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Pontic Steppe

Domestication of the horse Kurgan Kurgan
Kurgan
culture Steppe cultures

Bug-Dniester Sredny Stog Dnieper-Donets Samara Khvalynsk Yamna

Mikhaylovka culture

Caucasus

Maykop

East-Asia

Afanasevo

Eastern Europe

Usatovo Cernavodă Cucuteni

Northern Europe

Corded ware

Baden Middle Dnieper

Bronze Age

Pontic Steppe

Chariot Yamna Catacomb Multi-cordoned ware Poltavka Srubna

Northern/Eastern Steppe

Abashevo culture Andronovo Sintashta

Europe

Globular Amphora Corded ware Beaker Unetice Trzciniec Nordic Bronze Age Terramare Tumulus Urnfield Lusatian

South-Asia

BMAC Yaz Gandhara
Gandhara
grave

Iron Age

Steppe

Chernoles

Europe

Thraco-Cimmerian Hallstatt Jastorf

Caucasus

Colchian

India

Painted Grey Ware Northern Black Polished Ware

Peoples and societies

Bronze Age

Anatolians Armenians Mycenaean Greeks Indo-Iranians

Iron Age

Indo-Aryans

Indo-Aryans

Iranians

Iranians

Scythians Persians Medes

Europe

Celts

Gauls Celtiberians Insular Celts

Hellenic peoples Italic peoples Germanic peoples Paleo-Balkans/Anatolia:

Thracians Dacians Illyrians Phrygians

Middle Ages

East-Asia

Tocharians

Europe

Balts Slavs Albanians Medieval Europe

Indo-Aryan

Medieval India

Iranian

Greater Persia

Religion and mythology

Reconstructed

Proto-Indo-European religion Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Historical

Hittite

Indian

Vedic

Hinduism

Buddhism Jainism

Iranian

Persian

Zoroastrianism

Kurdish

Yazidism Yarsanism

Scythian

Ossetian

Others

Armenian

Europe

Paleo-Balkans Greek Roman Celtic

Irish Scottish Breton Welsh Cornish

Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Baltic

Latvian Lithuanian

Slavic Albanian

Practices

Fire-sacrifice Horse sacrifice Sati Winter solstice/Yule

Indo-European studies

Scholars

Marija Gimbutas J.P. Mallory

Institutes

Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European

Publications

Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture The Horse, the Wheel and Language Journal of Indo-European Studies Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch Indo-European Etymological Dictionary

v t e

Indo- Aryan
Aryan
peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo- Aryan
Aryan
languages. There are over one billion native speakers of Indo- Aryan
Aryan
languages, most of them native to South Asia, where they form the majority.[note 1]

Contents

1 History 2 List of Indo- Aryan
Aryan
peoples

2.1 Historical 2.2 Contemporary

3 See also 4 Notes 5 References 6 Sources 7 External links

History[edit] Main articles: Indo-European migrations
Indo-European migrations
and Indo- Aryan
Aryan
migration theory Further information: Indigenous Aryans
Indigenous Aryans
and Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia Some of the theories proposed in the 20th century for the dispersal of Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
are described by linguist Colin Masica in the chapter, "The Historical Context and Development of Indo-Aryan" in his book, The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Languages.[4] A recent Indo-Aryan migration
Indo-Aryan migration
theory[note 2] proposed in the trade paperback, The Horse, The Wheel and Language, by David Anthony, a professor of anthropology at Hartwick College, claims that the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
in the Indian subcontinent was a result of a migration of people from the Sintashta culture[6][7] through the Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian subcontinent (modern day India, Nepal, Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and Pakistan). These migrations started approximately 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the war chariot, and also brought Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
into the Levant
Levant
and possibly Inner Asia. It was part of the diffusion of Indo-European languages from the proto-Indo-European homeland at the Pontic steppe, a large area of grasslands in far Eastern Europe, which started in the 5th to 4th millennia BCE, and the Indo-European migrations
Indo-European migrations
out of the Eurasian steppes, which started approximately 2,000 BCE. The theory posits that these Indo- Aryan
Aryan
speaking people may have been a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems, which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups into this culture, and explains the strong influence on other cultures with which it interacted.The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture (2100–1800 BCE),[8] and the Andronovo culture,[9] which flourished ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The proto- Indo-Iranians
Indo-Iranians
were influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs and practices. The Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
split off around 1800-1600 BCE from the Iranians,[10] whereafter the Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
migrated into the Levant
Levant
and north-western India.[11] An alternate theory places the Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
as being indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. List of Indo- Aryan
Aryan
peoples[edit] Historical[edit]

