) are the economies of South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore and Hong Kong. Between the early 1960s and 1990s, they underwent rapid industrialization ...
underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates.


Social consequences

The
Industrial revolution The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machin ...
was accompanied with a great deal of changes on the social structure, the main change being a transition from farm work to factory related activities. This resulted to the creation of a class structure that differentiated the commoners from the well off and the working category.It distorted the family system as most people moved into cities and left the farm areas, consequently playing a major role in the transmission of diseases. The place of women in the society then shifted from being home cares to employed workers hence reducing the number of children per household. Furthermore industrialization contributed to increased cases of
child labor Child labour (British English) or child labor (American English; see spelling differences) refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regu ...
and thereafter education systems.


Urbanisation

As the Industrial Revolution was a shift from the agrarian society, people migrated from villages in search of jobs to places where factories were established. This shifting of rural people led to urbanisation and increase in the population of towns. The concentration of labour in factories has increased urbanisation and the size of settlements, to serve and house the factory workers.


Exploitation


China

China, along with many other areas of the world run by industrialization, has been affected by the world’s never ending rise of supply and demand. With the largest population in the world, China has become one of the main exporters of objects from household items to high technology appliances.


Changes in family structure

Family structure changes with industrialisation. Sociologist
Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons (13 December 1902 – 8 May 1979) was an American sociologist of the classical tradition, best known for his social action theory and structural functionalism. Parsons is considered one of the most influential figures in sociology i ...
noted that in pre-industrial societies there is an
extended family Extension, extend or extended may refer to: Mathematics Logic or set theory * Axiom of extensionality * Extensible cardinal * Extension (model theory) * Extension (predicate logic), the set of tuples of values that satisfy the predicate * Exten ...
structure spanning many generations who probably remained in the same location for generations. In industrialised societies the
nuclear family A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of a couple and their children (one or more). It is in contrast to a single-parent family, the larger extended family, or a family with more than two parents. Nuclea ...
, consisting of only parents and their growing children, predominates. Families and children reaching adulthood are more mobile and tend to relocate to where jobs exist. Extended family bonds become more tenuous.


Current situation

the "
international development International development or global development is a broad concept denoting the idea that societies and countries have differing levels of "development" on an international scale. It is the basis for international classifications such as develop ...
community" (
World Bank The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans and grants to the governments of low- and middle-income countries for the purpose of pursuing capital projects. It comprises two institutions: the International Bank for ...
, Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD), many United Nations departments,
FAO The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture; it, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura is a specialized agency of ...
WHO The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. The WHO Constitution, which establishes the agency's governing structure and principles, states its main objective as ...
ILO The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency whose mandate is to advance social and economic justice through setting international labour standards. Founded in October 1919 under the League of Nations, it is the firs ...
and
UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO french: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace an ...

