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The INDO-GANGETIC PLAIN, also known as the INDUS-GANGA and the NORTH INDIAN RIVER PLAIN, is a 255 million hectare (630 million acres) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India
India
, the eastern parts of Pakistan
Pakistan
, and virtually all of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. The region is named after the Indus
Indus
and the Ganges
Ganges
, and encompasses a number of large urban areas. The plain is bound on the north by the Himalayas
Himalayas
, which feed its numerous rivers and are the source of the fertile alluvium deposited across the region by the two river systems. The southern edge of the plain is marked by the Chota Nagpur Plateau . On the west rises the Iranian Plateau
Iranian Plateau
.

CONTENTS

* 1 History * 2 Geography * 3 Fauna * 4 Agriculture * 5 Cities * 6 Administrative divisions * 7 See also * 8 References

HISTORY

The region is known for the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilization , which was responsible for the birth of ancient South Asian culture. The flat and fertile terrain has facilitated the repeated rise and expansion of various empires, including the Gupta empire
Gupta empire
, Kanauj , Magadha
Magadha
, the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
, the Pala Empire , the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and the Sultanate of Delhi
Delhi
– all of which had their demographic and political centers in the Indo-Gangetic plain. During the Vedic and Epic eras of Indian history, this region was referred to as " Aryavarta " (Land of the Aryans ). According to Manusmṛti (2.22), 'Aryavarta' is "the tract between the Himalaya and the Vindhya ranges , from the Eastern Sea ( Bay of Bengal ) to the Western Sea ( Arabian Sea
Arabian Sea
)". . During the Islamic period, the Turkish , Afghan and Iranian rulers referred to this region as " Hindustan
Hindustan
" (Land of the Hindus
Hindus
), deriving from the Persian term for the Indus
Indus
River. This term was later used to refer to the whole of India
India
but even into the modern generation, the dialect of Hindi
Hindi
- Urdu
Urdu
spoken in this region is called Hindustani , a term which is also used for the local music and culture.

GEOGRAPHY

A part of the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Plain

Some geographers subdivide the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Plain
into several parts: the Sindh
Sindh
, Punjab
Punjab
, Doab
Doab
, and Bengal
Bengal
regions. By another definition, the Indus- Ganga
Ganga
Plain
Plain
is divided into two drainage basins by the Delhi Ridge ; the western part consists of the Punjab
Punjab
Plain, and the eastern part consists of the Ganga– Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
drainage systems . This divide is only 350 metres above sea level , causing the perception that the Indus- Ganga
Ganga
Plain
Plain
appears to be continuous between the two drainage basins.

The middle Ganga
Ganga
plain extends from the Yamuna River
Yamuna River
in the west to the state of West Bengal
Bengal
in the east. The lower Ganges
Ganges
plain and the Assam Valley
Assam Valley
are more verdant than the middle Ganga
Ganga
plain. The lower Ganga
Ganga
is centered in West Bengal, from which it flows into Bangladesh. After joining the Jamuna , a distributary of Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
, both rivers form the Ganges
Ganges
Delta . The Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
rises in Tibet
Tibet
as the Yarlung Zangbo River and flows through Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
and Assam
Assam
, before crossing into Bangladesh
Bangladesh
.

As a large plain, the exact extent can vary from source to source. Roughly, the Indo-Gangetic Plain
Plain
stretches across:

* Kashmir in the north; * the Punjab
Punjab
a provincial region of Pakistan
Pakistan
and the Aravalli Range ; * the Himalayan foothills of Assam
Assam
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in the east; and * the Chota Nagpur Plateau in the south.

The fertile Terai region is the Nepalese extension of the Plain. The rivers encompassed are the Beas , the Chambal , the Chenab , the Ganga , the Gomti , the Indus
Indus
, the Ravi , the Sutlej and the Yamuna
Yamuna
. The soil is rich in silt , making the plain one of the most intensely farmed areas of the world. Even rural areas here are densely populated .

The Indus- Ganga
Ganga
plains, also known as the "Great Plains," are large floodplains of the Indus
Indus
and the Ganga– Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
river systems. They run parallel to the Himalaya mountains, from Jammu and Kashmir and odisha in the west to Assam
Assam
in the east and draining most of northern and eastern India. The plains encompass an area of 700,000 km² (270,000 mile²) and vary in width through their length by several hundred kilometres. The major rivers of this system are the Ganga
Ganga
and the Indus
Indus
along with their tributaries; Beas, Yamuna, Gomti, Ravi, Chambal, Sutlej and Chenab.

