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India is a federal union comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories, for a total of 36 states and union territories. The states and union territories are further subdivided into districts and further into smaller administrative divisions.

Responsibilities and authorities

The Constitution of India distributes the sovereign executive and legislative powers exercisable with respect to the territory of any State between the Union and that State.[1]

History

Pre-independence

The Indian subcontinent has been ruled by many different ethnic groups throughout its history, each instituting their own policies of administrative division in the region.[2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11] During the British Raj, the original administrative structure was mostly kept, and India
India
was divided into provinces (also called Presidencies) that were directly governed by the British and princely states which were nominally controlled by a local prince or raja loyal to the British Empire, which held de facto sovereignty (suzerainty) over the princely states.

1947–1950

Between 1947 and 1950 the territories of the princely states were politically integrated into the Indian Union. Most were merged into existing provinces; others were organised into new provinces, such as Rajputana, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, and Vindhya Pradesh, made up of multiple princely states; a few, including Mysore
Mysore
State">Mysore, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State">Hyderabad, Bhopal
Bhopal
State">Bhopal, and Bilaspur, became separate provinces. The new Constitution of India, which came into force on 26 January 1950, made India
India
a sovereign democratic republic. The new republic was also declared to be a "Union of States".[12] The constitution of 1950 distinguished between three main types of states: Template Template-Fact" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed]

States reorganization (1951–1956)

The Union Territory of Puducherry was created in 1954 comprising the previous French enclaves of Pondicherry
Pondicherry
district">Pondichéry, Karaikal, Yanam and Mahé.[13] Andhra State was created on 1 October 1953 from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras
Madras
State"> Madras
Madras
State.[14]

The States Reorganisation Act of 1956 reorganised the states based on linguistic lines resulting in the creation of the new states.[15] As a result of this act, Madras
Madras
State"> Madras
Madras
State retained its name with Kanyakumari district added to from Travancore-Cochin. Andhra Pradesh was created with the merger of Andhra State with the Telugu-speaking districts of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State"> Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State in 1956. Kerala was created with the merger of Malabar district and the Kasaragod
Kasaragod
taluk"> Kasaragod
Kasaragod
taluk of South Canara districts of Madras
Madras
State"> Madras
Madras
State with Travancore-Cochin. Mysore
Mysore
State"> Mysore
Mysore
State was re-organized with the addition of districts of Bellary and South Canara (excluding Kasaragod taluk) and the Kollegal taluk of Coimbatore district from the Madras
Madras
State, the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, North Canara and Dharwad from Bombay
Bombay
State"> Bombay
Bombay
State, the Kannada-majority districts of Bidar, Raichur and Gulbarga from Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
(1948–56)"> Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State and the province of Coorg. The Laccadive Islands which were divided between South Canara
South Canara
and Malabar districts of Madras State
Madras State
were united and organised into the union territory of Lakshadweep.

Bombay
Bombay
State"> Bombay
Bombay
State was enlarged by the addition of Saurashtra State and Kutch State, the Marathi-speaking districts of Nagpur Division of Madhya Pradesh and Marathwada region of Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
(1948–56)"> Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State. Rajasthan and Punjab gained territories from Ajmer and Patiala
Patiala
and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union"> Patiala
Patiala
and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union respectively and certain territories of Bihar was transferred to West Bengal.

Post-1956

Bombay State
Bombay State
was split into the linguistic states of Gujarat and Maharashtra on 1 May 1960 by the Bombay
Bombay
Reorganisation Act.[16] Nagaland was formed on 1 December 1963.[17] The Punjab
Punjab
Reorganisation Act of 1966 resulted in the creation of Haryana on 1 November and the transfer of the northern districts of Punjab
Punjab
to Himachal Pradesh.[18] The act also designated Chandigarh as a union territory and the shared capital of Punjab
Punjab
and Haryana.[19][20]

Madras
Madras
state was renamed Tamil Nadu in 1968. North-eastern states of Manipur, Meghalaya and Tripura were formed on 21 January 1972.[21] Mysore State
Mysore State
was renamed as Karnataka in 1973. On 16 May 1975, Sikkim became the 22nd state of the Indian Union
Indian Union
and the state's monarchy was abolished.[22] In 1987, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram became states on 20 February, followed by Goa on 30 May, while Goa's northern exclaves of Daman and Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli became separate union territories.[23]

