Domestication of the horse
Nordic Bronze Age
Painted Grey Ware
Northern Black Polished Ware
Peoples and societies
Religion and mythology
Copenhagen Studies in Indo-European
Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture
The Horse, the Wheel and Language
Journal of Indo-European Studies
Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch
Indo-European Etymological Dictionary
Aryan peoples are a diverse Indo-European-speaking
ethnolinguistic group of speakers of Indo-
Aryan languages. There are
over one billion native speakers of Indo-
Aryan languages, most of them
native to South Asia, where they form the majority.[note 1]
2 List of Indo-
3 See also
7 External links
Indo-European migrations and Indo-
Indigenous Aryans and Genetics and
archaeogenetics of South Asia
Some of the theories proposed in the 20th century for the dispersal of
Indo-Aryan languages are described by linguist
Colin Masica in the
chapter, "The Historical Context and Development of Indo-Aryan" in his
book, The Indo-
Indo-Aryan migration theory[note 2] proposed in the trade
paperback, The Horse, The Wheel and Language, by David Anthony, a
professor of anthropology at Hartwick College, claims that the
introduction of the
Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent
was a result of a migration of people from the Sintashta culture
through the Bactria-Margiana Culture and into the northern Indian
subcontinent (modern day India, Nepal,
Bangladesh and Pakistan). These
migrations started approximately 1,800 BCE, after the invention of the
war chariot, and also brought
Indo-Aryan languages into the
possibly Inner Asia. It was part of the diffusion of Indo-European
languages from the proto-Indo-European homeland at the Pontic steppe,
a large area of grasslands in far Eastern Europe, which started in the
5th to 4th millennia BCE, and the
Indo-European migrations out of the
Eurasian steppes, which started approximately 2,000 BCE.
The theory posits that these Indo-
Aryan speaking people may have been
a genetically diverse group of people who were united by shared
cultural norms and language, referred to as aryā, "noble." Diffusion
of this culture and language took place by patron-client systems,
which allowed for the absorption and acculturalisation of other groups
into this culture, and explains the strong influence on other cultures
with which it interacted.The Proto-Indo-Iranians, from which the
Indo-Aryans developed, are identified with the Sintashta culture
(2100–1800 BCE), and the Andronovo culture, which flourished
ca. 1800–1400 BCE in the steppes around the Aral sea, present-day
Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The proto-
influenced by the Bactria-Margiana Culture, south of the Andronovo
culture, from which they borrowed their distinctive religious beliefs
and practices. The
Indo-Aryans split off around 1800-1600 BCE from the
Iranians, whereafter the
Indo-Aryans migrated into the
An alternate theory places the
Indo-Aryans as being indigenous to the
List of Indo-
Archaeological cultures associated with Indo-Iranian migrations (after
EIEC). The Andronovo,
BMAC and Yaz cultures have often been associated
with Indo-Iranian migrations. The GGC, Cemetery H, Copper Hoard and
PGW cultures are candidates for cultures associated with Indo-Aryan
Bishnupriya Manipuri people
Anthropological Survey of India
^ According to Reich et. al (2009), while the Indo-
group occupies mainly northern parts of India, genetically, all South
Asians across the subcontinent are a mix of two genetically divergent
ancient populations namely Ancestral North Indian (ANI) population and
Ancestral South Indian (ASI) population. ‘Ancestral North Indians’
(ANI) is genetically close to Middle Easterners, Central Asians, and
Europeans, whereas the other, the ‘Ancestral South Indians’ (ASI)
is not close to any large modern group outside the Indian
subcontinent. The mixing occurred between substructured populations
instead of homogeneous populations, and at multiple times and at
multiple geographic locations within a span of over thousands of years
to produce the current South Asian population. Indo-
Aryan speakers and
traditionally upper castes have higher ANI ancestry than Dravidian
speakers and traditionally middle, lower castes.
^ The term "invasion" is only being used nowadays by opponents of the
Aryan Migration theory. The term "invasion" does not reflect
the contemporary scholarly understanding of the Indo-Aryan
migrations, and is merely being used in a polemical and distractive
^ "India". The World Factbook.
^ "Pakistan". The World Factbook.
^ "Bangladesh". The World Factbook.
^ Masica, Colin P. (9 September 1993). "The Historical Context and
Development of Indo-Aryan". The Indo-
Aryan Languages. Cambridge
University Press. pp. 32–60. ISBN 978-0-521-29944-2.
^ a b Witzel 2005, p. 348.
^ Anthony 2007, pp. 408–411.
^ Kuz'mina 2007, p. 222.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 390 (fig. 15.9), 405-411.
^ Anthony 2009, p. 49.
^ Anthony 2007, p. 408.
^ George Erdosy(1995) "The
Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia:
Language, Material Culture and Ethnicity.", p.279
Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse The Wheel And Language. How
Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World.
Princeton University Press.
Beckwith, Christopher I. (16 March 2009). Empires of the Silk Road: A
History of Central Eurasia from the
Bronze Age to the Present.
Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400829941. Retrieved 30
Bryant, Edwin (2001). The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture.
Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-513777-9.
Loewe, Michael; Shaughnessy, Edward L. (1999). The Cambridge History
of Ancient China: From the Origins of Civilization to 221 BC.
Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–88. ISBN 0-5214-7030-7.
Retrieved November 1, 2013.
Mallory, JP. 1998. "A European Perspective on Indo-Europeans in Asia".
Bronze Age and Early
Iron Age Peoples of Eastern and Central
Asia. Ed. Mair. Washington DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Trubachov, Oleg N., 1999: Indoarica, Nauka, Moscow.
Witzel, Michael (2005), "Indocentrism", in Bryant, Edwin; Patton,
Laurie L., The Indo-
Aryan Controversy. Evidence and inference in
Indian history, Routledge
Horseplay at Harappa - People Fas Harvard - Harvard University
A tale of two