Extent of the Indo-Gangetic plain across South Asia.The great plains are sometimes classified into four divisions:

* The BHABAR BELT — is adjacent to the foothills of the Himalayas and consists of boulders and pebbles which have been carried down by the river streams. As the porosity of this belt is very high, the streams flow underground. The bhabar is generally narrow about 7–15 km wide. * The TERAI BELT — lies next to the Bhabar region and is composed of newer alluvium. The underground streams reappear in this region. The region is excessively moist and thickly forested. It also receives heavy rainfall throughout the year and is populated with a variety of wildlife. * The BANGAR BELT — consists of older alluvium and forms the alluvial terrace of the flood plains. In the Gangetic plains, it has a low upland covered by laterite deposits. * The KHADIR BELT — lies in lowland areas after the Bangar belt. It is made up of fresh newer alluvium which is deposited by the rivers flowing down the plain.

The Indus- Ganga
Ganga
belt is the world's most extensive expanse of uninterrupted alluvium formed by the deposition of silt by the numerous rivers. The plains are flat and mostly treeless, making it conducive for irrigation through canals. The area is also rich in ground water sources.The plains are the world's most intensely farmed areas. The main crops grown are rice and wheat that are grown in rotation. Others include maize, sugarcane and cotton. The Indo-Gangetic plains rank among the world's most densely populated areas.

FAUNA

Until recent history, the open grasslands of the Indus- Ganga
Ganga
Plain were inhabited by several large species of animal. The open plains were home to large numbers of herbivores which included all three of the Asian rhinoceros ( Indian rhinoceros
Indian rhinoceros
, Javan rhinoceros
Javan rhinoceros
, Sumatran rhinoceros ). The open grasslands were in many ways similar to the landscape of modern Africa. Gazelle, buffalo, rhinos, elephants, lions, and hippo roamed the grasslands as they do in Africa today. Large herds of Indian elephants , gazelles , antelopes and horses lived alongside several species of wild cattle including the now-extinct aurochs . In the forested areas there were several species of wild pig , deer and muntjac . In the wetter regions close to the Ganga, there would have been large herds of water buffalo grazing on the riverbanks along with extinct species of hippopotamus .

So many large animals would have supported a large population of predators as well. Indian wolves , dholes , striped hyenas , Asiatic cheetahs and Asiatic lions would have hunted large game on the open plains, while Bengal
Bengal
tigers and leopards would stalk prey in the surrounding woods and sloth bears hunt for termites in both of these areas. In the Ganges
Ganges
there were large concentrations of gharial , mugger crocodile and river dolphin controlling fish stocks and the occasional migrating herd crossing the river.

AGRICULTURE

Farming on the Indus- Ganga
Ganga
Plain
Plain
primarily consists of rice and wheat grown in rotation . Other crops include maize , sugarcane , and cotton .

The main source of rainfall is the southwest monsoon which is normally sufficient for general agriculture. The many rivers flowing out of the Himalayas
Himalayas
provide water for major irrigation works.

Due to a rapidly growing population (as well as other factors), this area is considered at high risk for water shortages in the future.

The area constitutes the land between the river Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Aravli mountain ranges. The famous river Ganga
Ganga
and others such as Yamuna
Yamuna
, Ghaghara
Ghaghara
and Chambal flow through the area.

CITIES

Among the largest cities of the Indo-Gangetic plain are:

In Nepal
Nepal
: Biratnagar
Biratnagar
, Janakpur
Janakpur
, Lumbini
Lumbini
and Kapilavastu .

In India
India
: Ludhiana , Chandigarh , Bathinda
Bathinda
, Jalandhar
Jalandhar
, Amritsar
Amritsar
, Patiala , Ambala , Panipat
Panipat
, Gurgaon
Gurgaon
, Faridabad
Faridabad
, Delhi
Delhi
, Jaipur
Jaipur
, Ghaziabad , Meerut
Meerut
, Agra
Agra
, Bareilly , Moradabad
Moradabad
, Jhansi
Jhansi
, Kanpur
Kanpur
, Lucknow
Lucknow
, Gorakhpur , Allahabad
Allahabad
, Varanasi
Varanasi
, Patna
Patna
, Gaya , Muzaffarpur , Motihari , Bhagalpur , Siliguri , Barddhaman , Baharampur , Durgapur
Durgapur
- Asansol , Kolkata
Kolkata
- Howrah
Howrah
, Agartala , Dibrugarh
Dibrugarh
, Guwahati
Guwahati
, Silchar
Silchar
, Dhubri , Tezpur
Tezpur
and Jorhat