Angas Gandharis Gangaridai Gupta Kalingas Khasas Kurus Licchavis Magadhis Maurya Nanda Pala Paundra Rigvedic tribes Sena Shakya Vanga Varanasi Videha Yadava

Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after EIEC). The Andronovo, BMAC
BMAC
and Yaz cultures have often been associated with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan migrations.

Contemporary[edit]

Assamese people Awadhi people Banjara
Banjara
people Barua Bengali people Bhojpuri people Bishnupriya Manipuri people Dardic People Dhivehi people Dogra people Garhwali people Gujarati people Kalash people Kamrupi people Kashmiri people Khas people Konkani people Kumauni people Kutchi people Magahi people Maithil people Marathi people Marwari people Miyan people Muhajir people Odia people Punjabi people Rajasthani people Romani people Rohingya people Saraiki people Saurashtra people Sinhalese people Sindhi people Sylheti people Tharu people

See also[edit]

Arya Aryan Aryan
Aryan
race Aryavarta Arya
Arya
Samaj Dasa Indo- Aryan
Aryan
languages Proto-Indo-Europeans Iranian Peoples Anthropological Survey of India Dravidian peoples

Notes[edit]

^ According to Reich et. al (2009), while the Indo- Aryan
Aryan
linguistic group occupies mainly northern parts of India, genetically, all South Asians across the subcontinent are a mix of two genetically divergent ancient populations namely Ancestral North Indian (ANI) population and Ancestral South Indian (ASI) population. ‘Ancestral North Indians’ (ANI) is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and Europeans, whereas the other, the ‘Ancestral South Indians’ (ASI) is not close to any large modern group outside the Indian subcontinent. The mixing occurred between substructured populations instead of homogeneous populations, and at multiple times and at multiple geographic locations within a span of over thousands of years to produce the current South Asian population. Indo- Aryan
Aryan
speakers and traditionally upper castes have higher ANI ancestry than Dravidian speakers and traditionally middle, lower castes. ^ The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Migration theory.[5] The term "invasion" does not reflect the contemporary scholarly understanding of the Indo-Aryan migrations,[5] and is merely being used in a polemical and distractive way.

References[edit]

^ "India". The World Factbook.  ^ "Pakistan". The World Factbook.  ^ "Bangladesh". The World Factbook.  ^ Masica, Colin P. (9 September 1993). "The Historical Context and Development of Indo-Aryan". The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Languages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 32–60. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.  ^ a b Witzel 2005, p. 348. ^ Anthony 2007, pp. 408–411. ^ Kuz'mina 2007, p. 222. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 390 (fig. 15.9), 405-411. ^ Anthony 2009, p. 49. ^ Anthony 2007, p. 408. ^ George Erdosy(1995) "The Indo-Aryans
Indo-Aryans
of Ancient South Asia: Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity.", p.279

Sources[edit]

Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World. Princeton University Press.  Beckwith, Christopher I. (16 March 2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
to the Present. Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400829941. Retrieved 30 December 2014.  Bryant, Edwin (2001). The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513777-9.  Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999). The Cambridge History of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-5214-7030-7. Retrieved November 1, 2013.  Mallory, JP. 1998. "A European Perspective on Indo-Europeans in Asia". In The Bronze Age
Bronze Age
and Early Iron Age
Iron Age
Peoples of Eastern and Central Asia. Ed. Mair. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Man. Trubachov, Oleg N., 1999: Indoarica, Nauka, Moscow. Witzel, Michael (2005), "Indocentrism", in Bryant, Edwin; Patton, Laurie L., The Indo- Aryan
Aryan
Controversy. Evidence and inference in Indian history, Routledge 

External links[edit]

Horseplay at Harappa - People Fas Harvard - Harvard University A tale of two

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