In November 2000, three new states were created; namely, Chhattisgarh from eastern Madhya Pradesh, Uttaranchal from northwest Uttar Pradesh (renamed Uttarakhand in 2007) and Jharkhand from southern districts of Bihar.[24][25][26][27] Orissa was renamed as Odisha in 2011. Telangana was created on 2 June 2014 as ten former districts of north-western Andhra Pradesh.[28][29]

Current proposals

List

States

State ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle
code
Zone Capital Largest city Statehood Population[30] India
India
by area">Area
(km2)
Official
languages[31]
Additional official
languages[31]
Andhra Pradesh IN-AP AP Southern Hyderabad (de jure)
Amaravati (de facto) Note 1[32][33]
Visakhapatnam 1 October 1953 49,506,799 160,205 Telugu
Arunachal Pradesh IN-AR AR North-Eastern Itanagar 20 February 1987 1,383,727 83,743 English
Assam IN-AS AS North-Eastern Dispur Guwahati 26 January 1950 31,205,576 78,550 Assamese
Bihar IN-BR BR Eastern Patna 26 January 1950 104,099,452 94,163 Hindi Urdu
Chhattisgarh IN-CT CG Central Naya Raipur Raipur 1 November 2000 25,545,198 135,194 Hindi
Goa IN-GA GA Western Panaji Vasco da Gama 30 May 1987 1,458,545 3,702 Konkani Marathi
Gujarat IN-GJ GJ Western Gandhinagar Ahmedabad 1 May 1960 60,439,692 196,024 Gujarati
Haryana IN-HR HR Northern Chandigarh Faridabad 1 November 1966 25,351,462 44,212 Hindi Punjabi[34][35]
Himachal Pradesh IN-HP HP Northern Shimla (Summer)

Dharamshala (Winter)

Shimla 25 January 1971 6,864,602 55,673 Hindi English
Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir"> Jammu
Jammu
and Kashmir
IN-JK JK Northern Srinagar (Summer)
Jammu (Winter)
Srinagar 26 January 1950 12,541,302 222,236
101,387Note 2
Urdu
Jharkhand IN-JH JH Eastern Ranchi Jamshedpur 15 November 2000 32,988,134 74,677 Hindi Urdu[36]
Karnataka IN-KA KA Southern Bangalore 1 November 1956 61,095,297 191,791 Kannada
Kerala IN-KL KL Southern Thiruvananthapuram 1 November 1956 33,406,061 38,863 Malayalam
Madhya Pradesh IN-MP MP Central Bhopal Indore 1 November 1956 72,626,809 308,252 Hindi
Maharashtra IN-MH MH Western Mumbai 1 May 1960 112,374,333 307,713 Marathi
Manipur IN-MN MN North-Eastern Imphal 21 January 1972 2,855,794 22,347 Meitei English
Meghalaya IN-ML ML North-Eastern Shillong 21 January 1972 2,966,889 22,720 English Khasi[a]
Mizoram IN-MZ MZ North-Eastern Aizawl 20 February 1987 1,097,206 21,081 English, Hindi, Mizo
Nagaland IN-NL NL North-Eastern Kohima Dimapur 1 December 1963 1,978,502 16,579 English
Odisha IN-OR OD Eastern Bhubaneswar 26 January 1950 41,974,218 155,820 Odia
Punjab IN-PB PB Northern Chandigarh Ludhiana 1 November 1966 27,743,338 50,362 Punjabi
Rajasthan IN-RJ RJ Northern Jaipur 1 November 1956 68,548,437 342,269 Hindi English
Sikkim IN-SK SK North-Eastern Gangtok 16 May 1975 610,577 7,096 English Bhutia, Gurung, Lepcha, Limbu, Manggar, Mukhia, Newari, Rai, Sherpa, Tamang
Tamil Nadu IN-TN TN Southern Chennai 26 January 1950 72,147,030 130,058 Tamil English
Telangana IN-TG TS Southern HyderabadNote 1 2 June 2014 35,193,978[37] 114,840[37] Telugu, Urdu[38]
Tripura IN-TR TR North-Eastern Agartala 21 January 1972 3,673,917 10,492 Bengali, Kokborok, English
Uttar Pradesh IN-UP UP Central Lucknow Kanpur 26 January 1950 199,812,341 243,286 Hindi Urdu
Uttarakhand IN-UT UK Central DehradunNote 3 9 November 2000 10,086,292 53,483 Hindi Sanskrit[39]
West Bengal IN-WB WB Eastern Kolkata 26 January 1950 91,276,115 88,752 Bengali, Nepali[b] Hindi, Urdu, Santali, Odia and Punjabi