In Bangladesh
Bangladesh
: Dhaka
Dhaka
, Chittagong
Chittagong
, Gazipur
Gazipur
, Mymensingh , Sylhet
Sylhet
, Narayanganj
Narayanganj
, Rajshahi
Rajshahi
, Rangpur , Dinajpur
Dinajpur
, Comilla
Comilla
, Barisal
Barisal
, Jessore and Khulna

In Pakistan
Pakistan
: Lahore
Lahore
, Faisalabad , Gujranwala , Rawalpindi - Islamabad
Islamabad
, Multan
Multan
, Hyderabad and Karachi
Karachi

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS

Because it is not fully possible to define the boundaries of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, it is also difficult to give an exact list of which administrative areas are part of the plain.

The areas that are completely or more than half in the plain are:

* Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(almost the whole country) * Bhutan
Bhutan

* India
India

* Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
* Assam
Assam
* Bihar
Bihar
* Chhattisgarh * Delhi
Delhi
* Gujarat
Gujarat
* Haryana
Haryana
* Jammu ">

* ^ Taneja, Garima; Pal, Barun Deb; Joshi, Pramod Kumar; Aggarwal, Pramod K.; Tyagi, N. K. (2014). Farmers preferences for climate-smart agriculture: An assessment in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. Intl Food Policy Res Inst. p. 2. * ^ Gopal, Madan (1990). K.S. Gautam, ed. India
India
through the ages. Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. p. 70. * ^ Michael Cook (2014), Ancient Religions, Modern Politics: The Islamic Case in Comparative Perspective, Princeton University Press, p.68: " Aryavarta is defined by Manu as extending from the Himalayas in the north to the Vindhyas of Central India
India
in the south and from the sea in the west to the sea in the east." * ^ "India". CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved 2007-12-14. * ^ "Hindustani Classical Music". Indian Melody. Retrieved 2007-12-14.

* v * t * e

Geography of India
India

CLIMATE

* Climate * Climatic regions

GEOLOGY

* Fossil Parks * Geology of India
India
* Indian Plate
Indian Plate
* Stones

LANDFORMS

* Beaches * Canals * Desert * Extreme points * Glaciers * Islands * Lakes * Mountains * Rivers * Valleys * Volcanoes * Waterfalls

* Plains

* Indo-Gangetic * Eastern Coastal * Western Coastal

REGIONS

* North India
India
* Northeast India
India
* East India
India
* South India
India
* West India
India
* Central India
India

SUBDIVISIONS

* Autonomous administrative divisions * States and territories * Districts * Cities * Towns * Municipalities

ENVIRONMENT

* Biogeographic classification * Ecoregions * Fauna * Flora * Forests * Issues * Protected Areas * Wildlife

* v * t * e

Geography of South Asia
South Asia

MOUNTAINS AND PLATEAUS

* Himalayas
Himalayas

* Mount Everest
Mount Everest

* Western Ghats
Western Ghats
* Eastern Ghats
Eastern Ghats
* Aravalli Range * Nilgiris * Vindhya Range * Satpura Range * Garo Hills * Shivalik Hills * Mahabharat Range * Khasi Hills * Annamalai Hills * Cardamom Hills
Cardamom Hills
* Sulaiman Mountains * Toba Kakar Range * Karakoram
Karakoram
* Hindu Kush
Hindu Kush
* Chittagong
Chittagong
Hill Tracts * Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
* Thar Desert
Thar Desert
* Makran
Makran
* Chota Nagpur * Naga Hills * Mysore Plateau * Ladakh
Ladakh
Plateau * Gandhamardan Hills * Malwa
Malwa

LOWLANDS AND ISLANDS

* Indo-Gangetic plain * Doab
Doab
* Indus
Indus
Valley * Indus
Indus
River Delta * Ganges
Ganges
Basin * Ganges
Ganges
Delta * Terai * Atolls of the Maldives
Atolls of the Maldives
* Coromandel Coast
Coromandel Coast
* Konkan
Konkan
* Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
* Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
* Sundarbans Reserve Forest
Sundarbans Reserve Forest
* Greater Rann of Kutch * Little Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
* Protected areas in Tamil Nadu

BY COUNTRY

* India
India
* Pakistan
Pakistan
* Nepal
Nepal
* Bhutan
Bhutan
* Sri Lanka * Bangladesh
Bangladesh
* Maldives * Afghanistan

Coordinates : 27°15′N 80°30′E / 27.25°N 80.5°E / 27.25; 80.5 Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Indo-Gangetic_Plain additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. , a non-profit organization.

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