UNESCO
, endorses development policies like water purification or
primary education Primary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary school. Primary education takes place in primary school, the elementary school or first and middle school depending on the location. ...
and co-operation amongst third world communities.United Nations Millennium Development Goals
. Un.org (2008-05-20). Retrieved on 2013-07-29.
Some members of the economic communities do not consider contemporary industrialisation policies as being adequate to the
global south The Global South is a term often used to identify lower income countries on one side of the so-called global North–South divide, the other side being the countries of the Global North. As such the term does not inherently refer to a geograph ...
(Third World countries) or beneficial in the longer term, with the perception that they may only create inefficient local industries unable to compete in the
free-trade#REDIRECT Free trade {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
dominated political order which industrialisation has fostered.
Environmentalism Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to ...
and
Green politics#REDIRECT Green politics#REDIRECT Green politics {{R from other capitalisation ...
{{R from other capitalisation ...
may represent more visceral reactions to industrial growth. Nevertheless, repeated examples in history of apparently successful industrialisation (Britain, Soviet Union, South Korea, China, etc.) may make conventional industrialisation seem like an attractive or even natural path forward, especially as populations grow,
consumerist ''Consumerist'' (also known as ''The Consumerist'') was a non-profit consumer affairs website owned by Consumer Media LLC, a subsidiary of ''Consumer Reports'', with content created by a team of full-time reporters and editors. The site's focus ...
expectations rise and agricultural opportunities diminish. The relationships among economic growth, employment, and poverty reduction are complex. Higher
productivity Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production. Often, a productivity measure is expressed as the ratio of an aggregate output to a single input or an aggregate input used in a production process, i.e. output per unit of ...
, it is argued, may lead to lower
employment Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other ...
(see
jobless recoveryA jobless recovery or jobless growth is an economic phenomenon in which a macroeconomy experiences growth while maintaining or decreasing its level of employment. The term was coined by the economist Nick Perna in the early 1990s. Causes Economists ...
).Claire Melamed, Renate Hartwig and Ursula Grant 2011
Jobs, growth and poverty: what do we know, what don't we know, what should we know?
London:
Overseas Development Institute Odi is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960. Based in London, its mission is to "work to inspire people to act on injustice and inequality." It does this through "research, convening and ...
There are differences across
sector Sector may refer to: Places * Sector, West Virginia, U.S. Geometry * Circular sector, the portion of a disc enclosed by two radii and a circular arc * Hyperbolic sector, a region enclosed by two radii and a hyperbolic arc * Spherical sector, a por ...
s, whereby manufacturing is less able than the
tertiary sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector (approximately the same as manufacturing), and the primary secto ...
to accommodate both increased productivity and employment opportunities; more than 40% of the world's employees are "
working poor The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to low-income jobs and low familial household income. These are people who spend at least 27 weeks in a year working or looking for employment, but remain under ...
", whose incomes fail to keep themselves and their families above the $2-a-day
poverty line Poverty Thresholds for 2013 The poverty threshold, poverty limit, poverty line or breadline, is the minimum level of income deemed adequate in a particular country. Poverty line is usually calculated by finding the total cost of all the essentia ...
. There is also a phenomenon of
deindustrialisation The former decline_of_the_city's_once_vibrant_Automotive_industry_in_the_United_States.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Detroit">Packard Automotive Plant in decline_of_the_city's_once_vibrant_Automotive_industry_i ...
, as in the former
USSR The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a federal socialist state in Northern Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, in practice its governmen ...
countries' transition to market economies, and the agriculture sector is often the key sector in absorbing the resultant unemployment.


See also

*
Automation Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predetermi ...
*
Deindustrialization The former decline_of_the_city's_once_vibrant_Automotive_industry_in_the_United_States.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Detroit">Packard Automotive Plant in decline_of_the_city's_once_vibrant_Automotive_industry_i ...
*
Division of labour The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any economic system or organisation so that participants may specialise (specialisation). Individuals, organisations, and nations are endowed with or acquire specialised capabilities and either ...
*
Great Divergence 320px, The European book output rose between 500 and 1800 by a factor of 100,000, particularly after the Printing Revolution in 1450. The Great Divergence or European miracle is the socioeconomic shift in which the Western world (i.e. Western Euro ...
*
Idea of Progress upright=1.14, alt=Painting depicting a woman draped in white robes flying westward across the land with settlers and following her on foot, John Gast, ''American Progress'', Progress is the movement towards a refined, improved, or otherwise desire ...
*
Mass production Mass production, also known as flow production or continuous production, is the production of large amounts of standardized products in a constant flow, including and especially on assembly lines. Together with job production and batch product ...
*
Mechanization A water-powered mine hoist used for raising ore. This woodblock is from ''De re metallica'' by George Bauer (pen name Georgius Agricola, ca. 1555) an early mining textbook that contains numerous drawings and descriptions of mining equipment. M ...
*
Newly industrialised country The category of newly industrialized country (NIC), newly industrialized economy (NIE) or middle income country is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists. They represen ...


References


Further reading

* * Hewitt, T., Johnson, H. and Wield, D. (Eds) (1992) ''industrialisation and Development'', Oxford University Press: Oxford. * Hobsbawm, Eric (1962): ''The Age of Revolution.'' Abacus. * Kemp, Tom (1993) ''Historical Patterns of Industrialisation'', Longman: London. * Kiely, R (1998) ''industrialisation and Development: A comparative analysis'', UCL Press:London. * * Pomeranz, Ken (2001)''The Great Divergence: China, Europe and the Making of the Modern World Economy'' (Princeton Economic History of the Western World) by (Princeton University Press; New Ed edition, 2001) * Tilly, Richard H.
''Industrialization as an Historical Process''
European History Online European History Online (''Europäische Geschichte Online, EGO'') is an academic website that publishes articles on the history of Europe between the period of 1450 and 1950 according to the principle of open access. Organisation EGO is issued b ...
, Mainz:
Institute of European HistoryThe Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period. Though autonomous in n ...
, 2010, retrieved: 29 February 2011. {{Authority control Human activities with impact on the environment
Secondary sector of the economy {{Cat main, Secondary sector of the economy Economic sectors ...
Economic growth {{JEL code, O4 Growth Growth ...
Economic development Late modern economic history