Union territories

Union territory ISO 3166-2:IN Vehicle code Capital Largest city Population[30] India
India
by area">Area
(km2)
Official
languages[31]
Additional official
languages[31]
Andaman and Nicobar Islands IN-AN AN Port Blair 380,581 8,249 Hindi, English
Chandigarh IN-CH CH Chandigarh [c] 1,055,450 114 English
Dadra and Nagar Haveli IN-DN DN Silvassa 343,709 491 Gujarati, Hindi Marathi
Daman and Diu IN-DD DD Daman 243,247 112 English, Gujarati, Hindi, Konkani[d]
Delhi IN-DL DL New Delhi [e] 16,787,941 1,490 Hindi Punjabi, Urdu[44]
Lakshadweep IN-LD LD Kavaratti 64,473 32 English Hindi
Puducherry IN-PY PY Pondicherry 1,247,953 492 English,[45] Tamil Malayalam
Malayalam
language">Malayalam, Telugu

Former states

Map State Capital Years Successor state(s)

			<a class= Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Madhya_Bharat_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Madhya_Bharat_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Madhya_Bharat_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Madhya_Bharat_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/54/Madhya_Bharat_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Madhya_Bharat_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Madhya Bharat Gwalior (winter)
Indore (summer)
1947–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Eastern States Union Raipur 1947–1948 Bihar, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh

			<a class= Madras
Madras
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Madras_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Madras_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Madras_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Madras_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Madras_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Madras_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Madras
Madras
State"> Madras
Madras
State
Madras 1950–1969 Tamil Nadu

			<a class= Mysore
Mysore
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Mysore_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Mysore_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Mysore_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Mysore_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b3/Mysore_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Mysore_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Mysore
Mysore
State"> Mysore
Mysore
State
Mysore 1947–1973 Karnataka
PEPSU in 
			<a class= India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/PEPSU_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-PEPSU_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/PEPSU_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-PEPSU_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/39/PEPSU_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-PEPSU_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Patiala
Patiala
and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union"> Patiala
Patiala
and East Punjab
East Punjab
States Union
Patiala 1948–1956 Punjab

			<a class= Bombay
Bombay
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Bombay_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Bombay_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Bombay_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Bombay_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/35/Bombay_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Bombay_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Bombay
Bombay
State"> Bombay
Bombay
State
Bombay 1947–1960 Maharashtra, Gujarat

			<a class= Bhopal
Bhopal
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Bhopal_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Bhopal_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Bhopal_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Bhopal_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d4/Bhopal_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Bhopal_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Bhopal State
Bhopal State
(1949–56)"> Bhopal
Bhopal
State
Bhopal 1949–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Saurashtra in 
			<a class= India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Saurashtra_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Saurashtra_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Saurashtra_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Saurashtra_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/73/Saurashtra_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Saurashtra_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Saurashtra Rajkot 1948–1956 Bombay
Bombay
State"> Bombay
Bombay
State

			<a class= Coorg
Coorg
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Coorg_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Coorg_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Coorg_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Coorg_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7e/Coorg_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Coorg_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Coorg
Coorg
State"> Coorg
Coorg
State
Madikeri 1950–1956 Mysore
Mysore
State"> Mysore
Mysore
State

			<a class= Travancore-Cochin
Travancore-Cochin
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Travancore-Cochin_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Travancore-Cochin_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Travancore-Cochin_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Travancore-Cochin_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/3e/Travancore-Cochin_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Travancore-Cochin_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Travancore-Cochin Trivandrum 1949–1956 Kerala, Madras
Madras
State"> Madras
Madras
State

			<a class= Hyderabad
Hyderabad
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Hyderabad_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Hyderabad_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Hyderabad_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Hyderabad_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/56/Hyderabad_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Hyderabad_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Hyderabad State
Hyderabad State
(1948–56)"> Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State
Hyderabad 1948–1956 Andhra Pradesh

			<a class= Vindhya Pradesh
Vindhya Pradesh
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Vindhya_Pradesh_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Vindhya_Pradesh_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Vindhya_Pradesh_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Vindhya_Pradesh_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Vindhya_Pradesh_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Vindhya_Pradesh_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Vindhya Pradesh Rewa 1948–1956 Madhya Pradesh
Kutch in 
			<a class= India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Kutch_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Kutch_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Kutch_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Kutch_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/1/14/Kutch_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Kutch_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Kutch State Bhuj 1947–1956 Bombay
Bombay
State"> Bombay
Bombay
State
Bilaspur in 
			<a class= India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Bilaspur_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Bilaspur_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Bilaspur_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Bilaspur_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dd/Bilaspur_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Bilaspur_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Bilaspur State
Bilaspur State
(1950–54)">Bilaspur State
Bilaspur 1948–1954 Himachal Pradesh

			<a class= Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
from 1931 Imperial Gazetteer.jpg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Cooch_Behar_from_1931_Imperial_Gazetteer.jpg/200px-Cooch_Behar_from_1931_Imperial_Gazetteer.jpg" width="200" height="191" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Cooch_Behar_from_1931_Imperial_Gazetteer.jpg/300px-Cooch_Behar_from_1931_Imperial_Gazetteer.jpg 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e0/Cooch_Behar_from_1931_Imperial_Gazetteer.jpg/400px-Cooch_Behar_from_1931_Imperial_Gazetteer.jpg 2x" data-file-width="780" data-file-height="744" />
Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
State"> Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
State
Cooch Behar 1949 West Bengal

			<a class= Ajmer
Ajmer
in India
India
(1951).svg" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Ajmer_in_India_%281951%29.svg/200px-Ajmer_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png" width="200" height="241" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Ajmer_in_India_%281951%29.svg/300px-Ajmer_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c8/Ajmer_in_India_%281951%29.svg/400px-Ajmer_in_India_%281951%29.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="980" data-file-height="1182" />
Ajmer
Ajmer
State"> Ajmer
Ajmer
State
Ajmer 1947–1956 Rajasthan

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Khasi language
    Khasi language
    has been declared as the Additional Official Language for all purposes in the District, Sub-Division and Block level offices of the State Government located in the Districts of Khasi-Jaintia Hills of Meghalaya.
  2. ^ Bengali and Nepali are the Official Languages in Darjeeling and Kurseong sub-divisions of Darjeeling district.
  3. ^ Chandigarh
    Chandigarh
    is both a city and a union territory.
  4. ^ It has also been informed that the communication with States/Centre has to be made in Hindi/English.
  5. ^ Delhi
    Delhi
    is both a city and a union territory.

References

  1. ^ "Article 73 broadly stated, provides that the executive power of the Union shall extend to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws. Article 162 similarly provides that the executive power of a State shall extend to the matters with respect to which the Legislature of a State has power to make laws. The Supreme Court has reiterated this position when it ruled in the Ramanaiah case that the executive power of the Union or of the State broadly speaking, is coextensive and coterminous with its respective legislative power." Territoriality of executive powers of states in India, Balwant Singh Malik, Constitutional Law, 1998
  2. ^ Krishna Reddy (2003). Indian History. New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-07-048369-8. 
  3. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (1977). Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN 81-208-0436-8. 
  4. ^ Romila Thapar. A History of India: Part 1. 
  5. ^ G. Bongard-Levin. A History of India: Volume 1. 
  6. ^ Gupta Dynasty – MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 1 November 2009. 
  7. ^ " India
    India
    – Historical Setting – The Classical Age – Gupta and Harsha". Historymedren.about.com. 2 November 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2010.
     
  8. ^ Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (2002) [1955]. A history of South India
    India
    from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar
    . New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. p. 239. ISBN 0-19-560686-8.
     
  9. ^ Chandra, Satish. Medieval India: From Sultanate To The Mughals. p. 202. 
  10. ^ "Regional states, c. 1700–1850". Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 
  11. ^ Grewal, J. S. (1990). "Chapter 6: The Sikh empire (1799–1849)". The Sikh empire (1799–1849). The New Cambridge History of India. The Sikhs of the Punjab. Cambridge University Press. 
  12. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. 
  13. ^ "Reorganisation of states" (PDF). Economic Weekly. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  14. ^ "Map of Madras
    Madras
    Presidency in 1909". Retrieved 15 October 2013.
     
  15. ^ "Article 1". Constitution of India. Law Ministry, GOI. Retrieved 31 December 2015. 
  16. ^ J.C. Aggarwal, S.P. Agrawal (1995). Uttarakhand: Past, Present, and Future. New DElhi: Concept Publishing. pp. 89–90. 
  17. ^ " Nagaland
    Nagaland
    History & Geography-Source". india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
     
  18. ^ " Himachal Pradesh
    Himachal Pradesh
    Tenth Five Year Plan" (PDF). Retrieved 17 June 2013.
     
  19. ^ "The Punjab
    Punjab
    Reorganisation Act 1966" (PDF). india.gov.in. Retrieved 17 June 2013.
     
  20. ^ "State map of India". Travel India
    India
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  21. ^ "Snapshot of North Eastern States" (PDF). thaibicindia.in. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
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